Cell and the Cellular Environment Flashcards

d.
Terms Definitions
The fundamental unit of life is:
A. the cell.
B. tissue.
C. the organ.
D. the organism.
E. DNA.
A. the cell.
One of the three main elements of a typical cell is the:
A. cell membrane.
B. cilia.
C. leukocyte.
D. eosinophil.
E. basophil.
A. cell membrane.
The characteristic ability of a cell membrane to selectively permit material to pass through it is called:
A. diffusiveness.
B. imperviousness.
C. semipermeability.
D. cytoplasmicism.
E. isotonicism.
C. semipermeability
The thick viscous fluid that fills the cell and gives it shape is called:
A. ribosome.
B. lysosome.
C. cytoplasm.
D. protoplasm.
E. either C or D
E. either C or D
The structure that contains the genetic material including the cell's DNA is the:
A. endoplasmic reticulum.
B. Golgi apparatus.
C. nucleus.
D. mitochondria.
E. cytokine.
C. nucleus.
The compound that provides the cell with most of its energy is:
A. DNA.
B. phosgene.
C. carbon dioxide.
D. ATP.
E. carbohydrate.
D. ATP.
The tissue type that covers the internal and external body surfaces is:
A. epithelial.
B. smooth muscle.
C. nerve.
D. connective.
E. skeletal muscle.
A. epithelial.
The tissue type that is mostly under voluntary control is:
A. epithelial.
B. cardiac muscle.
C. nerve.
D. connective.
E. skeletal muscle.
E. skeletal muscle.
The tissue type that provides support and insulation is:
A. epithelial.
B. cardiac muscle.
C. nerve.
D. connective.
E. skeletal muscle.
D. connective.
The body organ system that produces most body heat is the:
A. muscular system.
B. gastrointestinal system.
C. genitourinary system.
D. endocrine system.
E. lymphatic system.
A. muscular system.
The body organ system that is important in fighting disease and filtration is the:
A. muscular system.
B. gastrointestinal system.
C. genitourinary system.
D. endocrine system.
E. lymphatic system.
E. lymphatic system.
The term that is applied to the building up and tearing down of biochemical substances
to produce energy is:
A. anatomy.
B. physiology.
C. catabolism.
D. anabolism.
E. metabolism.
E. metabolism.
Ductless or endocrine glands secrete directly into the circulatory system.
A. True
B. False
A. True
The natural tendency of the body to maintain a constant internal environment is:
A. cellular equilibrium.
B. homeostasis. .
C. metabolism.
D. physiology.
E. paracrine signaling
B. homeostasis.
The body's major baroreceptors are located in the:
A. arch of the aorta. .
B. brainstem.
C. lung tissue.
D. inner ears
E. medulla oblongata.
A. arch of the aorta. .
Most of the input affecting body organs and homeostasis occurs via the positive feedback loop.
A. True
B. False
B. False
The feedback system that decreases stimulation as the target organ responds is the:
A. positive feedback loop.
B. negative feedback loop.
C. decompensation system.
D. beta adrenergic system.
E. cholinergic loop.
B. negative feedback loop.
Extracellular fluid accounts for what percentage of total body water?
A. 75 percent
B. 60 percent
C. 25 percent
D. 17.5 percent
E. 7.5 percent
C. 25 percent
The fluid space found between the vascular and cellular compartments is the extracellular compartment.
A. True
B. False
B. False
A fluid that dissolves other substances is a(n):
A. solute.
B. electrolyte.
C. hydrate.
D. solvent.
E. anhydrous.
D. solvent.
Which of the following is a source of body fluid loss and dehydration?
A. diarrhea
B. hyperventilation
C. pancreatitis
D. poor nutritional states
E. all of the above
E. all of the above
The term turgor refers to:
A. intense thirst.
B. skin tension.
C. highly concentrated urine.
D. sunken fontanelles.
E. extreme obesity.
B. skin tension.
Which element is most common in the human body?
A. hydrogen
B. oxygen
C. carbon
D. nitrogen
E. sodium
A. hydrogen
A positively charged ion is a(n):
A. anion.
B. cation.
C. electrolyte.
D. dissociated element.
E. reagent.
B. cation.
The most prevalent cation in the human body is:
A. magnesium.
B. chloride.
C. potassium.
D. bicarbonate.
E. sodium.
E. sodium.
Which of the following ions is responsible for buffering the acid concentrations in the body?
A. magnesium
B. chloride
C. potassium
D. bicarbonate
E. sodium
D. bicarbonate
A solution that contains more solute concentration on one side of a semipermeable membrane than on the other is said to be:
A. hypertonic.
B. isotonic.
C. hypotonic.
D. osmotic.
E. diffused.
A. hypertonic.
When an isotonic solution is placed in the human bloodstream, water moves in which direction?
A. into the vascular space
B. does not move
C. out of the vascular space
D. in both directions
E. none of the above
B. does not move
When a hypertonic solution is placed in the human bloodstream, water moves in which direction?
A. into the vascular space
B. does not move
C. out of the vascular space
D. in both directions
E. none of the above
A. into the vascular space
The movement of a solvent from an area of higher concentration through a semipermeable membrane to an area of lower concentration is termed:
A. diffusion.
B. osmosis.
C. active transport.
D. facilitated transport.
E. oncosis.
B. osmosis.
The movement of water out of and then back into the capillary as it travels through the capillary is regulated by the protein concentration within the blood and the pressure as the blood is pushed through the capillary.
A. True
B. False
A. True
The pressure that draws water into the blood because of the proteins there is called:
A. osmolarity.
B. osmotic pressure.
C. hydrostatic pressure.
D. oncotic force.
E. filtration.
D. oncotic force.
The movement of water out of the plasma across the capillary membrane into the interstitial space is:
A. osmolarity.
B. osmotic pressure.
C. hydrostatic pressure.
D. oncotic force.
E. filtration.
E. filtration.
The higher the pH value, the lower the concentration of hydrogen ions.
A. True
B. False
A. True
The normal pH range in the human body is:
A. 6.9 to 7.35.
B. 7.35 to 7.45.
C. 7.45 to 7.8.
D. 6.9 to 7.8.
E. none of the above
B. 7.35 to 7.45.
36. Which of the following would be considered alkalosis in the human?
A. 6.9 to 7.35
B. 7.35 to 7.45
C. 7.45 to 7.8
D. 6.4 to 6.9
E. none of the above
C. 7.45 to 7.8
A decrease in pH of 1 would reflect which change in the concentration of hydrogen ions?
A. 100 times as great
B. 10 times as great
C. 1/1 Oth as great
D. 1/100th as great
E. a doubling
B. 10 times as great
The cellular environment of the human body is slightly acidic.
A. True
B. False
B. False
The body system that responds most rapidly to a change in the pH is the:
A. respiratory system.
B. cardiovascular system.
C. digestive system.
D. buffer system.
E. genitourinary system.
D. buffer system.
The addition of hydrogen ions to the bloodstream will result in an increase in carbon dioxide.
A. True
B. False
B. False
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