Giant AP Euro Terms List Flashcards

Terms Definitions
95 Thesis
Religious thinker Martin Luther pinned this document to the door of a church, in protest to many church practices but especially indulgences., written by Martin Luther in 1517, they are widely regarded as the primary catalyst for the Protestant Reformation. Luther used these theses to display his displeasure with some of the Church's clergy's abuses, most notably the sale of indulgences; this ultimately gave birth to Protestantism.
Spanish Armada
A Spanish fleet attempted to attack England and to overflow Elizabeth I, primarily to eliminate Protestantism. They failed epically, partly because of the weather., the Spanish fleet that attempted to invade England, ending in disaster, due to the raging storm in the English Channel as well as the smaller and better English navy led by Francis Drake. This is viewed as the decline of Spain's Golden Age, and the rise of England as a world naval power.
Peace of Westphalia
This was the treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War that recognized the independent authority of over three hundred German principalities
Glorious Revolution
William of Orange (renamed William III) invaded England at the request of its citizens. He overthrew James II and Catholicism along with him., In this bloodless revolution, the English Parliament and William and Mary agreed to overthrow James II for the sake of Protestantism. This led to a constitutional monarchy and the drafting of the English Bill of Rights.
Treaty of Utrecht
The treaty that ended the War of Spanish Succession and stopped Louis XIV's attempts to gain more land for France, defending the balance of power.
French Revolution
The French people overthrew the king and his government, and then instituted a series of unsuccessful democratic governments until Napoleon took over as dictator in 1799.
Congress of Vienna
This agreement reorganized Europe following the defeat of Napoleon, restoring the balance of power., This was the meeting between the Quadruple Alliance in order to formulate a peace agreement and to balance the victories of the Napoleonic wars
Revolutions of 1848
A wave of political revolts beginning in France (of course), and spreading across Europe. They were all brutally put down.
German Empire-1871
Divided into states with no unified government.
Russian Revolution
The revolution against the Tsarist government which led to the abdication of Nicholas II and the creation of a provisional government in March 1917
Great Depression
The economic collapse. Its repurcussions included the rise of totalitarian powers in many countries, and terrible conditions for those affected.
1989 Communism collapse
Began with the policies of Gorbachev which lead to revolts in Russian sattelites and establishment of democratic governments in them.
Schmalkaldic League vs. HREmperor (Charles V)
The early wars of religion between northern Protestant states and southern Catholic states in the Holy Roman Empire.
Spain (Philip II) vs. England (Elizabeth)
The Spanish Armada. These two countries/rulers wanted to eliminate Protestantism and Catholic interference, respectively.
French Wars of Religion (Henry IV)
Internal conflict between the Catholics and the Huguenots, concluding with the Edict of Nantes.
Thirty Years' War (1618-1648, Holy Roman Empire)
The war began with a Catholic/Protestant conflict and matured into a multi-state political conflict, mainly France and the Holy Roman Empire competing for European dominance.
English Civil War ("Puritan Revolution", Cromwell)
Charles I was disliked, and avoided calling Parliament to keep his power. He was forced to, and this lead eventually to Oliver Cromewll declaring a commonwealth and bceoming Lord Protector.
Louis XIV
This French king ruled for the longest time ever in Europe. He issued several economic policies and costly wars. He was the prime example of absolutism in France.
War of Spanish Succession
The powers of Europe fought against a possible unity of France and Spanish, which would then upset the balance of power. It was ended by the Treaty of Utrecht.
War of Austrian Succession (Maria Theresa, Austria and Frederick II, Prussia)
A war sparked by challenges to Maria Theresa, as a woman, ascending to the Austrian throne. The most important consequence was the Prussians gaining Silesia.
Seven Years' War
Known in America as French and Indian war. It was the war between the French and their Indian allies and the English that proved the English to be the more dominant force of what was to be the United States both commercially and in terms of controlled regions.
French Revolution/Napoleonic Wars
These wars began with the rise of an (eventual) French dictator, who conquered nearly all of Europe.
Crimean War
Officially over the right to the Holy Land, this war was mainly about Russia trying to keep hold of its naval base in the Crimea.
France & Piedmont vs. Austria—1859 (Italian Unification)
Piedmont ruler Cavour dragged France into war with Austria to assist with Italian unification. France later backed out, but it still assisted Italian unification.
Austro-Prussian War—1866
Officially over an Austrian/Prussian disagreement of policy, but actually from Bismark's desire to rid himself of Austria, this war paved the way to German unification.
Franco-Prussian War—1870-71
France attacked Prussia to attempt to stop them becoming too powerful. Prussia won, and Napoleon III was dethroned. This war established the Third French Republic and the German Empire
World War I
War sparked by assassination of Archduke ferdinand. Causes were nationalism, and romanticism. Resulted in a humiliating German defeat and the establishment of communism in Russia
Spanish Civil War
In 1936 a rebellion erupted in Spain after a coalition of Republicans, Socialists, and Communists was elected. General Francisco Franco led the rebellion. The revolt quickly became a civil war. The Soviet Union provided arms and advisers to the government forces while Germany and Italy sent tanks, airplanes, and soldiers to help Franco.
World War II
Global conflict that stemmed from unresolved WWI issues, declarations came after Germany invaded Poland. Germany gained almost all of Europe before its defeat began with the loss in Stalingrad.
Cold War
The ideological struggle between communism (Soviet Union) and capitalism (United States) for world influence. The Soviet Union and the United States came to the brink of actual war during the Cuban missile crisis but never attacked one another. (831)
Ivan the Terrible
Leader whose actions were puzzling and cruel but who did lay the foundations for a new Russian state that included old Ievan Russia and stretched from Siberia to the Caspian Sea
Mikhail Romanov
First Romanov czar, ends the "Time of Troubles" in which there is chaos over who should rule Russia
Peter the Great
This was the czar of Russia that Westernized Russia and built up a massive Russian army. He also was interested in building grand cities like those in Western Europe
Procurator
Lay official of the Russian church; represented the interests of the tsar and extended control of the tsar over the church.
