LMSW Exam Set 6 Flashcards

Erikson's stages of psychosocial development
Terms Definitions
What is accommodation?
The adaptation or modification of an existing mental organization or thought (schema) to the characteristics of a new object.
What is assimilation?
The incorporation of an aspect of one's environment into an existing organization (schema).
Name and describe Jean Piaget's theory.
Theory of Cognitive Development. It attempts to describe and explain the processes by which individuals perceive and organize thoughts and knowledge to understand the environment.
What are the 4 stages of cognitive development?
1) Sensorimotor, birth - 2 yrs. 2) Pre-operational, 2-7 yrs. 3) Concrete operational, 7-11 yrs. 4) Formal operational, 11-15 yrs.
Describe the sensorimotor stage. (Birth-2 yrs.)
Infant uses senses and motor functions to understand the world. Infant begins to form circular reaction, but lacks symbolic function. They're unable to relate or evoke representations of people of things when they're absent.
Describe the pre-operational stage. (2-7yrs).
Child begins to use symbols, something that represents something else (words, drawings). Child learns language and to speak, and an understanding of the past and future. Child is self-centered.
Describe the concrete operational stage. (7-11 yrs).
Child learns to manipulate symbols logically. Child learns "Conservation of Substance" (same amount of something even if it is split up).
Describe the formal operational stage. (11-15 yrs).
Child learns more adult like thinking, and transfers use of logical operations from concrete thinking to abstract thinking. "Hypothetical thinking."
What is cognitive theory?
A theory that posits and individual's cognition and thoughts are the principle determinants of his/her behavior.
Name Alfred Adler's 3 contributions to cognitive theory.
1) Behavior is driven by social motivation, not sexual drive. 2) Personality should be viewed as a whole, not as seperate components (Id, Ego, Superego). 3) An individual's conscious thoughts and beliefs are much greater importance than suggested by Freud.
What are the components of Albert Ellis' Rational Emotive Therapy (RET) or ABC Theory of Emotion.
A - The activating event, B - the individual's thoughts and beliefs about A, C - The emotional and behavioral consequences of "B"
Rational Emotive Therapy is also called what?
ABC Theory of Emotion.
What is the difference in rational or irrational thoughts, in regards to an individual's well-being?
Rational thoughts and beliefs = healthy and functional individual. Irrational thoughts and beliefs = disturbed and dysfunctional individual.
Name and describe Lawrence Kohlberg's theory.
Theory of Moral Development. Moral development is learned from one's family. All humans are void of morals, ethics, and honesty at birth. Moral behavior develops and becomes sophisticated as one's intelligence and ability to interact with others progresses.
What are the 3 levels and 6 stages of moral development?
Preconventional level - Stage 1 Obedience and Punishment, Stage 2 Personal Reward Orientation - Conventional Level - Stage 3 Good Boy/Nice Girl Orientation, Stage 4 Law and Order Orientation - Post-Conventional Level - Stage 5 - Social Contact Orientation, Stage 6 - Universal Orientation
What happens in Stage 1 of moral development?
Obedience and Punishment - Begins at school age. Individuals in this stage behave according to socially acceptable norms to avoid punishment.
What happens in Stage 2 of moral development?
Personal Reward Orientation - The individual acts out of his/her own best interest.
What happens in Stage 3 of moral development?
Good Boy/Nice Girl Orientation - The individual behaves to gain the approval of others.
What happens in Stage 4 of moral development?
Law and Order Orientation - The individual behaves in accordance with laws and rules.
What happens in Stage 5 of moral development?
Social Contact Orientation - The individual begins to gain a genuine interest in others and begins to understand social mutuality. (Rarely reached)
What happens in Stage 6 of moral development?
The individual develops the respect for the universal principle and the demands of his/her own conscience. "Principle of conscience" (No one ever reaches this stage).
What are behavioral theories?
They contend that all behaviors are learned and can be changed.
Name two behavioral theories and their developers.
1) Respondent or Classical Conditioning Theory by John Watson and Ivan Pavlov 2) Operant Conditioning Theory by B.F. Skinner.
What is classical conditioning?
The process by which an individual learns a behavior though association. A satisfying stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus to produce a behavior.
Who came up with the theory of classical conditioning?
Pavlov
According to Pavlov, behaviors are what?
