GEOL 10 Exams 1-3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
continental and oceanic
the two major types of crust on earth
transform
plate boundary in which two plates slip horizontally past each other
core
innermost concentric zone (layer) of the earth (composed of inner and outer layers, inner=solid, outer=liquid)
mantle
Middle semi-liquid concentric zone (layer) of Earth
crust
uppermost concentric zone (layer) of the earth (solid)
lithosphere
the crust and the uppermost mantle
convergent
plate boundary in which two plates move toward one another
brittle solids
the lithosphere is the portion of the Earth where rocks behave as _____.
oceanic and continental crust
_________ differ in thickness, density, buoyancy, and composition.
true
A mineral must be a solid (true or false)
true
a mineral must be naturally occurring (true or false)
false (it must be inorganic)
a mineral must be organic (true or false)
true
a mineral must have a crystalline structure (true or false)
true
a mineral must have a definite chemical composition (true or false)
isotopes
atoms with different numbers of neutrons but the same number of protons are called _____.
true
framework is a type of silicate structure (true or false)
true
single chain is a type of silicate structure (true or false)
true
double chain is a type of silicate structure (true or false)
false
loop is a type of silicate structure (true or false)
true
sheet is a type of silicate structure (true or false)
oxygen and silicon
the two most abundant elements in Earth's crust are ____.
talc, 1
____ is the softest mineral on Moh's hardness scale. It has a hardness of ___.
luster
mineral ____ is either metallic or nonmetallic.
cleavage
the ability of a mineral to break along preferred planes of weakness is called _____.
streak
a ____ test uses a piece of white, unglazed porcelain to examine the color of a powdered mineral, and is usually more reliable than the color of the specimen itself.
color
which is less reliable: color or streak?
silica tetrahedron
A _______ is composed of 4 atoms of Oxygen and 1 atom of Silicon.
olivine
The common mineral ____ is an example of an isolated silica tetrahedron structure.
false (granite is coarse-grained)
Granite is a fine-grained rock type (true or false)
true
Dikes and sills are fine-grained rock features (true or false)
true
Rhyolite is a fine-grained rock type (true or false)
true
Andesite is a fine-grained rock type (true or false)
true
Basalt is a fine-grained rock type (true or false)
size
By definition, stocks differ from batholiths in ____.
stock
Which is smaller: a stock or batholith?
batholith
Which is larger: a stock or batholith?
texture, color
Igneous rocks are identified by their ______ and ______.
false (describes the sequence of mineral formation in magmas)
Bowen's Reaction Series is important to geologists because it is used to distinguish between silicate and non-silicate minerals (true or false)
true
Bowen's Reaction Series is important to geologists because it describes the sequence of mineral formation in magmas (true or false)
false (describes the sequence of mineral formation in magmas)
Bowen's Reaction Series is important to geologists because it is used to test minerals to determine their chemical composition (true or false)
assimilation
a change in magma composition due to melting of surrounding country rock is called ______.
xenoliths
______ are fragments of country rock that are distinct from the body of igneous rocks in which they are enclosed.
false (xenolith)
Clasts are fragments of country rock that are distinct from the body of igneous rocks in which they are enclosed (true or false)
mafic
_____ igneous rocks, like gabbro and basalt, are silica-deficient with high magnesium and iron.
gabbro, basalt
mafic igneous rocks, like ____ and ____, are silica-deficient with high magnesium and iron.
magnesium, iron
mafic igneous rocks, like gabbro and basalt, are silica-deficient with high ______ and _____.
silicic (felsic)
Igneous rocks that are silica-rich with high aluminum (Al), sodium (Na), and potassium (K) are ____.
ferromagnesian
Ultramafic igneous rocks are composed almost entirely of ________ minerals.
ultramafic
______ igneous rocks are composed almost entirely of ferromagnesian minerals.
lava
The term ____ is used for molten rock ABOVE the Earth's surface.
magma
The term ____ is used for molten rock BELOW the the Earth's surface.
caldera
A _____ is a volcanic depression much larger than the original crater, formed when the volcano collapses into a vacated magma chamber.
