Ancient Greek Syntax Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Hortatory Subjunctive
The first person of present or aorist can express the will of speaker. μή negates
Deliberative Subjunctive
The first person of present or aorist can express the will of speaker, known from context. (Are we to..., Am I to...,) μη, ου negates.
Prohibitive Subjunctive
Second person of the Aorist subjunctive +μή expresses prohibition.
Partitive Genitive
οἱ αδικοι τῶν ὁπλῑτῶν (The unjust one of the hoplites)
Genitive of time within which
Indicates a span of time. τησ πρωτησ ημερασ, during the first day.
Dative of time at which
Dative and time sense. τῆ πρωτᾒ ἡμέρᾱ, On the first day.
Accusative of extent of time
Accusative and time sense. πεντε ημερασ, for five days. Genitive=0, Dat=., Acc=-->
Optative of wish
Shows speakers wish and optionally introduced by ει γαρ or ειθε. (If only, may we, I wish that) Negated by by μη.
Potential Optative
No intro word but has ἂν shows something may occur. ου is negative. (May, might, could, would) Always has αν,
Subjective Genitive
A noun in gen. case can indicate the subject of a verbal action of being denoted by a noun in attributive position. ὁ ομήρον φοβυσ, Homer's fear (homer does), αι των ελληνων θθσιαι (sacrifices of the greeks) (greeks do it)
Objective Genitive
A noun in gen. case can indicate the object of a verbal action denoted by noun attrib. position (ὁ των θεων φοβοσ) fear of Gods (to the gods)
Dative of Manner
Shows how something is done without preposition. In silence, with justice, (not with weapons—that is instrumental)
Dative of Respect
Without a preposition. The respect in which a statement is true. In body (with respect to body) he is tired
Articular Infinitive
Infinitive accompanied by article indicating place in sentence. (To eat is necessary)
Result Clause-Actual
States that one action is actually following, followed or will follow upon another action. Uses ὣστε +indicative verb. ου negates. (with the result that)
Result Clause-Natural
Describes the natural usual or expected result/consequence of the action of the main verb of the sentence. ὣστε +infinitive. μη negates. (So as (acc.) to (infinitive))
Prohibitions-Simple
1. μη + aorist subj. (hort) 2. μη + aorist subj. (proh.) 3. μη + aorist subj. (proh.)
Prohibitions-Progressive
1. me + present subj.= 2. me + present imper.= 3. me + present imper.=
Temporal Clauses Overview
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Past Definite Temporal Clause
1. επει, επειδη (prior) 2. ὁτε (simultaneous)
Present General Temporal Clause
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Past General Temporal Clause
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Future More Vivid Temporal Clause
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Genitive Absolute
Parcicipial phrase, independent of main sentence. Can also be a protasis. (the house having been burned, we left)
Fear Clauses
After verbs of fearing, a fear clause serves as the object of the verb. (I am afraid that he may free the wicked men.)
Objective Clause of Effort
Answers (What?) where purpose clause answers (Why?) Verbs of striving or caring take obj. clause of effort with a future indicative with ὁποσ. Negative is me. (He is bringing it about htat he will rule or: (see to it that) you defeat the enemy.)
Accusative of Respect
This is limiting as opposed to the dative of respect. A noun in acc. With no prep or DO. (The soldier is good (with respect) in battle.)
Supplementary Use of the Participle
1. SU with verbs of Emotion (You take pleasure doing this (χαιρετε τουτο ποιουντεσ)) 2. Verbs of Beginning Ceasing and Enduring (επαυσαμεθα τοθτο ποιουντεσ (we ceased doing this)) 3. With Verbs λανθανω, φθανω, τυγχανω (τυγχανομεν τοθτο ποιουοτεσ (we happen to be doing this))
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