A response; a result of some environmental event (stimulus). A response can be voluntary (emitted) or involuntary (reflexive).
Pavlov's Dog Study. Hungry Dog + Food = Salivation. What are Food and Salivation referred to as?
Food = unconditioned stimulus, Salivation = Unconditioned response.
Pavlov's Dog Study. Hungry Dog + Food + Bell = Salivation. What are Food and Bell referred to as?
Food = unconditioned stimulus, Bell = Neutral event
Pavlov's Dog Study. Hungry Dog + Bell = Salivation. What are bell and salivation referred to as?
Bell = conditioned stimulus, Salivation = conditioned response.
What is operant conditioning?
Refers to the changes in behavior that are the result of changes in the environment and reinforcement by significant others.
What is reinforcement?
Reinforcement is a technique where the frequency of a behavior is increased or decreased by either positively or negatively reinforcing the behavior.
What is positive reinforcement?
Increasing the likelihood and frequency of a behavior by presenting a positive reinforcer or reward upon the occurrence of the specified behavior. *Desirable*
What is negative reinforcement?
Increasing the likelihood and frequency of a behavior by presenting a negative reinforcer or aversive event upon the occurrence of the specified behavior. *Undesirable*
What is punishment?
The presentation of an unpleasant or undesired event following a behavior in efforts to decrease the occurrence of that behavior.
According to Albert Bandura's Social Learning Theory, behaviors are what?
Learned and can be changed by altering the events that occur before and after the target behavior.
What are the 3 components that contribute to an individual's behavior?
Antecedent Event - environmental event that occurs before the behavior. Behavior - the act that is the focus of the analysis and target for change. Consequence - the event that occurs after or as a result of the behavior.
What are Life Span Development Theories?
They describe individual growth and development over the life cycle and focus on the individual's mastery of certain skills and tasks.
What are the basic premises of Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Theory? (3)
1) An individual's social environment shapes his/her behaviors and personality. 2) The ego was the most important portion of the personality 3) All individuals are innately worthy.
The psychosocial crisis in each stage is comprised of two opposing personality traits. What are these referred to as?
Syntonic and Dystonic. Healthy development requires a balance between them, with a tendency toward the syntonic.
What are Erikson's 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development?
1) Trust vs. Mistrust (birth-1yr)., 2) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (2-3 yrs)., 3) Initiative vs. Guilt (4-5yrs)., 4) Industry vs. Inferiority (6-11 yrs)., 5) Identity vs. Role Confusion (12-18 yrs)., 6) Intimacy vs. Isolation (20-35yrs)., 7) Generativity vs. Stagnation (35-50yrs)., 8) Ego Integrity vs. Despair (50+yrs)
Describe trust vs. mistrust. (Birth - 1 year). Erikson
Develop a sense of trust in others through being nurtured and loved. Without nurturing and love, high levels of mistrust will develop and result in withdrawn behavior later in life.
Describe autonomy vs. shame and doubt. (2-3 years). Erikson
Skills develop that enable individuals to be autonomous, like motor and verbal skills. Confidence and a sense of "in control" develop. When social needs aren't met feelings of being ashamed and less confidence emerge.
Describe initiative vs. guilt (4-5 years). Erikson
Characterized by increased curiosity and exploration of new spaces. Initiative is taken to play with others; when not taken feelings of guilt and fear emerge.
Describe industry vs. inferiority. (6-11 years). Erikson.
Develop a need to do things well, to work, and to provide in the future. School and peers are critical in the mastery of this task. When this task isn't achieved, feelings of inferiority and incompetence emerge.
Describe idenity vs. role confustion (12-18 years). Erikson
There is a need to create own identity and to integrate the various components of him/herself to a whole person. An inability to integrate results in role confusion.
Describe intimacy vs. isolation. (20-35 yrs). Erikson
Reciprocal relationships are built with others on many levels, including socially, sexually, and occupationally. Isolation results in the failure to establish these relationship.
Describe generativity vs. stagnation (35-50 yrs). Erikson
Develop the capacity to care and nurture. Failure in this stage results in only caring for the self.
Describe ego integrity vs. despair. (50+ years).
Acceptance of life achievements and significant other occurs. Despair results in the failure to accept.
Identify physical and motor development milestones of "newborn."
Sensory development (oral and visual). Primary refluxes (sucking).