caldera
Which is larger: caldera or crater?
crater
Which is smaller: caldera or crater?
very fluid (low viscosity)
Magma with a low silica content tends to be _____.
low
Magma with a ____ silica content tends to be very fluid (low viscosity).
composite
The most common type of volcano in the "Ring of Fire" is _____.
earthquakes
plate tectonics explains why there are ____, volcanoes, mountains, oceanic ridges, and deep marine trenches on earth.
volcanoes
plate tectonics explains why there are earthquakes, _____, mountains, oceanic ridges, and deep marine trenches on earth.
mountains
plate tectonics explains why there are earthquakes, volcanoes, _____, oceanic ridges, and deep marine trenches on earth.
oceanic ridges
plate tectonics explains why there are earthquakes, volcanoes, mountains, _____, and deep marine trenches on earth.
deep marine trenches
plate tectonics explains why there are earthquakes, volcanoes, mountains, oceanic ridges, and _____ on earth.
shield
_____ volcanoes have broad bases and gently inclined slopes.
broad, gently
Shield volcanoes have ____ bases and _____ inclined slopes
pyroclastic flow
A hot, turbulent mixture of expanding gases and volcanic ash that flows up to 200 km/hr down the side of a volcano.
viscous
The more _____ the lava, and the greater the amount of gas trying to escape, the more violent the eruption.
violent
The more viscous the lava, and the greater the amount of gas trying to escape, the more ____ the eruption.
true
Eruptions of shield volcanoes fed by mafic magma tend not to be explosive or particularly dangerous (true or false)
false (not explosive or particularly dangerous)
Eruptions of shield volcanoes fed by mafic magma tend to be violent and potentially dangerous events (true or false)
volcanic domes
_______ are steep-sided spine-shaped masses of volcanic rock formed from viscous magma.
vesicles
_____ are cavities in extrusive rocks resulting from gas bubbles in the lava.
gas bubbles
Vesicles are cavities in extrusive rocks resulting from _______ in the lava.
convergent, divergent, transform
What are the three types of plate tectonic boundary?
decompression melting, heating, water-flux melting
The three processes by which rocks melt within the earth.
decompression
melting that takes place when a body of hot mantle rock moves upward and the pressure is reduced
heating
melting that occurs when the temperature of rocks at a given depth is increased
water-flux melting
melting that occurs when the addition of water decreases the melting temperature of hot rock (changes composition, leading to change in melting temperature)
divergent boundaries (or hot spots)
Where is decompression melting most likely to occur?
hot spots
Where is heating most likely to occur?
convergent boundaries
Where is water-flux melting most likely to occur?
exfoliation
A mechanical weathering process caused by unloading or pressure release is called _____.
true
A high mountain region is likely to favor frost wedging (true or false)
carbon dioxide
The most important natural source for the formation of acid for rock weathering at the earth's surface is dissolved _____ _____.
clay
The common product produced during chemical weathering of feldspars is _____.
sand
clastic particles that range in size from 1/16 mm to 2 mm
true
Arkose is a type of sandstone (true or false)
false
Breccia is a type of sandstone (true or false)
lithification
The process that changes sediment to sedimentary rocks
1. gravel 2. sand 3. silt 4. clay
In order of decreasing grain size (largest first), sedimentary grains include:
gravel
Which is larger: gravel or silt?
sand
Which is larger: sand or clay?
true
Sedimentary particles tend to become rounded and better sorted as they are transported downstream (true or false)
bedding
____ is a term that describes a series of visible layers in sedimentary rock.
cross beds
In sandstone, a thick bed will often consist of a series of thinner inclined beds called _________.
true
A factor that controls the characteristics of metamorphic rocks is composition of the parent rock (true or false)
true
A factor that controls the characteristics of metamorphic rocks is temperature (true or false)
true
A factor that controls the characteristics of metamorphic rocks is pressure (true or false)
true
A factor that controls the characteristics of metamorphic rocks is water (true or false)
false
A factor that controls the characteristics of metamorphic rocks is size of the rock (true or false)
hotter
The deeper a rock is below the earth's surface, the ____ it will be.
foliated
metamorphic rocks in which the minerals are aligned are called _____.
contact
_____ metamorphism occurs adjacent to a pluton when a body of magma intrudes a relatively cool country rock.
marble, quartzite
The two most common non-foliated metamorphic rocks are _____ and _____.
