AP Gov Chapt 10 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Critical to American society; they institutionalize political activity by making it possible for the most political participation. Provides regular access to political power.
A characterization of elections by political scientists meaning that they are almost universally accepted as a fair and free method of selecting political leaders. When this is high, even the losers accept the results peacefully.
A state level method of direct legislation that gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove proposed legislation or a proposed constitutional amendment. Generally changes law.
Proposition 209
A measure intended to end the affirmative action programs in California.
Initiative Petition
A process permitted in some states whereby voters may put proposed changes in the state constitution to a vote if sufficient signatures are obtained on petitions calling for such a referendum
Election of 1800
Led to Constitutional Amendment clarifying process of election and electoral college. Jefferson v John Adams
Election of 1896
Republican William McKinley v Democrat William Jennings Bryan. Bitter fight over economic interest and coinage!
Election of 2000
George W Bush v Al Gore. Florida had re-counts and Supreme Court determined winner.
The part of a ballot that comes out when it gets punched.
Expanded Suffrage
Virtually everyone over the age 18- male or female, white or non-white, rich or poor - has right to vote.
Political Efficacy
The belief that one's political participation really matters - that one's vote can actually make a difference.
Civic Duty
The belief that in order to support democratic government, a citizen should always vote.
Voter Registration
A system adopted by the states that requires voters to register well in advance of election day. A few states permit election day registration
Motor Voter Act
Passed in 1993 this act went into effect for the 1996 election. It requires states to permit people to register to vote at the same time they apply for drivers license.
People with higher education are usually more likely to vote.
Older people vote more often.
African Americans and Hispanics are under-represented
Females are slightly more likely to vote
People who live in the same community for longer times are more likely to vote because they become more involved.
Union Membership
Unions are active in politics and often devote considerable resources to encourage members to vote.
Turnout Bias of Elections
Low election turn-out doesn't make a different unless the election is very close.
The candidate who previously held the position they are running for in the current election.
Mandate Theory of Elections
The idea that the winning candidate has a mandate from the people to carry out his or her platforms and politics. Politicians like the theory better than political scientists do.
Party Identification
Provide voters with a regular perspective through which ovters can view the political world. Parties tend to rely on groups that lean heavily in their favor to form their basic coalition.
View of the Candidates
All candidates try to present a favorable personal image. Three most important dimensions of candidates are: integrity, reliability, and competence.
Policy Voting
Electoral choices that are made on the basis of the voter's policy preferences and on the basis of where the candidates stand on policy issues.
Party Voting
Voting for a specific party, or voting based on candidates party.
Electoral College
A unique American institution, created by the Constitution, providing for the selection of the president by electors chosen by the state parties. Although the electoral college vote usually reflects a popular majority, the winner take all rule gives clour to big states.
Retrospective Voting
A theory of voting in which voters essentially ask the simple question, "What have you done for me lately?"
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