Chapter 6 Political Parties, Campaigns,and Elections Flashcards

Politics
Terms Definitions
political party
an organization that sponsors candidates for political office under the organization's name
nomination
designation as an official candidate of a political party
political system
a set of interrelated institutions that links people with government
electoral college
a group of people named by each state legislature to select the president and vice president
critical election
an election that produces a sharp chance in the existing pattern of party loyalties among groups of voters
electoral realignment
the change in voting patterns that occurs after a critical election
two party system
a political system in which two major political parties compete for control of the government .candidates from a third party have little chance of winning
electoral dealignment
a lessening of the importance of party loyalties in voting decisions
majority representation
the system by which one office, contested by two or more candidates , is won by the single candidate who collects the most votes
proportional representation
the system by which legislative seats are awarded to a party in proportion to the vote that party wins in an election
party identification
a voter's sense of psychological attachment to a party
party platform
the statement of policies of a national political party
national convention
a gathering of delegates of a single political party from across the country to choose candidates for president and vice president and to adopt a party platform
party machine
a centralized party organization that dominates local politics by controlling elections
responsible party government
a set of principles formalizing the ideal role of parties a majoritarian democracy
election campaign
an organized effort to persuade voters to choose one candidate over others competing for the same office
closed primary
a primary election in which voters must declare their party affiliation before they are given the primary ballot containing that party's potential nominees
open primary
a primary election in which voters need not declare their party affiliation and can choose one party's ballot to take into the voting booth
presidential primary
s specialp primary election used to select delegates to attend the party's national convention , which in turn nominates the presidential candidate
modified closed/open primary
a primary election that allows individual state parties to decide whether they permit independents to vote in their primaries and for which offices /// a primary election that entitles independent voters vote in a party's primary
caucus /convention
a method used to select delegates to attend a party's national convention . generally a local meeting selects delegates for a country-level meeting , which in turn selects delegates for a higher-level meeting ;the process culminates in a state convention that selects the national convention delegates
general election
a national election held by law in November of every even-number year
straight ticket
in voting a single party's candidates for all the officesfices
split ticket
in voting candidates from different parties for different offices
open election
an election that lacks an incumbent
national committee
a committee of a political party composed of party chairpersons and party officials from every state
party conference
a meeting to select party leaders and decide committee assignments held at the beginning of a session of congress by the Republicans or Democrats in each chamber
hard money
financial contributions given directly to a congressional or presidential campaign
front loading
states' practice of moving delegate selection primaries and caucuses earlier in the calendar year to gain media and candidate attention
572 committees
political organizations that are organized under section 527 of the internal revenue code they enjoy tax exempt status and may accept unlimited funds from unlimited sources but cannot expressly advocate s candidate 's election or defeat
federal election commission (FEC)
a bipartisan federal agency that oversees the financing of national election campaigns
congressional campaign committee
an organization maintained by a political party to raise refunds to support its own candidates in congressional elections
soft money
funds raised by parties to be spent on party mailings ,voter registration and get-out -the -vote campaigns rather than for a specific federal election campaign
bipartisan campaign reform act (BCRA)
a law passed in 2002 governing campaign financing ;the law took effect with the 2004 election
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