Chapter 3: Conception, Heredity, and Environment Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Schizophrenia
Neurological disorder marked by loss of contact with reality; hallucinations and delusions; loss of coherent, logical thought; and inappropriate emotionality.
Temperament
Characteristic disposition, or style of approaching and reacting to situations.
Obesity
Extreme overweight in relation to age, sex, heigh, and body type.
Nonshared Environmental Effects
The unique environment in which each child grows up, consisting of distinctive influences or influences that affect one child differently than another.
Genotype-Environment Correlation
Tendency of certain genetic and environmental influences to reinforce each other; may be passive, reactive (evocative), or active.
Canalization
Limitation on variance of expression of certain inherited characteristics.
Reaction Range
Potential variability depending on environmental conditions, in the expression of a heredity trait.
Concordant
Term describing the tendency of twins to share the same trait or disorder.
Heritability
Statistical estimate of contribution of heredity to individual differences in a specific trait within a given population at a particular time.
Behavioral Genetics
Quantitative study of relative heredity and environmental influences on behavior.
Genetic Counseling
Clinical service that advises prospective parents of their probably risk of having children with genetic defects.
Down Syndrome
Chromosomal disorder characterized by moderate-to-severe mental retardation and by such physical signs as downward-sloping skin fold at inner corners of the eyes.
Sex-Linked Inheritance
Pattern of inheritance in which certain characteristics carried on the X chromosomes inherited from the mother are transmitted differently to her male and female offspring.
Incomplete Dominance
Pattern of inheritance in which a child receives two different alleles, resulting in partial expression of a trait.
Epigenises
Mechanism that turns genes on or off and determines functions of body cells.
Multifactorial Transmission
Combination of genetic and environmental factors to produce certain complex traits.
Genotype
Genetic makeup of a person, containing both expressed and unexpressed characteristics.
Phenotype
Observable characteristics of a person.
Mutations
Permanent alterations in genes or chromosomes that usually produce harmful characteristics.
Polygenic Inheritance
Pattern of inheritance in which multiple genes at different sites on chromosomes affect a complex trait.
Recessive Inheritance
Pattern of inheritance in which a child receives identical recessive alleles, resulting in expression of a nondominant trait.
Dominant Inheritance
Pattern of inheritance in which, when a child receives different alleles, only the dominant one is expressed.
Heterozygous
Possessing differing alleles for a trait.
Homozygous
Possessing two identical alleles for a trait.
Alleles
Two or more alternative forms of a gene that can occupy the same position on paired chromosomes and affect the same trait.
Sex Chromosomes
Pair of chromosomes that determines sex, XX in a normal female, XY in a normal male.
Autosomes
In humans, the 22 pairs of chromosomes not related to sexual expression.
Human Genome
The complete sequence of genes in the human body.
Genes
Small segments of DNA located in definite positions on particular chromosomes; functional units of heredity.
Chromosomes
Coils of DNA that consists of genes.
Genetic Code
Sequence of bases within the DNA molecule; a set of rules that govern the formation of proteins that determine the structure and functions of living cells.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
Chemical that carried inherited instructions for the development of all cellular forms of life.
Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)
Methods used to achieve conception through artificial means.
Infertility
Inability to conceive after 12 months of trying.
Zygote
One-cell organism resulting from fertilization.
Fertilization
Union of sperm and ovum to produce a zygote; also called conception.
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