AP Biology, Campbell 7e, Vocabulary - Chapter One: Exploring Life Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Biology
the scientific study of life
Producers
Plants and other photosynthetic organisms that convert light energy to chemical energy
Consumers
organisms such as animals that feed on producers and other cosumers
DNA
the substance of genes, double stranded nucleic acid
Genes
the units of inheritance that transmit information from parents to offspring
Genome
the entire "library" if genetic instructions that an organism inherits
Eukaryotic Cell
subdivided by internal membranes into various membrane enclosed organelles
Prokaryotic Cell
DNA is not separated from the rest of the cell by a membrane
Emergent Properties
due to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases
Reductionism
reducing complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study
Systems Biology
to model the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems
Bioinformatics
extracting useful biological information from the enormous, ever-expanding data sets
Negative Feedback
accumulation of an end product of a process slows that process
Positive Feedback
an accumulation of an end product speeds up the reaction
Domain Bacteria
most diverse and widespread prokaryotes and are now divided among multiple kingdoms
Domain Archaea
prokaryotes that live in Earth's extreme environment like salty lakes or boiling hot springs
Domain Eukarya
all eukarotes are grouped into this domain
Individual Variation
individuals in a population of any species vary in many heritable traits
Inquiry
a search for information and an explanation often focusing on specific questions
Discovery Science
desribes natural structures and processes as accurately as possible through careful observation and analysis of data
Data
recorded observations
Inductive Reasoning
deriving genralizations based on a large number of specific observations
Deductive Reasoning
the logic flows from general to specific, we deduct from generalizations exactly what is going to happen
Controlled Experiment
an experimental group is compared with a control
Theory
broader in scope than a hypothesis, generates new hypotheses and is supported by a large body of evidence
Models
can take many forms like diagrams, graphs, 3D objects, computer programs, or mathematical equations
Technology
applies scientific knowledge for a purpose
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