St. Petersburg
Capitol city created by Peter the Great to resemble a French city. Part of Peter's Westernization and attempts to get a warm-water port.
Catherine the Great
This was the empress of Russia who continued Peter's goal to Westernizing Russia, created a new law code, and greatly expanded Russia
Pugachev's Rebellion
1773, tried to restore traditional system with rights for peasants.
Alexander I
Seemed open to liberal ideas, he eased censorship, and promoted education, he talked about freeing the serfs, he then drew back from reform, because he feared losing noble support at the Congress of Vienna he joined the conservative powers opposing liberal and national impulses.
Nicholas I
Russian Tsar that succeeced Alexander; he strengthened the secret police and the bureaucracy. He was also wiling to use Russian troops to crush revolutions, as he greatly feared them.
Alexander II
A Russian Tsar who implemented rapid social change and general modernization of Russia, including emancipating the serfs.
Emancipation of Serfs
Tsar Alexander II ended rigorous serfdom in Russia in 1861; serfs obtained no political rights; required to stay in vilages until they could repay aristocracy for land.
Zemstvos
Elected local rural governments that allowed some democracy without weakening the central government.
Mir
A village or community with the idea that all members of a community must work together cooperatively to assure mutual survival (thus the sharing of work, food and in the cold winter months warmth).
Alexander III
This Czar removed many of the reforms his father created and recentralized the government.
Nicholas II
Last czar or Russia during the revolution and WWI, abdicated, killed with family by the Bolsheviks.
Russian Revolution
The revolution against the Tsarist government which led to the abdication of Nicholas II and the creation of a provisional government in March 1917.
Russian Civil War
(October 1917) Bolshevik Party seized power and created civil war between Bolsheviks and supporters of Tsar that Bolsheviks had executed but Bolsheviks won
Red Terror
The campaign of mass arrests and executions conducted by the Bolshevik government
Lenin
Founded the Communist Party in Russia and set up the world's first Communist Party dictatorship. He led the October Revolution of 1917, in which the Communists seized power in Russia. He then ruled the country until his death in 1924. Mr. Lorme's favorite.
NEP (New Economic Policy)
A small scale version of capitalism. Alowed peasants to sell excess crops & allowed small factories and businesses to be under private ownership. (Govt. still controlled major businesses & factories)
Trotsky
A Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. He was one of the leaders of the Russian October Revolution, second only to Lenin.
Stalin
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
Collectivization
System in which private farms were eliminated, instead, the government owned all the land while the peasants worked on it.
Five Year Plans
Stalin's plans to to make the economy fully industrial. All resources were devoted to these efforts. As a result Soviet people lacked food, housing, clothing BUT Economy grew
Battle of Stalingrad
Unsuccessful German attack on the city of Stalingrad during World War II from 1942 to 1943, that was the furthest extent of German advance into the Soviet Union. Turning point of the war.
Khrushchev
Soviet leader, publicly denounced Stalin, free many political prisoners eased censorship
Thaw
A relaxing of Soviet policies following Stalin's death, including censorship and private ownership.
Brezhnev
"No experimentation.", "re-Stalinization" modest liberalization and more consumer goods
Gorbachev
Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms (born in 1931)
Perestroika
"Restructuring," a policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society
Glasnost
Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union.
Yeltsin
First person ever elected by popular vote in Russia; drafted a new constitution similar to France's which established a mixed presidential-parliamentary system anchored in a powerful presidency
Charles V
This was the Holy Roman Emperor that called for the Diet of Worms. He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation
Peace of Augsburg
Ended the religious wars. The division of Christianity was formally acknowledged, with Lutheranism granted equal legal standing with Catholicism.
Defenestration of Prague
The hurling, by Protestants, of Catholic officials from a castle window in Prague, setting off the Thirty Years' War.
Gustavus Adolphus (Sweden—30 Years War)
A Swedish leader who fought against the Catholics in the Thirty Years' War. Successful at first, but when he died Sweden asked for peace.
Peace of Westphalia
This was the treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War that recognized the independent authority of over three hundred German principalities
Charles VI
Obsessed with keeping the Habsburg empire together, issued the Pragmatic Sanction. No male heir so the empire passed to Maria Theresa.
Pragmatic Sanction
This was the act passed by Charles VI that stated that Hapsburg possessions were never to be divided, in order to allow his daughter to be ruler.
Maria Theresa
This was the queen of Austria as a result of the Pragmatic Sanction. She limited the papacy's political influence in Austria, strengthened her central bureaucracy and cautiously reduced the power that nobles had over their serfs
Joseph II
This was the ruler of the Habsburgs that controlled the Catholic Church closely, granted religious toleration and civic rights to Protestants and Jews, and abolished serfdom
Declaration of Pillnitz
A statement agreed upon by Leopold II and Fredrick William II to intervene if Louis XVI was threatened by revolution
Age of Metternich
Period when Metternich had immense influence of Euopean politics.
Revolution of 1848
members of the working class in Paris united to overthrow the regime of Louis Phillippe and creat the Second French revolution
Ausgleich (Compromise of 1867)
Established the Dual Monarchy of Austria and Hungary: Separate governments except for a common King.
Franz Joseph
The ruler of Austria-Hungary when WWI started. He was planning to attack Serbia for their ports. When Serbia murdered Franz Ferdinand, he attacked Serbia, which effectively started WWI.
Balkan Crises
A series of events in the Slavic countries, any one of which could have started World War I. The third eventually did.
Franz Ferdinand
Archduke of Austria Hungary who was assassinated at Sarajevo by a Serbian terrorist group called the Black Hand; his death was a main cause for World War I.
Sarajevo, Bosnia
Austria annexed Bosnia (the first Balkan crisis) to prevent Slavs there from uniting with Serbia and challenging Austrian power. Russia disapproved but did not act.
