SJHS Earth Science Final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Mechanical Weathering
The process that occurs when physical forces break rock into smaller pieces without changing the rock's chemical composition.
Frost Wedging
A weathering process that involves the constant freezing and thawing of water.
Chemical Weathering
The reason that the inscriptions on marble gravestones become harder and harder to read over time.
Warm and Wet
Chemical weathering is highest in areas with this type of climate.
Differential Weathering
The rock features such as the sculpted pinnacles seen in Bryce Canyon National Park are a result of this type of weathering.
Transported Soil
Soil that forms on unconsolidated deposits is called this.
Plants
The main source of organic matter in soil is this.
Slide
A mass movement that involves the sudden movement of a block of material is called this.
Creep
This is the slowest type of mass movement.
The Antarctic Ice Sheet
Almost two thirds of Earth's fresh water is located here.
Plucking
This is the loosening and lifting of blocks of rock by glaciers.
Cirque
A bowl-shaped depression at the head of a glacier.
Till
Material deposited directly by a glacier.
Ephemeral Streams
These run only after it rains in the desert.
Chemical Weathering
This causes some of the rust-colored tint of some desert landscapes.
Deflation
Desert pavement is created as a result of this.
Wind
This is what causes abrasion in the desert.
Loess
Windblown silt that blankets a landscape is called this.
Wind Direction
The shape of star dunes is mostly due to this.
The Great Lakes
These lakes are lowlands that glaciers eroded and transformed into wide, deep basins.
Transform
This type of plate boundary forms where two plates grind past each other without destroying the lithosphere.
The San Andreas Fault
This fault is a geographic example of a transform fault boundary.
Rift Valley
A divergent boundary at two oceanic plates can result in one of these.
Subduction Zone
One of these results when divergence occurs within the oceanic lithosphere.
Hot Spot
The Hawaiian Islands formed when the Pacific plate moved over one of these.
Time Travel Graph
This can be used to locate the epicenter of an earthquake.
Landslide
Violent shaking from an earthquake can cause soil and rock on slopes to fail and cause this.
Crust
Earth's thin, rocky outer layer.
Focus
The point within the earth that an earthquake originates.
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