Identify physical and motor development milestones of "1 month."
Increase muscle strength arm and leg reflexes
Identify physical and motor development milestones for "2 months."
Increase in hair growth. Attempts to hold chin up. Can reach for an object and hold for a brief moment.
Identify physical and motor development milestones of "3 months."
Can hold chest up while on stomach.
Identify physical and motor development milestones of "4 months."
Teething. Can turn head in all directions.
Identify physical and motor development milestones for "5 months."
Eye-hand coordination. Can move by rolling and rocking.
Identify physical and motor development milestones for "6-8 months."
Balance - can sit up with some support. Crawling.
Identify physical and motor development milestones for "9-12 months."
Begins to walk, Can stand up alone, Can climb chairs and steps with help.
Identify physical and motor development milestones for "15-17 months"
Can walk alone. Can throw things. At 17 months can walk sideways and backwards.
Identify physical and motor development milestones for "2 years."
Language development can say at least 50 words and put two together to form a sentence. Bladder control.
Identify physical and motor development milestones for "3-4 years."
Can scribble and draw circles. Begins to dress self.
Identify physical and motor development milestones for "6 years."
Permanent teeth come in. Begins to read and print name.
Identify physical and motor development milestones for "7-11 years."
Marked difference in motor skills across genders.
identify physical and motor development milestones for "12-15 years."
Pubescence. Motor activity becomes more coordination.
Identify physical and motor development milestones for "16-18 years."
Height and weight growth slows down. Muscular growth increases. Sex organs mature.
Identify physical and motor development milestones for "18-30 years."
Adult proportions reached. Decrease in height and increase in body fat at 30.
Identify physical and motor development milestones for "35-60 years."
Vision and hearing decline. Hair loss. Menopause in females. Reaction time slows. Gross motor skills decrease.
Identify physical and motor development milestones for "60-70 years."
Hair and teeth loss. Sensory defects. Continued decrease in height and muscle tone.
Identify physical and motor development milestones for "70+ years."
Rapid deterioration of muscles and bones. Loss of hearing and vision, weight loss, loss of coordination.
Who developed Ego Psychology and what is its focus?
Heinz Hartman. It focuses on the Ego portion of the personality and its relationship to other aspects of the personality and world. It's premised on the belief that individuals have the ability to adapt to their social environments.
What is adaptation?
The reciprocal relationship between individuals and the environment, which involves changing the environment or being changed by it.
Define alloplastic behavior
Changing the environment in order to adapt.
Define autoplastic behavior
Changing one's own behavior or self in order to adapt.
Contrary to Freud's belief, children are born with what, according to Ego Psychology?
Children are born with Ids and Egos. The Ego is the portion of the personality that is responsible for human behavior.
What are the 12 Ego functions?
1) Reality testing 2) Judgment, Sense of Reality, Regulation and Control of Drives and Impulses, Object relations, Thought processes, Adaptive regression, Defensive functioning, Stimulus barriers, Autonomous functions, Mastery competence, Integrative functioning.
What is reality testing?
The ability to differentiate between accurate perceptions of the self and the environment.
What is judgment?
The ability to identify and weigh the consequences of a behavior before acting.
What is sense of reality?
The ability to not only perceive things accurately, but to experience them that way as well.
What is regulation and control of drives and impulses?
The ability to control drives, impulses, and affect in accordance with reality.
What is object relations?
The ability to interact with others.
What is thought process?
The ability to have goal-directed organized, and realistic thoughts.
What is adaptive regression?
The ability to let go of reality and experience aspects of the self that ordinarily are inaccessible.
What is defensive functioning?
The ability to use unconscious mechanisms to reduce anxiety and painful experiences.
What is stimulus barrier?
The ability to maintain current level of functioning despite increases and decreases in stimulation.
What is integrative functioning?
The ability to integrate parts of the personality to resolve conflict.
What is mastery-competence?
The ability to successfully interact with the environment.
What are autonomous functions? Give 4 examples.
The presence of certain, conflict-free functions that are capable of functioning continuously. 1) Learning 2) Memory 3) Perception 4) Concentration.
What is Object Relations Theory? Who contributed to the theory?
It focuses on the reciprocal relationship between a mother and her infant and its effect on the infants development of sense of self. Margaret Mahler, Rene Spritz, John Bowlby.
According to Mahler the Objects Relations concepts refers to what?