Anschluss
Union between Austria and Germany, a violation of the ToV and Austria refused so Germany invaded.
Czechoslovakia
Declared its independence from Austro-Hungary in 1918.
Yugoslavia
This country was created after WWI, uniting ethnicities that spoke similar Slavic languages.
Soviet satellites
Eastern European nations with communist puppet governments; policies were loosely controlled by the USSR
Iron Curtain
Winston Churchill's term for the Cold War division between the Soviet-dominated East and the US-dominated West.
Uprising in Hungary
A student demonstration spread into a revolt that overthrew the government. Soviets intervened and took over the country.
Berlin Wall
In 1961, the Soviet Union built a high barrier to seal off their sector of Berlin in order to stop the flow of refugees out of the Soviet zone of Germany. The wall was torn down in 1989.
Prague Spring
A period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union after World War II. It ended with Soviets invading.
Vaclav Havel
Czech playwright that called for the independence of Czechoslovakia by 1989; became the first President of Czechoslavakia and the first President of the Czech Republic in 1993
Ceausescu (Romania)
Communist leader and President of Romania. When the people rebelled he killed them.
Tito (Yugoslavia)
Yugoslav statesman who led the resistance to German occupation during World War II and established a communist state after the war (1892-1980)
Civil War in Yugoslavia
Bitter ethnic conflicts lead to wars of independence. Most ended with democratic institutions being established.
ethnic cleansing
Process in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region
Polish Diet ("Liberum Veto")
known as "exploding the diet" it allowed one member to disband the diet of Poland
Partitions of Poland
Poland divided between Russia, Austria, and Prussia; changed the balance of Europe as a whole; Russia, Austria, and Prussia progressed passed France
Solidarity
Polish trade union created in 1980 to protest working conditions and political repression. It began the nationalist opposition to communist rule that led in 1989 to the fall of communism in eastern Europe.
Lech Walesa
Co-founded Solidarity, the Soviet bloc's first independent trade union, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983, and served as President of Poland.
Frederick William ("Great Elector")
the Elector of Brandenburg who rebuilt his domain after its destruction during the Thirty Years' War (1620-1688), placed very strong emphasis on the army
Frederick I
He was the successor and uncle of Christian II. He encouraged Lutheran preachers to spread their evangelical doctrines and to introduce a Lutheran liturgy into the Danish church service.
Frederick William
the Elector of Brandenburg who rebuilt his domain after its destruction during the Thirty Years' War (1620-1688)
Frederick II ("The Great")
Known as the Great, worked to expand territory and prestige of Prussia,king of Prussia from 1740 to 1786
Kaiser William I
William I of Prussia declares himself Kaiser of Germany at Versailles after winning the Franco-Prussian war
Frankfurt Assembly
German Parliament met in Frankfurt to fulfill a liberal and nationalist dream: the preparation of a constitution for a united Germany
Reichstag
Seated Germany's lower house of Parlimrent, it burned in 1933 and Hitler blamed it on the communist, this event led to Hitler becoming the absolute dictator in Germany.
Bismarck
Prime Minister of Prussia (largest state in Northern Germany); wanted a greater, unified Germany (smaller Southern states to join Prussia; preferred "iron and blood" to diplomacy.
German Empire (1871)
Unified by Bismark of Prussia, the German empire was created after the Franco-Prussian war. This Empire evolved into Germany, which played a key part in both WWI and WWII.
Social Democrats
Social democracy promotes the creation of economic democracy as a means to secure workers' rights. Social democracy rejects the Marxian principle of dictatorship of the proletariat, claiming that gradualist democratic reforms will improve the rights of the working class.
Kulturkampf
Bismarck's anticlerical campaign to expel Jesuits from Germany and break off relations with Vatican. Eventually, after little success, Bismarck halted these policies.
Social Security
a system of federal financial support for retired workers and workers unable to continue working because of a disability
Eduard Bernstein
German social democratic theoretician and politician, a member of the SPD, and the founder of evolutionary socialism and revisionism.
Kaiser William II
last German Emperor and King of Prussia, ruling both the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918.
Schlieffen Plan
Attack plan by Germans, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.
Weimar Republic
The new German republic the in 1921 owed 33 billion annually to the allied reparations commission. In order to recover from its severe economic issues the annual fees were reduced each year depending on the level of German economic prosperity and Germany received large loans each year from the United States.
Third Reich (Nazism)
The Third Republic of Germany which began Hitler's rule in 1933 and ended with his defeat in 1945
Hitler
Nazi leader and founder; had over 6 million Jews assassinated during the Holocaust
SS
special police force in Nazi Germany founded as a personal bodyguard for Adolf Hitler in 1925
Himler
leader of the SS, helped with the final solutions cause
Konrad Adenauer
The first chancellor of West Germany; he was able to establish a stable democratic government.
Willy Brandt
Chancellor of West Germany in the late 1960s; he sought to improve relations with the states of Eastern Europe.
Honecker
East German dictator from 1971 to 1989 that ruled with an iron fist, secret police and refusal of reforms; in 1989, his economic policies cause a mass East German migration through Hungary to get to West Germany, which caused him to open borders with West Germany
Berlin Wall
Concrete barrier constructed by the Soviets in August 1961 between West Berlin and East Berlin to prevent East Germans from fleeing to the West. (In 1990, the wall was torn down.)
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
wipes out protestantism, kills 7,000 people, france remains catholic
Henry IV (Henry of Navarre)
Henry of Navarre; was protestant but did not wish to anger catholics. Said "Paris is well worth a mass"
Edict of Nantes
This was the document published by Henry IV that granted liberty of conscience and liberty of public worship to the Huguenots
Cardinal Richelieu
This was the man who influenced the power of King Louis XIII the most (his chief advisor) and tried to make France an absolute monarchy
Cardinal Mazarin
Successor of Cardinal Richelieu and his bad attempts to increase royal revenue and the state lead to the Fronde
Louis XIV
This French king ruled for the longest time ever in Europe. He issued several economic policies and costly wars. He was the prime example of absolutism in France
Colbert
Created mercantilism and was able to connect France through industries and trade routes. Louis XIV's finance minister.
