# Chapter 2 Tools of environmental science Flashcards

Terms Definitions
 Scientific Method Steps scientists use to answer questions and solve problems. Ask question/ state problem, make observations, form hypothesis, test hypothesis, collect and analyze data, draw conclusions, and repeat/ communicate Name all the steps in order for the scientific method. Science Understanding the world around you/ systematized knowledge derived from observation, study, and experimentation. Observation Use of senses to gather information. Hypothesis Testable explanation or answer to a question/ educated guess. Prediction Logical statement about what will happen if hypothesis is correct. Controlled experiment Experiment that tests only ONE variable at a time. Variable Factor being tested/ difference found between control and experiment groups. Method of testing predictions by examining associations between two or more events. What is the correlation method in experimenting? Control Group Set up in an experiment that does NOT contain the variable. curiousity, skeptical, openness, intelectual, honesty, imagination, creativity What are three traits scientists should have? Experimental group Set up in an experiment that contains the variable. Statistics Branch of math that collects and classifies data in the form of numbers. Data Information that is gathered during an experiment often in numeric form. Average/mean Number obtained by adding together all data for one characteristic and dividing by number of individuals. Distribution Relative arrangement of members of statistical population/ least to most "things." Model Representation of an object on system too small/ large to be observed normally. Probability Chance that something will happen (odds). physical, graphical, conceptual, mathematical Name the four kinds of models. To be able to properly represent the population. Why is sample size important in probability? Physical model A 3-dimensional model that you can touch. Chance that an unwanted outcome will happen. What is a risk in probability? Graphical model Model that shows positions or amount of items graphically. Conceptual model Verbal or graphical explanation of how a system works or is organized. flow chart, atomic theory, big bang theory Give an example of a conceptual model. Mathematical model One or more equations that represent the way a system or process works. punnett square, weather forecasting Give an example of a mathematical model. model airplane, solar system, globe, DNA. Give an example of a physical model. Value Principle or standard we consider important. map, chart Give an example of a graphical model. aesthetic, economic, environmental, educational, ethical/ mortal, health, recreational, scientific, social/ cultural Name four values that affect environmental decision making. Decision-making model Conceptual model that provides a systematic process for making decisions. 1. Gather information 2. Consider values 3. Explore consequences 4. Make a decision What are four steps in the decision-making model?
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