1. gneiss 2. schist 3. phyllite 4. slate
Arrange these from highest to lowest grade of metamorphic rock: slate, schist, phyllite, gneiss
metamorphic
______ rocks are prevalent in intensely deformed portions of large mountain ranges, where the continental crust is subjected to high temperatures, pressures, and tectonic stress.
superposition
When a marine geologist collects a core of undeformed ocean-floor sediment, she knows the youngest layer is on the top of the core and the oldest is at the bottom because of the principle of ______.
disconformity
In a _____ the erosional contact represents missing rock strata and separates sedimentary beds that are parallel.
horizontality
The principle of ______ states that sedimentary beds are originally deposited horizontally.
nonconformity
A _______ occurs when flat-lying sediments overlie surfaces which have lost their bedding due to erosion or metamorphism.
half life
The _____ of radioactive material is the time it takes for a given amount of radioactive isotope to be reduced by half.
false (young igneous rocks that contain carbon)
14C dating is effective on old igneous rocks that contain feldspar (true or false)
true
14C dating is effective on young igneous material that contains carbon (true or false)
transitional
In a _____ slide, the descending mass moves along a plane approximately parallel to the slope of the surface.
pore pressure
When soil is saturated with water, ______ increases.
saturated
When soil is ______ with water, pore pressure increases.
rockfall
A ____ occurs when a block of bedrock breaks off and falls freely.
slide
A term that means the descending mass remains intact.
remains intact
Slide is a term that means the descending mass _______.
freeze-thaw
Two factors that contribute significantly to soil creep are water in the soil and _______ cycles.
earthflows
In _____, soil in which fine grains predominate moves downslope as a viscous fluid.
viscous fluid
In earthflows, soil in which fine grains predominate moves downslope as a ________.
more
Mudflows are (more/less) likely to occur in areas not protected by vegetation?
false
Mudflows are less likely to occur in areas not protected by vegetation (true or false)
braided
A _____ stream flows in a network of rivulets (subchannels) around numerous sandbars.
drainage basin
The _____ is the total area drained by a river and its tributaries.
oxbow lake
A crescent-shaped lake (often temporary) that is formed when a meander of a river is cut off from the main channel.
1/500
A flood with a recurrence interval of 500 years means that it has a _____ probability of occurring this year.
divide
A ridge or strip of ground separating one drainage basin from another
delta
The body of sediment deposited at the mouth of a river when the river's velocity decreases.
meandering
Rivers may develop pronounced sinuous (wiggly) curves called a _____ pattern.
65.5
The cenozoic era began ____ million years ago.
251
The mesozoic era began ____ million years ago.
544
The paleozoic era began ____ million years ago.
4,550
The precambrian era began ____ million years ago.
1. cenozoic 2. mesozoic 3. paleozoic 4. precambrian
List the geologic time eras in order from most to least recent.
cenozoic
What is the most recent geologic era?
precambrian
What is the oldest geologic era?
perfect flood machine
Northern California is considered to be the _______ ______ _______ because:
1. Lots of water is stored at high elevations
2. Water drains quickly from those locations
3. Water drains into a flat area with only a single, narrow outlet.
permeability
the capacity of a rock to transmit fluids
clay
Which material has high porosity but low permeability: clay, sandstone, sand, gravel, or silt?
vadose zone
The unsaturated zone is also called the _______.
confined
A _____ aquifer is completely filled with water under pressure, and is separated from the surface by an aquitard.
aquitard
A confined aquifer is completely filled with water under pressure, and is separated from the surface by a(n) ______.
water table
The top surface of the saturated zone is known as the __________.
ground water
Heavy use of _________ can cause a region's water table to drop to deeper depths.