War of League of Augsburg
8 years, won very little land, War fought between 1689-1697 that resulted in the loss of vast territory acquired by Louis XIV, secured Holland's borders and curtailed Louis' expansion into Germany.
War of Spanish Succession
Louis XIV gained power in Spain from his grandson and did not divide the Spanish possessions between himself and the Roman Empire
Le Fronde
A series of civil wars in France by nobles against Louis XIV's and Mazarin's authority; they were unable to overthrow Mazarin.
Louis XV
When Louis XIV died in 1715, the crown was to be succeeded by his five-year-old grandson Louis XV. Under Louis XV, the French minister Maupeou began the restoration of royal absolutism by abolishing the parlement of Paris.
Louis XVI
King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. He and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
Estates General
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. Calling it in 1789 led to the French Revolution.
Robespierre
A French political leader of the eighteenth century. A Jacobin, he was one of the most radical leaders of the French Revolution. He was in charge of the government during the Reign of Terror, when thousands of persons were executed without trial. After a public reaction against his extreme policies, he was executed without trial.
Committee of Public Safety, Reign of Terror
This was the group and period in France where Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed
Napoleon
A French general, political leader, and emperor of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Bonaparte rose swiftly through the ranks of army and government during and after the French Revolution and crowned himself emperor in 1804. He conquered much of Europe but lost two-thirds of his army in a disastrous invasion of Russia. After his final loss to Britain and Prussia at the Battle of Waterloo, he was exiled to the island of St. Helena in the south Atlantic Ocean.
Louis XVIII
Restored Bourbon throne after the Revoltion. He accepted Napoleon's Civil Code (principle of equality before the law), honored the property rights of those who had purchased confiscated land and establish a bicameral (two-house) legislature consisting of the Chamber of Peers (chosen by king) and the Chamber of Deputies (chosen by an electorate).
Charles X
Count of Artois, succeeded Louis XVIII. Pursued religious policy that encouraged Catholics to reestablish control over the educational system. (brought instability to France)
Louis Philippe
King of France following Charles X. Abdicated the throne against threat of republican revolution (smelled his popularity was diminishing)
Revolution of 1848
Revolutions broke out all across Europe for that year, triggered by the French Revolution. They were all subdued, but they had some sort of long lasting effects. The people were probably upset that they were silenced and they had no voice, that's my guess.
Louis Blanc (National Workshops)
Journalist who advocated the right to work, thought governments should guarentee employment through public works projects.
"June Days" 1848
Reaction of the unemployed and the revolutionary artisans of Paris, without political leadership or coordination. Over 5,000 died during the revolution and another 3,000 were shot after.
(Napoleon III) Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
Elected president of France following general election. Won 70% of the votes because of his name. Bonaparte later changed the government to an empire w/himself as emperor just like his uncle, the original Napoleon.
Third French Republic
The republican government of France between the end of the Second French Empire and the the invasion of France by the German Third Reich.
Dreyfus Affair
The conviction of an obviously innocent Jewish army officer lead to public disapproval.
Paris Commune
A brief Parisian government hailed as the first government of the working class.
George Sorel/Syndicalism
The French trade-unionist belief that workers would become the governmental power through a general strike that would paralyze society.
(Leon Blum) Popular Front
Political group active in aiding the leftist forces in the Spanish Civil War. Earnest Hemingway and other prominent American intellectuals and writers joined the group
Fourth French Republic
The French government set up after World War II; Had a weak president, strong legislature, and too many parties with weak coalitions.
Fifth French Republic
made after a new French consitution gave more power to the president. Charles De Gaulle was the first president of the Fifth French Republic. De Gaulle soon started a long retreat from Algeria
Charles de Gaulle
Leader of Free French General that resigned in 1946 after re-establishing the free, democratic Fifth Republic.
French War in Algeria
An important decolonization war, it was a complex conflict characterized by guerrilla warfare, maquis fighting, terrorism, etc. Eventually lead de Gaulle to free Algeria.
Dutch Revolt
Revolt against the Spanish Empire, which led to the formation of the Netherlands.
William of Orange
Dutch prince invited to be king of England after The Glorious Revolution. Joined League of Augsburg as a foe of Louis XIV.
Bank of Amsterdam
First bank to not only received deposits of gold and silver and exchanged foreign currencies, it made loans.
Netherlands (1815)
United the Dutch Republic and the Austrian Netherlands under the House of Orange-Nassau.
Belgian Independence (1830)
Came because of an agreement in England which made it a nutral country
Henry VIII
King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England in 1532.
Act of Supremacy
Declared the king (Henry VIII) the supreme head of the Church of England in 1534.
Elizabeth I
This queen of England chose a religion between the Puritans and Catholics and required her subjects to attend church or face a fine. She also required uniformity and conformity to the Church of England
James I
This Scottish ruler became the English king as well once Elizabeth died. He inherited a country that was in debt, as well as in mourning for their highly-idealized former queen. He was generous with favors but Scottish and English differences made it impossible for him to gain anyone's favor.
James II
This was the Catholic king of England after Charles II that granted everyone religious freedom and even appointed Roman Catholics to positions in the army and government
English Civil War
This was the revolution as a result of whether the sovereignty would remain with the king or with the Parliament. Eventually, the kingship was abolished
Cromwell
Excellent military leader, helped Parliament win civil war, dismissed parliament and was dictator, attacked + destroyed Irish who said Charles II was rightful leader of England
Commonwealth
Proclaimed when Charles I was beheaded in 1649. Theoretically, legislative power rested in the surviving members of the parliament and executive power was lodged in a council state.
