APUSH Chapter 8: Nationalism and Economic Development Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Era of Good Feelings
Monroe's two terms in office that were marked by a spirit of nationalism, optimism, and goodwill, chiefly as a result of the Federalists fading away and the Republicans dominating politics in all areas of the nation
Sectionalism
differing opinions on slavery
James Monroe
choice as Madison's successor continued the VA Dynasty of Presidents (4 of first 5 presidents from VA); acquired FL, had Missouri Compromise, Monroe Doctrine
Nationalism; cultural, economic
Heroes of Revolution painted by Albert Stuart, Charles Wilson Peale, John Trumball, Parson Weems extolled the virtues of George Washington (fiction piece), Noah Webster's blue backed speller promoted patriotism and used in schools
Tariff of 1816
first protective tariff in US history, to protect US manufacturing; NE disagreed, South and West supported it
Henry Clay; American System
1. protective tariffs, 2. national bank, 3. internal improvements
Second Bank of the United States
created after the First National Bank of Hamilton was dissolved
Panic of 1819
caused by 2nd Bank of the US which had tightened credit in an effort to control inflation; state banks closed, value of money deflated (fell), and unemployment/debt imprisonment increased (fractured the Era of Good Feelings)
John Marshall
actions favored central government and property rights
Fletcher v. Peck
Marshall concluded that a state could not pass legislation invalidating a contract; first time the Supreme Court declared a state law (GA Law) unconstitutional and invalid
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
Marshall's court struck down the state law as unconstitutional, arguing that a contract for a private corporation could not be altered by the state; based on the NH law that forced Dartmouth College to change from a private school to a public institution
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
Using a loose interpretation of the Constitution, Marshall ruled that the federal government had the implied power to create the 2nd Bank of the US, and that the state could not tax a federal institution b/c "the power to tax is the power to destroy", and federal laws superceded state laws
Gibbons v. Ogden
ruled the NY steamboat monopoly was unconstitutional and established judicial power over interstate commerce
Tallmadge Amendment
Representative James Tallmadge of NY ignited the debate about the Missouri question by proposing an amendment to the bill for Missouri's admission; called for, 1. prohibiting the further introduction of slaves into Missouri, 2. requiring the children of Missouri slaves to be emancipated at age 25; denied as Southerners realized that it would lead to end of slavery in Missouri and saw it as further designs on ending slavery in rest of country
Missouri Compromise (1820)
Henry Clay's three bills together: Missouri as a slave state, Maine as a free state, and the rest of the Louisiana Territory north of the 36, 30 lattitude had slavery prohibited
Stephen Decatur
sent to Mediterranean to try and get the Barbary princes to allow trading and free access to the Mediterranean
Rush-Bagot Agreement (1817)
disarmament pact between US and Britain; strictly limited Naval armament on the Great Lakes; the agreement was extended to place limits on border fortifications; border between US and Canada is the largest unfortified border in the world
Treaty of 1818
US and Britain; shared fishing rights off the coast of Newfoundland; joint occupation of the Oregon Territory for ten years, and setting of the northern limits of the Louisiana Territory at the 49th parallel
Andrew Jackson
went into Spanish Florida, destroying Seminole villages and hanging Seminole sympathizers
Florida Purchase Treaty (1819)
Spain turned over Western Florida along with the East and its own claims in the Oregon territory to the United States and the US took the 5 million dollar claim Spain had and gave up all claims they had to Spanish TX
Monroe Doctrine (1823)
American sovereignty in affairs in the Western Hemisphere, also saying that the US was opposed to any attempts by a western power or republic in the Western hemisphere
Lancaster Turnpike
PA, connected Philly with rich Lancaster farmlands; led to building of more toll roads
National (Cumberland) Road
paved highway and major route to the west extending more than a thousand miles from Maryland to Illinois
Erie Canal
NY (1825), linked the economies of western and eastern cities; caused more canal building in other states; later tied the country together b/c of improved transportation, lower food prices, stronger economic ties
Robert Fulton; steamboats
Clermont, a steamboat created by Robert Fulton; commercially operated steamboat lines soon made round-trip shipping on the nation's great rivers both faster and cheaper
Railroads
began in 1820, competed with canals as an alternative method for carrying passengers and freight; made the Midwest a major power (Cleveland, Cincinnati, Detroit, Chicago)
Eli Whitney; interchangeable parts
made a system for making rifles out of interchangeable parts during the War of 1812; became basis for mass production methods in the new northern factories
Corporations
only risked amount of money that they invested in a venture; changes in state corporation laws facilitated the raising of the large sums of capital necessary for building factories, canals and railroads
Samuel Slater
established the first U.S. factory in 1791
Factory system
NE was the force in manufacturing due to abundant waterpower and good seaports; NY, NJ and PA did the same; factory system encouraged growth of financial businesses such as banking and insurance
Lowell System; textile mills
recruited young farm-living women and housed them in company dormitories; began use of child labor
Unions
sought to organize factory workers and aim for better hours, higher pay and better work conditions
Cotton gin
Eli Whitney changed the south; could easily separate the fiber from the seeds, and capital was invested in the purchase of slaves and new land in AL and MS and most of cotton crop shipped to Britain
Market Revolution
Specialization on the farm, the growth of cities, industrialization, and the development of modern capitalism started this
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