Chapter 3: States, Communities, and American Federalism Flashcards

local governments
Terms Definitions
Federalism
A constitutional arrangement whereby power is divided between national and subnational governments, each of which enforces its own laws directly on its citizens and neither of which can alter the arrangement without the consent of the other.
Unitary System
Constitutional arrangement whereby authority rests with the national government; subnational governements have only those powers given to them by the national government.
Confederation
Constitutional arrangement whereby the national government is created by and relies on subnational governments for its authority.
Separation of Powers
The dispersal of power among the separate executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government.
Delegated, or Enumerated, Powers
Powers specifically mentioned in the Constitution as belonging to the national government.
Necessary and Proper Clause
Clause in Article I, Section 8, of th U.S. Constitution granting Congress the power to enact all laws that are "necessary and proper" for carrying out those resposibilities specifically delegated to it. Also refered to as the Implied Powers Clause.
Implied Powers
Powers not mentioned specifically in the Constitution as belonging to Congress but inferred as necessary and proper for carrying out the enumerated powers.
National Supremacy Clause
Clause in Articl VI of the U.S. Constitution declaring the constitution and laws of the national government "the supreme law of the land" superior to the constitutions and laws of the states.
Reserved Powers
Powers not granted to the national government or specifically denied to the states in the Constitution that are recognized by the Tenth Amendment as belonging to the state governments. This guarantee, known as the Reserved Powers Clause, embodies the principle of American Federalism.
Racketeeringand Conspiracy
Organizing and communicating with others about the intent to commit a crime.
ERA (Equal Rights Amendment)
A constitutional amendment proposed by Congress but never ratified by the necessary three- fourths of the states. It would have guaranteed "equality of rights under law" for women and men.
Grants- In- Aide
Payments of funds from the national government to state or local governments or from a state govenment to local governments for specific purposes, usually on a matching basis.
Categorical Grants
Federal grants-in-aid to state or local governments for specific purposes or projects.
Block Grants
Federal grants- in- aid for general governmental functions, allowing state and local governments to exercise some flexibility in use with a function.
Dual Federalism
Early concept of federalism in which national and state powers were clearly distinguished and functionally seperate.
Cooperative Federalism
Model of federalism in which national, state, and local governments work together exercising common policy responsibilities.
Centralized Federalism
Model of federalism in which the national government assumes primary responsibility for determining national goals in all major policy areas and directs state and local government activity through conditions attached to money grants.
New Federalism
A reference to efforts first in the Nixon Administration to return some federal tax funds to the states (general revenue sharing) and later efforts in the Reagan Administration to consolidate federal grant-in-aid programs into block grants. Both gave more control over spending priorities to states.
General Revenue Sharing
Federal tax dollars returned to state and local governments with few strings attached; program ended when federal government faced a deficit.
Representational Federalism
The notion that federalism is defined by the role of the states in electing members of Congress and the president rather than any constitutional division of powers.
Coercive Federalism
The federal government's assumption of powers traditionally reserved to the states through preemptions and direct mandates to the states.
Preemptions
In federal- state relations, the federal government's assumption of regulatory powers in a particular field to the partial or full exclusion of state powers.
Mandates
In federal- state relations, the federal government's orders to state (and local) governments to provide particular services or perform specific services.
Unfunded Mandates
Mandates that impose costs on state and local governments (and private industry) without reimbursement from the federal government.
Devolution
Passing down of responsibilities from the national government to the states.
Real ID Act of 2005
Requires states to provide uniform, tamper- proof driver's licenses and ID cards and maintain a licensing database to be shared with the federal government and other states.
Horizontal Federalism
Relationships between the states.
Full Faith and Credit
The clause in the U.S. Constitution requiring states to legally recognize the official acts of other states,
Privileges and Immunities
The cluse in the U.S. Constitution preventing states from discriminating against citizens of other states.
Extradition
The surrender by one state of a person accused or convicted of a crime in another state.
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