"Restoration"
The return of a constitutional monarchy to Great Britain in 1660 under Charles II
Charles II
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660-1685) who reigned during the Restoration, a period of expanding trade and colonization as well as strong opposition to Catholicism
Charles I
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which Charles was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649
Stuart Restoration
reestablishment of monarchy in the person of Charles II, the son of Charles I, after Cromwell's death. It temporarily ended England's troubles.
William and Mary
King and Queen of England in 1688. With them, King James' Catholic reign ended. As they were Protestant, the Puritans were pleased because only protestants could be office-holders.
English Bill of Rights
To make clear the powers of England's monarchy in 1689, the English Parliament drafted a list of things that they could not do like no taxing without permission from Parliament.
Toleration Acts
England, 1689. Gave freedom of worship to all Protestants (but not Catholics), as long as they swore an oath of allegiance.
Robert Walpole
The first official prime minister, whose foreign policy was to ignore continental conflicts and he forgave the debt of the South Sea Company which made the people confident in the government
Reform Act of 1832
An Act of Parliament that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of the United Kingdom
Chartists
Reformers who wanted changes like universal male suffrage; the secret ballot; and payment for members of Parliament, so that even workingmen could afford to enter politics. This group supported a document called the People's Charter.
Reform Act of 1867
Lowered the monetary requirements for voting which increased the number of voters from about one million to slightly over two million.
Benjamin Disraeli
A British Prime Minister, parliamentarian, Conservative statesman and literary figure. Only Prime Minister of Jewish heritage. He played an instrumental role in the creation of the modern Conservative Party after the Corn Laws schism of 1846.
William Gladstone
Served as Liberal Prime Minister four times. Famous for his intense rivalry with the Conservative Party Leader Benjamin Disraeli. Supported repeal of the Corn Laws.
Fabian Socialists
A group of intellectuals who started a movement for laborers and stressed the need for the workers to use their vote to capture the House of Commons and pass legislation the would benefit the laboring class.
David Lloyd George
He was the British representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.
Ramsey McDonald
abor gov. of britian in old fashioned- raise taxes cut gov spending and balance the budget
Neville Chamberlain
Great British prime minister who advocated peace and a policy of appeasement.
Winston Churchill
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
Margaret Thatcher
Conservative British prime minister from 1970 to 1991; held that office longer than any other person; worked to cut welfare and housing expenses, promote free enterpris
Ferdinand and Isabella
This was the king and queen of Spain who took over the Catholic Spain and started the Spanish Inquisition
Columbus
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China
Philip II
King of Spain. Inherited a lot of debt. Fervent Catholic. Sent the Spanish Armada.
Spanish Civil War
Civil war in which General Franco succeeded in overthrowing the republican government
Franco
Spanish general whose armies took control of Spain in 1939 and who ruled as a dictator until his death
Renaissance
The great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history.
Sack of Rome (1527)
a military event carried out by the mutinous troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor in Rome, then part of the Papal States
Mazzini
Italian idealistic patriot; preached a centralized democratic republic based on universal suffrage and the will of the people
Cavour
The prime minister of Piedmont-Sardinia during the movement toward Italian unification. He is considered the architect of the Italian Unification.
Victor Emmanuel II
He was king of Sardinia, Piedmont and Savory until 1861 when he was crowned the first king of a united Italy
Garibaldi
Italian patriot whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state
Mussolini
Italian fascist, called upon his followers to march on Rome, King Victor Emmanuel III gave in and named Mussolini prime minister, turned Italy into a fascist state
Blackshirts
Mussolini's "gang" used to control Italy
War of American Independence
Costly war of Americans against British and George III that France was involved in that later led France to bankruptcy. (American name)
Woodrow Wilson
After World War I, this United States president sought to reduce the risk of war by writing the Fourteen Points that influenced the creation of the League of Nations.
Roosevelt
President of the United States from 1933-1945; elected four times during the Great Depression and World War II. Associated with a New Deal to help end the Depression.
Truman Doctrine
A doctrine that promised to aid people struggling to resist threats to democratic freedom.
NATO
an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
Containment
A goal to stop the spread of communism. The US had to use military and non military actions to stop the spread.
Reagan
40th republican with a strong anti-communist view. influenced fall of communism. talked with gorbachev to end Cold War
Michelangelo
This was an artist who led the way for Renaissance masters from his David sculpture and his painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling
Raphael
Italian Renaissance painter; he painted frescos, his most famous being The School of Athens.
Leonardo
This artist used the technique of atmospheric perspective and even wrote about the phenomenon in his journal
Mannerism
Artistic movement against the Renaissance ideals of symetry, balance, and simplicity; went against the perfection the High Renaissance created in art. Used elongated proportions, twisted poese and compression of space.
El Greco
Spanish painter (born in Greece) remembered for his religious works characterized by elongated human forms and dramatic use of color
Baroque Art
Art that originated in Rome and is associated with the Catholic Reformation, characterized by emotional intensity, strong self-confidence, spirit.
Caravaggio
Italian painter noted for his realistic depiction of religious subjects and his novel use of light
Rembrandt
Dutch painter, who painted portraits of wealthy middle-class merchants and used sharp contrasts of light and shadow to draw attention to his focus
Rococo
Fanciful but graceful asymmetric ornamentation in art and architecture that originated in France in the 18th century
Neo-classicism
A style of art and architecture that emerged in the later 18th century. Part of a general revival of interest in classical cultures, Neoclassicism was characterized by the utilization of themes and styles from ancient Greece and Rome.
Romanticism
This was the response to the Enlightenment in which they believed that not everything could be measured, because of the passion of emotion
Delacroix
This French painter was important to French Romantic art. He often used his painting to convey a political message, and he is best known for his painting depicting the socialist revolution of 1830: Liberty Leading the People.
Realism
This was the new style of literature that focused on the daily lives and adventures of a common person. This style was a response to Romanticism's supernaturalism and over-emphasis on emotion
Gustave Courbet
Most famous member of realist school. Painted only things that he saw. Phrase "realism" was coined in reaction to one of his paintings. All of his works represented everyday life.