zone of accumulation
The upper part of a glacier, where the snow and ice are present year-round, is called the _____ __ _______.
false
The upper part of a glacier, where the snow and ice are present year-round, is called the zone of ablation (true or false)
cirques, horns, aretes
_____, ______, and ______ are landscape features that indicate a mountainous area has been glaciated.
horn
a sharp peak that remains after cirques have cut back into a mountain on several sides
arete
separate adjacent glacially carved valleys
cirque
bowl-shaped depression produced by a valley glacier
10,000
The last episode of widespread glaciation in North America ended approximately _______ years ago.
true
An end moraine is a type of glacial moraine (true or false)
false
A processional moraine is a type of glacial moraine (true or false)
true
End moraine, lateral moraine, terminal moraine, and medial moraine are types of glacial moraines (true or false)
u-shaped
Which type of valley is formed by glacial erosion?
zone of ablation
Region of a glacier where melting, evaporation, and calving take place.
calving
When a glacier reaches the ocean or other large body of water, large pieces of the glacier break off. this is known as ______.
poor
Is glacial sediment poor or well sorted?
ventifact
A sand blasted rock found in a desert
wind
What is the agent of erosion and deposition most effective on fine sediment that is dry?
false
Distributions of deserts around the planet are a function of availability of nearby sand masses (true or false)
true
Distributions of deserts around the planet are a function of the rain shadow effect (true or false)
true
Distributions of deserts around the planet are a function of cold ocean currents (true or false)
slip face
The steep downwind face of a sand dune is called the _______.
rain shadow
U.S. deserts in Nevada and northern Arizona are largely the result of the _____ ______ of the Sierra Nevada Mountains.
butte
A narrow hill of resistant rock with a flat top and very steep sides found in some deserts.
wave refraction
Process by which water waves "bend" around a protrusion into the ocean from the mainland.
longshore drift
Process by which sediment on the beach gets moved in the direction the waves strike the shore.
jetties
_____ are rock walls designed to protect the entrance of a harbor from sediment deposition and storm waves.
sea cliffs
___ _____ are steep slopes that retreat inland by mass wasting as wave erosion undercuts them (caused by wave erosion of headlands).
submergent
_____ coasts are common because the sea level has been rising for the past 15,000 years.
baymouth bar
A _____ is a ridge of sediment that cuts a bay off from the ocean.
folding
_____ occurs when rocks behave as ductile solids.
away
In an anticline, where do all rock layers dip in relation to the fold axis?
reverse
A fault where the hanging wall moves upward relative to the footwall.
strike-slip
Which type of fault is the San Andreas Fault?
hanging wall
The side of the fault above the inclined fault surface.
tensional
______ stress results in a stretching or extension of material.
reverse
A thrust fault is a variety of _____ fault.
liquefaction
Occurs when water-saturated soil turns from solid to liquid during an earthquake.
P-waves
The fastest seismic waves are ______.
false (body waves are faster)
Surface waves are faster than body waves (true or false)
surface waves
______ are earthquake waves that cause the most property damage.
intensity
_____ maps are useful for assessing how different areas respond to seismic waves and provide valuable information for earthquake planning.
strain
In the elastic rebound theory, earthquakes are caused by the sudden release of progressively stored ____ in rocks.
body waves
_____ are seismic waves that travel through the Earth's interior, spreading out from the focus in all directions.
3
How many stations (at minimum) are needed to determine the location of an earthquake epicenter?
anticline
An upward fold in rock formed by compression of Earth's crust (oldest rock layers are in the core)
syncline
A downward fold in rock formed by compression of Earth's crust (youngest rock layers are in the core)
compressional
______ stress results in squeezing and shortening of a material.
shear
______ stress results in the movement of a rock body in two opposition directions parallel to one another.
clasts
pebbles in breccia and conglomerate rocks
true
Distributions of deserts around the planet are a function of distance from large bodies of water (true or false)
stock (surface exposure < 100 sq. km)
Which is smaller: stock or batholith?
batholith (surface exposure ≥ 100 sq. km)
Which is larger: stock or batholith?
/ 196
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online