ELMO 6th grade Ancient Greek Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Direct Democracy
Pure democracy, one person = one vote
Veto
Constitutional right to reject a decision
Representative Democracy
A representative representing the people
Tragedies
Greek Play - depicts the downfall of a noble hero or heroine, usually through fate, and the will of the gods
Comedies
Greek Play - comedic
Dictatorship
Governed by dictator with absolute power
Demagogue
A leader of the common people, political leader who seeks support by popular approval
Mercenary
Soldior hired by a foreign government, concerned only with making money
Hellenistic Age
The era after Alexander the Great's death (323 BC) and before Rome conqured Eqypt (30 BC)
Xerxes
King of Persia. Lead people through war.
Pericles - early life
Leader of Athens. Rebuilder of Athens after the Persian war.
Pericles - later life/ death
He was so important the era in which he lived is called The Age of Pericles (5th Century BC)
Socrates
Greek philosophy. Founder of Western Philosophy. Taught Plato
Hesiod
Oral Poet. Main subject of his poems were Greek mythology.
Pythagoras
Mathmatician: Pythagorean theorem. Founder of religious movement called Pythagoreanism.
Hippocrates
Greek Physician. Father of medicine.
Democritus
Philosopher and scientist. Pre-Socrates. Father of modern science.
Herodotus
1st Historian. Father of History.
Thucydides
Called Father of Scientific History. Historian. Wrote History of The Peloponnesian War.
Plato
Some consider him the most important philosopher that ever lived. Student of Socrates. Founder of The Academy to train future leaders. Mathmatician. Wealthy
Aristotle
Student of Plato, Teacher of Alexander the Great. 1st to study formal logic. Comprehensive system of Western Philosophy encompassing morality and aesthetics, logic and science, politics and metaphysics.
The Thirty Tyrants
This group was a pro-Spartan oligarchy installed in Athens. Severely reduced the number of rights of Athenian citizens.
Phillip II
King of Spain. Brother of the queen of England
Alexander The Great
Conquered the known world. Founded the city of Alexandria.
Euclid
Mathmatician. Father of Geometry. Wrote Elements - the most used book to teach math.
Eratosthenes
Measured the circumference of the earth. Proved the earth is round. Calculated the distance of the earth from the sun. Invented leap day. 1st person to use word Geography. Invented discipline of geography.
Hypatia
Ist notable woman in mathmatics. she invented the plane astrolabe, the graduated brass hydrometer and the hydroscope.
Archimedes
Mathmatician. Geometry. Invented pully systmes. (war machines??)
Aristarchus
Discovered the earth rotates around the sun.
What is the Golden Age of Athens, and what previous events contributed to make this Golden Age possible?
470-431BC Time of millitary success, financial security, and immense creativity in arts. They were lovers of thought and beauty. The Battle of Marathon united the Greek city-states giving them one purpose and a unified identity. This unity brought Athens to the forfront in politics, finances and power as it became a central meeting place for commerce.
What enduring contributions to the arts and sciences did the ancient Greeks make? Choose 2 specific areas (one in the area of arts, one in the area of the sciences) to discuss in detail. How have the Greek contributions in these areas influenced our lives
Arts: Sculpture - used marble and some bronze. Sculpted humans more often then gods. They were realistic, showed movement and often naked. They idealized the young, vigorous individuals.
Influenced our lives today by seeing the beauty in the human form which we see in current art.
Science: Astronomy - the contribution was not so much in observation but in critical thinking and applying geometry to the observations. They discovered how an eclipse happens (Anaxagoras), the earth is round (Thales), and that the earth rotates around the sun (Aristarchus).
Influenced our lives today being the beginings of space exploration through applying math and critical thinking to observations.
How did the rivalry between Sparta and Athens lead to the Peloponnesian War?
Greek cities were jealous of Athens. They formed the Peloponnesian League. Athens and Sparts were already enemies. Sparta cut off Athens grain supply. Sparta won the war. Ends the Golden Age of Athens.
How did Alexander the Great build and empire? Describe the city of Alexandria and the importance of it mulitcultural influences.
He conqured with military force.
City of Alexandria a port city on the Mediterranean and the Nile. It was easily accessable by boat and land. It provided an ideal spot for Alexander the Great to launch naval campaigns.
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