Impressionism
An artistic movement that sought to capture a momentary feel, or impression, of the piece they were drawinAn artistic movement that sought to capture a momentary feel, or impression, of the piece they were drawing.
Monet, Renoir
Impressionist painters.
Cezanne
French postimpressionist painter who influenced modern art (especially cubism) by stressing the structural components latent in nature
Van Gogh
This artist's finest works were produced in less than three years in a technique that grew more and more impassioned in brushstroke, in symbolic and intense color, in surface tension, and in the movement and vibration of form and line.
(Picasso) Cubism
An Artistic movement that focused on geometric shapes, complex lines, and overlapping planes.
Matisse
French painter and sculptor. Leading figure of Fauvism
Abstract Art
Uses a visual language of form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world.
(Dali) Surrealism
A 20th century movement of artists and writers (developing out of Dadaism) who used fantastic images and incongruous juxtapositions in order to represent unconscious thoughts and dreams
(Warhol) Pop Art
An American school of the 1950s that imitated the techniques of commercial art and the styles of popular culture and the mass media
Abstract Expressionism
An art movement that artists applied paint freely to their huge canvases in an effort to show feelings and emotions rather than realistic subject matter. Artists dribbled and spattered paint onto their paintings?
Socialist Realism (USSR)
Artistic style whose goal was to promote socialism by showing Soviet life in a positive light.
Bach
Composer who believed music was a means to worship God and lived a quiet life at a church; created the Mass in B Minor
Mozart
a composer from Austria, who was known for classical NEW STYLE. Child prodigy.
Haydn
He wrote 104 symphonies and when he visited England, he wrote concerts for the public. "The Creation" and "The Seasons" are both dedicated to the common people.
Beethoven
German composer of instrumental music (especially symphonic and chamber music)
Chopin & Liszt (romantic composers of mid-19th century)
composers and audience came from same social class, few composers were financially successful, private music making more common
Wagner
German composer of operas and inventor of the music drama in which drama and spectacle and music are fused
Debussy
French Composer of impressionist music. late romantic to modernist
Stravinsky (Rite of Spring)
A Russian composer, considered by many in both the West and his native land to be the most influential composer of 20th century music.
Schoenberg (atonal)
United States composer and musical theorist (born in Austria) who developed atonal composition
Petrarch
Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization.
Castiglione, The Book of the Courtier
Discusses courtesy and explains the refined courtier as opposed to a medieval knight; the setting for the book is the court at urbino (italian city-state)
Thomas More
He was a English humanist that contributed to the world today by revealing the complexities of man. He wrote Utopia, a book that represented a revolutionary view of society.
Erasmus
Dutch Humanist and friend of Sir Thomas More. Perhaps the most intellectual man in Europe and widely respected. Believed the problems in the Catholic Church could be fixed; did not suport the idea of a Reformation. Wrote Praise of Folly
Siglo de Oro
A period of flourishing in arts and literature in Spain, coinciding with the political rise and decline of the Spanish Hapsburg dynasty
Cervantes, Don Quixote
Spanish writer who satirized chivalry and influenced the development of the novel form.
Shakespeare
English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers
Milton
Free Market of Ideas, there are good and bad ideas, the good will win out Ideologic Darwanism
Romanticism
A movement in literature and art during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that celebrated nature rather than civilization
Goethe
German writer and polymath. Works span the fields of poetry, drama, literature, theology, philosophy, pantheism, and science.
Mary Shelley
English novelist who wrote a "monster" story which raised questions about the potential negative impact of the rise of science
Wordsworth, Byron, Percy Shelley
English poets writing about some Romantic ideas.
Victor Hugo (French)
French novelist who wrote "The Hunchback of Notre Dame" and "Les Miserables" in the 1800s. Both works have been made into award winning productions.
Realism
The philosophical doctrine that physical object continue to exist when not perceived
Jane Austen
English novelist noted for her insightful portrayals of middle-class families
Flaubert
French Novelist, Realism, stories of middleclass france struggle against society, Madame Bovary
Dostoevsky & Tolstoy
Russian novelists who wrote of human suffering with humor and psychological insight, self-sacrifice, non-violence, and finding happiness from within
Emile Zola
An influential French writer, the most important exemplar of the literary school of naturalism and an important contributor to the development of theatrical naturalism.
Virginia Wolfe
English novelist, essayist, diarist, epistler, publisher, feminist, and writer of short stories, regarded as one of the foremost modernist literary figures of the twentieth century.
James Joyce
influential Irish writer noted for his many innovations (such as stream of consciousness writing)
Henrik Ibsen
A major 19th-century Norwegian playwright, theatre director, and poet. He is often referred to as "the godfather" of modern drama and is one of the founders of Modernism in the theatre.
Existentialism
The focus of philosophical thought should be to deal with the conditions of existence of the individual person and their emotions, actions, responsibilities, and thoughts.
Sartre & Camus
Existentialist thinkers.
Machiavelli
Wrote "The Prince", a book that recommended harsh and arbitrary rule for princes
"Divine Right of Kings" (Bishop Bousset)
the belief that kings receive their power from God and are responsible only to God
Hobbes
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings
Locke
English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience
John Stuart Mill
English philosopher and economist remembered for his interpretations of empiricism and utilitarianism
(Jeremy Bentham) Utilitarinaism
The idea that the moral worth of an action is determined solely by its utility in providing happiness or pleasure as summed among all sentient beings.
Montesquieu
French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers
Liberalism
A political ideology that emphasizes the civil rights of citizens, representative government, and the protection of private property. This ideology, derived from the Enlightenment, was especially popular among the property-owning middle classes.
Conservatism
This was the political idea in which the people regarded tradition as the basic source of human institutions and the proper state and society remained those before the French Revolution which rested on a judicious blend on monarchy, bureaucracy, aristocracy, and respectful commoners
Nationalism
Political ideology that stresses people's membership in a nation-a community defined by a common culture and history as well as by territory. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, nationalism was a force for unity in western Europe.