The way a child's ego becomes organized over the first 3.5 years of life. The individual's sense of self and others affects all subsequent interpersonal relationships.
What are Mahler's 3 Stages of development?
Autistic stage, newborn to 1-month. Symbiotic stage - 1-5 months. Separation stage - Individuation Stage. Differentiation Substage 5-9 months, Practicing Substage 9-14 months, Reapproachment Substage 14-24 months, Objects Constancy Substage 24 + months.
Describe Mahler's autistic stage.
Newborn - 1 month. The infant is focused purely on him/herself. The infant is unresponsive to external stimuli.
Describe Mahler's Symbiotic Stage.
1-5 months. The infant begins to perceive the "need-satisfying object." The mother's ego functions for the infant. The infant feels unity with mother, but begins to understand the mother as a separate being.
Describe Mahler's Differentiation Substage.
5-9 months. The infant's attention shifts from being inwardly focuses to outwardly focused. The infant begins to separate from the caretaker.
Describe Mahler's Practicing Substage.
9-14 months. The infant continues to separate from the caretaker, and his/her autonomous ego functions become more apparent. The infant becomes increasingly more mobile and active.
Describe Mahler's Reapproachment Substange.
The infant begins to want to act independently. The infant moves away from his/her mother, but regularly comes back to ensure she is still there.
Describe Mahler's Object Constancy Substage
24+ months. The infant internalizes his/her mother and begins to understand that his/her mother still exists for him/her despite her absence.
Who developed Self-Psychology, and what is it?
Heinz Kohut. It acknowledges the interrelationship between the social structure and personality development.
According to Kohut's Self-Psychology, how are children born?
Into warm, nurturing, and empathic environments comprised of self-objects.
Define selfobject.
The child's perception of other people and objects as part of his/her self.
What is empathic mirroring?
Describes a process of development in which the child mirrors the selfobject with the help of his/her nurturing parents.
What is transmuting internalization?
The process in which an individual attains a cohesive self by transforming positive, healthy objects into an internalized self-structure, which occurs in the first few years of life.
Contrary to Object Relations Theory, what is the main belief of Self-Psychology?
It is the self-selfobject relationship that is central to psychological functioning and not the self-object relationship.
Identify the relationship between self-psychology and narcissism.
Narcissism is an integral part of normal and abnormal development. Abnormal narcissism is the result of a child being deprived of an empathic environment. Two type of narcissism: Toward the self and toward the object.
What is Gestalt Psychology?
Developed by Fritz Perls, it focuses on the holistic nature of human experience. It emphasizes the total person rather than an individual with separate parts.
What is the primary focus of Gestalt Theory?
The "here and now"; and believes that behaviors are conscious and can be controlled by the individual.
What are psychodynamic theories?
They describe the intrapsychic processes involved in personality development. The emphasize the importance of childhood experiences on psychosocial development.
Who developed psychoanalytic theory and what is its underlying premise?
Founded by Sigmund Freud, who viewed human behavior on the basis of unconscious motivation and drive, rather than on actions and thoughts. Behaviors and thoughts are driven by inner forces, motives, and drives. All behaviors serve some underlying, covert purpose.
What are 3 categories of psychoanalytic theory - mental processes? Describe them.
1) Conscious - consists of those thoughts and ideas of which we are aware. 2) Preconscious - consists of those thoughts and ideas that we are not aware of, but are easily accessible. 3) Unconscious - consists of those thoughts and ideas that we cannot access and are therefore unaware of.
What is the primary focus of psychoanalytic theory?
The past. Behaviors are shaped by repressed childhood memories and experiences.
What are the 3 components of Structural Theory of Personality Development?
The Id, Ego, and Superego. These are harmonious and unified; they work together to fulfill an individual's basic needs and desires.
According to Freud, at what age is personality develpment complete?
5
Describe Id.
It's the most basic, most primitive portion of an individual's personality. It needs immediate gratification; fulfills the primordial "please principle" and seeks to avoid pain. Controls libido.
Describe the Ego.
It is the rational, executive portion of an individual's personality; helps to delay an individual's need for immediate gratification. It operates from the "reality principle" and controls the Id and the Superego.
Describe the Superego.
It is moral, judicial, and ethical portion of an individual's personality, allowing individuals to control impulses to act out of need. It strives for perfection. Consists of the conscience and the ego ideal.
