Vocabulary Chapter 42 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
arteriole
a vessel that conveys blood between an artery and a capillary bed
artery
a vessel that carries blood away from the heart to organs throughout the body
atherosclerosis
a cardiovascular disease in which growths called plaques develop in the inner walls of the arteries, narrowing their inner diameters
atrioventricular (AV) node
a region of specialized muscle tissue between the right atrium and right ventricle where electrical impulses are delayed for about 0.1 second before spreading to the ventricles and causing them to contract
atrioventricular valve
a valve in the heart between each atrium and ventricle that prevents a backflow of blood when the ventricles contract
atrium
a chamber that receives blood returning to the vertebrate heart
blood
a type of connective tissue with a fluid matrix called plasma in which blood cells are suspended
blood pressure
the hydrostatic force that blood exerts against the wall of a vessel
blood vessels
a set of tubes through which the blood moves through the body
capillary
a microscopic blood vessel that penetrates the tissues and consists of a single layer of endothelial cells that allows exchange between the blood and interstitial fluid
capillary bed
a network of capillaries that infiltrate every organ and tissue in the body
cardiac cycle
the alternating contractions and relaxations of the heart
cardiac output
the volume of blood pumped per minute by the left ventricle of the heart
cardiovascular disease
diseases of the heart and blood vessels
cardiovascular system
a closed circulatory system with a heart and branching network of arteries, capillaries, and veins; the system is characteristic of vertebrates
closed circulatory system
a circulatory system in which blood is confined to vessels and is kept separate from the interstitial fluid
countercurrent exchange
the opposite flow of adjacent fluids that maximizes transfer rates; for example, blood in the gills flows in the opposite direction in which water passes over the gills, maximizing oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide loss.
diastole
the stage of the heart cycle in which the heart muscle is relaxed, allowing the chambers to fill with blood
diastolic pressure
blood pressure that remains between heart contractions
double circulation
a circulation scheme with separate pulmonary and systemic circuits, which ensures vigorous blood flow to all organs
electrocardiogram
a record of the electrical impulses that travel through cardiac muscle during the heart cycle
erythrocyte
a red blood cell; contains hemoglobin, which functions in transporting oxygen in the circulatory system
fibrin
the activated form of the blood-clotting protein fibrinogen, which aggregates into threads that form the fabric of the clot
gill
a localized extension of the body surface of many aquatic animals, specialized for gas exchange
heart
a muscular pump that uses metabolic energy to elevate hydrostatic pressure of the blood; blood then flows down a pressure gradient through blood vessels that eventually return blood to the heart
heart attack
the death of cardiac muscle tissue resulting from prolonged blockage of one or more coronary arteries
heart murmur
a hissing sound that occurs when blood squirts backward through a leaky valve in the heart
heart rate
the rate of heart contraction
hemocyanin
a type of respiratory pigment that uses copper as its oxygen-binding component; hemocyanin is found in the hemolymph of arthropods and many molluscs
hemolymph
in invertebrates with an open circulatory system, the body fluid that bathes tissues
hemophilia
a human genetic disease caused by a sex-linked recessive allele; characterized by excessive bleeding following injury
hypertension
chronically high blood pressure within the arteries
myogenic heart
a type of heart, such as in vertebrate animals, in which the pacemaker is made up of specialized muscle tissues and located within the heart itself
open circulatory system
a circulatory system in which fluid called hemolymph bathes the tissues and organs directly and there is no distinction between the circulating fluid and interstitial fluid
pacemaker
a specialized region of the right atrium of the mammalian heart that sets the rate of contraction; also called the sinoatrial node
plasma
the liquid matrix of blood in which the cells are suspended
platelet
a small enucleated blood cell important in blood clotting; derived from large cells in the bone marrow
pulse
the rhythmic stretching of the arteries caused by the pressure of blood forced through the arteries by contractions of the ventricles during systole
red blood cell
a blood cell containing hemoglobin, which transports O2; also called an erythrocyte
semilunar valve
a valve located at the two exits of the heart, where the aorta leaves the left ventricle and the pulmonary artery leaves the right ventricle
sinoatrial (SA) node
a region of the heart composed of specialized muscle tissue that sets the rate and timing at which all cardiac muscle cells contract; the pacemaker
sinus
any of the spaces surrounding the organs of the body in animals with open circulatory systems
systemic circulation
movement of blood through the systematic circuit
systole
the stage of the heart cycle in which the heart muscle contracts and the chambers pump blood
systolic pressure
blood pressure in the arteries during contraction of the vetricles
vein
in animals, a vessel that returns blood to the heart
ventricle
a heart chamber that pumps blood out of a heart
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