Republicanism
A philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people. The government is based on consent of the governed.
"Utopian" Socialism (Owen/Fourier/St. Simon)
Philosophy introduced by the Frenchman Charles Fourier in the early nineteenth century. Hoped to create humane alternatives to industrial capitalism by building self-sustaining communities whose inhabitants would work cooperatively
Realpolitik (Bismarck)
Political theory that national success justifies any means possible. Very Machiavellian.
Karl Marx/Marxism
Viewed the struggle of workers as a progression of historical forces that would proceed from a class struggle of the proletariat (workers) exploited by capitalists (business owners), to a socialist "dictatorship of the proletariat," to, finally, a classless society - Communism.
Revisionist Marxism ("Evolutionary Socialism")
This was the work that suggested that socialists should combine with other progressive forces to win gradual evolutionary gains for workers through legislation, unions, and further economic development
Feminism
Political, cultural, and economic movements aimed at establishing greater rights and legal protections for women.
(Bakunin) Anarchism
A political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory government, i.e. the state.
Communism
A political and economic system where factors of production are collectively owned and directed by the state.
Fascism
A system of government characterized by strict social and economic control and a strong, centralized government usually headed by a dictator. First found in Italy by Mussolini.
Montaigne
The finest representative of early modern skepticism. Created a new genre, the essay.
Descartes
French philosopher, discovered analytical geometry. Saw Algebra and Geometry have a direct relationship. Reduced everything to spiritual or physical.
Bacon
This scientist spread the word about the experimental method and formalized the empirical method and combined his thinking with Descartes to form the scientific method
Bayle
Wrote Dictionary. A religous skeptic who attacked superstition, religous attitudes, and dogmatism.
Spinoza
Wrote Ethics Demonstrated in the Geometric Manner. Rejected Cartesian Dualism and suported Pantheism where "god" is a singular self-subsistent substance.
Locke
English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience and people have natural rights, they are ruled to protect those laws.
Voltaire
French, perhaps greatest Enlightenment thinker. Deist. Mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Wrote Candide. Believed enlightened despot best form of government.
Diderot
Published work of many philosphes in his Encyclopedia. He hoped it would help people think more rationally and critically.
Rousseau
believed people in their natural state were basically good but that they were corrupted by the evils of society, especially the uneven distribution of property
David Hume
Scottish philosopher whose sceptical philosophy restricted human knowledge to that which can be perceived by the senses
Adam Smith
Economist who wrote Wealth of Nations; Laissez-Faire economics
Kant
This philosopher showed the overall attitude of the Enlightenment by saying "have the courage to use your own understanding"
Hegel
Was a German philosopher who wrote and influenced many others (like Marx) with his writings. He is most often characterized by his 'three-step process' of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis.
(Comte) Positivism
A philosophy developed by the French count of Saint-Simon. Believed that social and economic problems could be solved by the application of the scientific method, leading to continuous progress. Popular in France and Latin America.
Nietzsche
Radical questioning of the value and objectivity of truth n. His key ideas include the death of God, perspectivism, the Übermensch, the eternal recurrence, and the will to power.
(Sartre/Camus) Existentialism
The focus of philosophical thought should be to deal with the conditions of existence of the individual person and their emotions, actions, responsibilities, and thoughts.
Wycliff and Huss
challenged the church saying Jesus was the head of the church not the pope, the bible was the chief consultant in religious disputes not church law
Reformation
A religious reform movement which challenged political and ecclesiastical authority of the Catholic Church during the Middle Ages.
Luther
The founder of Protestantism whose religion, based on 95 Theses, rejected Catholic orthodoxy, the sale of indulgences, and papal authority.
Lutheranism
The religious doctrine that Martin Luther developed; it differed from Catholicismin the doctrine of salvation, which Luther believed could be achieved by faith alone, not by good works; Lutheranism was the first Protestant faith
Zwingli
A Swiss religious and social reformer who led the Swiss reformation, rejected papal authority and orthodoxy.
Calvin
Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Calvinism.
Calvinism
Emphasized a strong moral code and believed in predestination (the idea that God decided whether or not a person would be saved as soon as they were born). Supported constitutional representative government and the separation of church and state.
Church of England (Anglicans)
Church created in England as a result of a political dispute between Henry VIII and the Pope, Pope would not let Henry divorce his wife
Anabaptists
A Protestant sect that believed only adults could make a free choice regarding religion; they also advocated pacifism, separation of church and state, and democratic church organization.
(Loyola) Jesuits
They played an important part in the Catholic Reformation and helped create conduits of trade and knowledge between Asia and Europe.
Council of Trent
Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend
List of Prohibited Books
A list of publications prohibited by the Catholic Church.
John Wesley/Methodism
Stressed the need for piety, devotion, and acceptance of one's lot.
Counter/Catholic Reformation
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church, begun in response to the Protestant Reformation. It clarified Catholic theology and reformed clerical training and discipline.
Rerum Novarum
This papal document defended private property, religious education, and condemned socialism and Marxism
(Herzl) Zionism
A worldwide movement, originating in the 19th century that sought to establish and develop a Jewish nation in Palestine. Since 1948, its function has been to support the state of Israel.
Vatican II
Pope John XXIII called the conference which met in four sessions between 1962-65. The purpose was to bring the church up to date (aggiornamento).
Pope John Paul II
Assumed Papacy 1979, Conservative Pope, against strengthening women's position in church, more staunch on birth control
Ptolemy
Alexandrian astronomer who proposed a geocentric system of astronomy that was undisputed until Copernicus
Copernicus
Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center
Kepler
His laws showed that the planets revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits instead of circles.
Galileo
This scientist formulated the experimental method and using this, came up with the law of inertia, among several discoveries related to the moon
William Harvey
Discovered the circulation of blood and the role of the heart in propelling it. Developed an accurate theory of how the heart and ciculatory system operated.