What are the 2 driving forces? Describe them.
The urging and the checking force: The result of a reciprocal exchange between them is the development of an individual's mental state. Cathexis (urging) - drives an individual's unconscious wishes and desires. Anti-cathexis (checking) - the brakes on the Id and serves to repress material in unconscious.
According to Freud, personalities develop as a result of what 2 major events?
1) Maturation and natural growth. 2) Learning to overcome frustration, avoid pain, resolve conflict, and reduce anxiety.
What are the 5 discrete and sequential psycho sexual stages of development?
Stage 1 = Oral, Stage 2 = Anal, Stage 3 = Phallic Stage, Stage 4 = Latency, Stage 5 = Genital.
What is the Oral Stage?
0-1.5 years, The individual experiences the world and derives pleasure and gratification from the stimulation of his/her mouth and oral cavity
What is the Anal Stage?
1.5-3 years. An individual focus shifts from the oral region to his/her anus. The individual gains control over his/her anal sphincter and bowels.
What is the Phallic Stage?
3-6 years. An individual's zone of pleasure shifts from the anus to her/her genitals.
What is the Latency Stage?
6-12 years of age. An individuals' focus on his/her genitals and sexuality develops into more socially acceptable behaviors.
What is the Genital Stage?
12 to adulthood. The individual learns to accept his/her genitalia and beings to experience mature adult-like sexual feelings.
What is fixation?
The partial or complete cessation of personality development at one of the psychosexual stages of development. This may occur if the individual's needs at a particular stage are under - or over gratified.
What is regression?
Occurs when gratification at a particular stage is overtly frustrating, the individual may "regress" or rather, return to an earlier stage of development. *Common defense mechanism**
What is the Oedipus Complex?
Between the ages of 3-7 (Phallic Stage), a boy becomes jealous of his father and competes for his mother's affection, love, and attention. He fears that his Dad will remove the sex organ (castration theory). The complex is resolved, and the boy beings to identify his father and internalize his father's values and beliefs.
What is the Electra Complex?
Unconscious and sexual attraction that a girl, usually between ages of 3-7, has for her father. The girl becomes aware that she doesn't have male sex organs, feels inferior, and blames her mother.
What are defense mechanisms?
The unconscious, irrational processes used by individuals to protect the Ego and minimize pain, anxiety, or discomfort by distorting, hiding or denying reality.
Who developed the 17 defense mechanisms? What are they?
Anna Freud. Denial, Displacement, Dissociation, Idealization, Identification, Introjection, Inversion, Isolation, Intellectualization, Projection, Rationalization, Reaction Formation, Regression, Repression, Somatization, Splitting, Substitution.
What is denial?
Refusing to acknowledge or recognize the reality and implication of painful, anxiety-provoking experiences.
What is displacement?
Shifting repressed feelings from where they originate to some other object.
What is dissociation?
Separation or postponement of a feeling that normally would accompany a situation or thought.
What is idealization?
Form of denial in which the object of attention is presented as "all good" masking true negative feelings toward the other.
What is identification?
The unconscious modeling of one's self upon another person's behavior.
What is introjection?
Identifying with some idea or object so deeply that it becomes a part of that person.
What is inversion?
Refocusing of aggression or emotions evoked from an external force onto one's self.
What is isolation?
Inability to simultaneously experience the cognitive and affective components of a situation.
What is intellectualization?
Rationalizing and making generalizations about anxiety-provoking issues to minimize pain and anxiety.
What is projection?
Attributing a painful thought or idea to another person.
What is reaction formation?
Replacing of some painful or negative event with the complete opposite.
What is rationalization?
Attempting to provide a logical and rational explanation for something to avoid guilt or shame.
What is somatization?
Manifestation of emotional anxiety into physical symptoms.
What is substitution?
When a person replaces one feeling or emotion for another.
What is splitting?
Repressing, dissociating, or disconnecting important feelings that are dangerous to psychic well-being. Causes person to get out of touch with his/her feelings to "fragmented self."
What is repression?
Pushing a negative or painful image, thought, or idea out of consciousness to avoid the associated pain. *This is a primary defense mechanism*
What is regression?
Losing of some aspect of development already achieved due to undue anxiety causing a person to revert to a previously-attained stage or lower level of adaptation.
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