Newton
This physicist developed the law of universal gravitation and further caused the decline of the old system of science
Darwin
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection
Mendel
Augustinian monk and botanist whose experiments in breeding garden peas led to his eventual recognition as founder of the science of genetics
Freud
Austrian physician who approached psychology while trying to treat mental disorders, focused on the unconscious
Einstein
Developed the influential theory of relativity stating that motion can only be measured relative to the position of a particular observer
Marie Curie
This female scientist proved that radio-activity, when properly applied, was an effective treatment of some diseases.
Max Planck
German physicist who developed quantum theory and was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics in 1918.
Atomic Bomb
Bomb that changed the world, ended WWII in Japan, created a nuclear arms race between U.S. and Soviet Union
Sputnik
The first satellite, Russian, which sparked the space race.
Feudalism
A political system based on the rule of local lords bound to a king by ties of loyalty. It developed as a system of local defense against invaders in western Europe, China, and Japan.
Ancien Regime
The traditional political and social order in Europe before the French Revolution
Serf
A farmer tied to the land he works, which is owned by a noble.
Peasant
A farmer, working for a nobleman on land that noble owns, in exchange for a share of the crops.
First Estate, Second Estate, Third Estate
The different sections that made up French society: Nobles, clergy, and everyone else.
Commercial Revolution
This was the period of economic and political expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism that occurred in Europe
Bank of Amsterdam
This innovative bank regulated the exchange rates of different currencies in Amsterdam, which helped stabilize the chaos that resulted from trading many different coins. Having a system minimized things like dishonesty and quickly fluctuating preferences when traders/merchants exchanged currency. Once this was regulated, gyro banking became possible because each individual business agreement was not unique in its exchange rate.
Interest
A charge for borrowing money. No longer considered a sin, allowing loans to be made, which allowed businesses to develop and encouraged capitalism.
Mercantilism
an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
"Triangle Trade"
The exchange of crops and slaves between America, Europe, and Africa. The trading of manufactured foods with Africa for slaves who were shipped to the new world.
Agricultural Revolution
The transformation of farming that resulted in the eighteenth century from the spread of new crops, improvements in cultivation techniques and livestock breeding, and consolidation of small holdings into large farms from which tenants were expelled
Domestic System (aka Putting out system aka Cottage Industry)
the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.
Steam Engine (James Watt)
A machine that turns the energy released by burning fuel into motion. Thomas Newcomen built the first crude but workable steam engine in 1712. James Watt vastly improved his device in the 1760s and 1770s. Steam power was then applied to machinery.
Industrial Revolution
the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.
Laissez-faire capitalism ("free enterprise")
policy based on the idea that government should play as small a role as possible in the economy
Urbanization
An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements.
Bourgeoisie
the middle class, including merchants, industrialists, and professional people
Proletariat
marx's term for the exploited class, the mass of workers who do not own the means of production
Imperialism
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically, or socially. This led to the creation of a number of European empires which extended around the world.
Revisionist ("Evolutionary") Marxists vs. Orthodox Marxists
Wanted a dictatorship of the proletariat, but disagreed whether direct action should be taken to achieve it. (Two groups.)
Second Industrial Revolution
Steep growth in industry and the production of steel, petrolium, electric power, and the machinery to produce other goods
Internal Combustion Engine
Source of energy that allowed Industrializatoin.
Marshall Plan
a United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe
Coal and Steel Community
Created by Monnet and Schumann to integrate all European steel and coal production; 6 countries (which excluded Britain) made war within Western Europe unthinkable
Common Market (EEC)
An international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members.
euro
A common monetary unit of Europe, established by the EU as a part of an effort to unify Europe financially.
Christine de Pisan
A Venetian-born woman of the medieval era who strongly challenged misogyny and stereotypes prevalent in the male-dominated realm of the arts.
St. Teresa of Avila
Reformed monastic life in her own community of followers, the Carmelites. simplicity
Margaret Cavendish
A unique and groundbreaking woman writer, and the only female philosopher of her time.
Marie-Therese Geoffrin
Famous Salon hostess. Invited brilliant minds including Voltaire, Baron de Montesquieu, and Diderot. Made exchange of ideas fashionable.
Olympe de Gouges
French journalist who published the declaration of rights of women and the female citizens.
Mary Wallstonecraft
Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women, in which she called for equal education for girls and boys. She felt that a woman should be able to decide what was in her own interest without depending on her husband.
George Sand
French femaile author of more than eighty novels who took a man's name and dressed in male attire to protest the treatment of women
Emmeline Pankhurst
Leader of the British suffragette movement, and helped women win the right to vote.
Suffragists
Those (mostly female) who were active in seeking voting rights for women as an inherent right for all individuals in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Cult of Domesticity
tradition that housework and child care were considered the only proper activites for married women
Female Suffrage
The right for women to vote. Became a popular idea in the 1900s.
Simone de Beauvoir
French author of The Second Sex. She argued for women's rights and was also a prominent figure in the existentialist movement. She died in 1986.
Contraception
Grew in popularity, decreasing family size. Commonly called "the pill."
Witchcraft
Hated in the 14th to 18th centuries, lead to burnings and hunts.
Cultural Nationalism
A process of protecting, either formally (with laws) or informally (with social values), the primacy of a certain cultural system against influences (real or imagined) from another culture.
Political Nationalism
A sovereign state represents a people—Those speaking the same language, sharing traditions and customs
Mass politics
reforms encouraged expansion of political democracy through voting rights formed and creation of mass political parties
Mass leisure
This was a result of the working class having free time after work (10 Hour's Act) and having a little bit of money (increased real wages)
Telephone
Communication device invented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1986.
Radio
Grew popular during and after WWI and available to all (even illiterate) so able to mobilize the masses for political purposes. Also used for propaganda
Television
Made mass media availably for people all over the United States, Europe, and other parts of the world
The Beatles
a British band that had an enormous influence on popular music in the 1960s
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