Brown-Lemay Chemistry Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
6.02 x 10^23 (Particles)
1 Mole (particles)
22.4 (Liters)
1 Mole (Liters)
273 K, 1 atm
STP
Atomic Number
Number of Protons in an Atom
Mass Number
The Number of protons and Neutrons
Dissociation
Presence of ions in solution enables electrical conductivity/ Separation of ionic compounds into ions when dissolved in aqueous solutions
M1V1=M2V2
Dilution
Dalton
Each element is made up of invisible particles called atoms
Mendeleev
Developed the Periodic Table
Thomson
Plum Pudding Model
Thomson
Discovered electrons through Cathode Ray Experiments
Dalton
Atoms are identical for a given element
Dalton
Compounds are formed when elements combine in definite proportions
Dalton
Chemical reactions are caused when elements rearrange how they are bound to each other
Millikan
Calculated Charge and mass of an electron
Millikan
Oil Drop Experiment
1.6 x 10^-19
Charge of an electron
9.10 x 10^-28
Mass of an electron (g)
Rutherford
Showed existence of positive nucleus
Rutherford
Gold Foil Experiment
Bohr
electrons move in circular orbit aroudn nucleus
Bohr
Electrons have discrete energies for a given orbital (quantized)
Bohr
Electrons are responsible for the observed line spectra
DeBroglie
Electrons and photons are particles because they are so small, they also exhibit wave properties
DeBroglie
Let to Quantum Theory (Dual nature of light)
Heinsenberg
Uncertainty Principle: Cannot known both velcoity and position of electrons at once
DeBroglie
Electrons are not in distinct orbits
DeBroglie
Electrons move as particles/ wave so they exist in regions called orbitals
More Energy
Smaller Wavelength (what is the effect on energy?)
3.00 x 10^8 m/s
Speed at which light travels
llambda (Wavelength)
Distance between matching points on wave
nm or um
Measurement of Wavelength
Frequency (v)
How many waves can pass through a given point in one second
Energy (E)
Capacity to do work
v = c/ wavelength
Equation for v
6.626 x 10^-34 J/sec
Planck's Constnat
E=hv
Equation for E
Absorbing Energy
postive change in E
Emitting Energy
Negative change in E
=-2.178 x 10^-18 J x (change in Z/n)
Equation for Change in E
101.3 kPa
1 atm = ? kpa
760mm Hg
1 atm = ? torr
Barometer
Measures atmospheric pressure
Manometer
Vapor Pressure
Vapor Pressure
Pressure inside a closed container
Avogadro's Hypothesis
Volume is directly proportional to number of moles
Avogadro's Hypothesis
n1/v1 = n2/v2 or n1/p1 =n2/p2
P1V1 = P2V2
Boyle's Law
Boyle's Law
P and V are inverse at constant T
Charles's Law
V and T are directly related at constant P
V1/T1 = V2/T2 (<- in K!)
Charles's Law
Gay Lussac's Law
P and T are direct at constant V
P1/T1 = P2/T2
Gay Lussac's
(P1V1)/T1 = (P2V2)/T2
Combined Gas Law
PV=nRT
Ideal Gas Law
8.314 (L x kPa / mol x K)
R in kPa
.08206 (Latm/ mol K)
R in atm
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
Ptotal = Sum of Px
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
Px = XPt
Kinetic Molecular Theory
THe particles are assumed to exert no F on each other
Kinetic Molecular Theory
Average KE of a gas is directly proportioinal to T in Kelvin
Kinetic Molecular Theory
The particles are in random, constant motion and their collisions with the walls of a container cause P
Kinetic Molecular Theory
The particles are so small compred to the distances b/w them that the V of the individual particles is considered ZERO
Graham's Law of Effusion
MaVa^2=MbVb^2
Diffusion
Refers to mixing of gases
Effusion
Passage of gas through a tiny hole into an empty chamber
High Pressure, Low Temperature
Causes deviations of real gases (pressure/temp)
Particles attract each other, volume is no longer negligible
Effects of real gases
Van der Waals Equation
Corrects the behavior of non-ideal (real) gases
Van der Waals Equation
[Pobs +a(n/V)62] x (v-nb) = nRT
Lattice Energy
Energy needed to separat ionic compound into gaseous ions
Larger Lattice Energy
Effect of a smaller atomic radii on lattice energy?
Lattice Energy
Product of charges
Beryllium and Boron
Incomplete Octets (Which elements?)
Phosphorous, Sulfur, Xenon
Expanded Octets (which elements?)
Radicals
Odd number of electrons present in compounds
Nitrogen
Radicals often occur with which element?
Minimize Formal Charges
Which resonance is correct?
LDF
Nonpolar molecules, temporary dipoles
Dipole-Dipole
Partial Charges of polar molecules attracted to each other
Hydrogen Bonding
Stronger version of d-d, attracted to N, O, F
y=2x+2
-ane
y=2x
-ene
y=2x-2
-yne
Forms CO
Limited Supply of oxygen
Substitute an -OH for an H
-ol
x=1
meth-
x=2
eth-
x=3
prop-
x=4
but-
x=5
pent-
x=6
hex-
Amorphous Solids
Particles are not arranged in pattern
Viscosity
Resistance to flow
Surface Tension
IM FOrces pull molecules together
Capillary Action
Process by which a liquid is drawn up a narrow tube
Cohesive Forces
Attractivve forces within a liquid
Adhesive Forces
Attractive forces between a liquid and another surface
Miscibility
Ability of liquids to form homogenous mixture
Sublimation
Solid into Gas
Deposition
Gas into solid
Ion-Dipole
Ionic Solute, Polar Solvent
Dipole- Induced Dipole (LDF)
Non-polar solute, Polar Solvent
Raoult's Law
Psolution = Xsolvent x Psolvent
Nsolvent/Ntotal
Xsolvent
Boilign Point Elevation
iKbm
mol of solute/ kg of solvent
Molality (m)
Potential Energy
Stored Energy
Kinetic Energy
Energy of Motion
Endothermic
Positive change in heat
Exothermic
Negative change in heat
Endothermic
Energy being transferred from surroundings to system
Exothermic
Energy being transferred from system to surroundings
Enthalpy
Difference of potential energy of system before and after a reaction takes place
Specific heat Capacity
Amount of energy (J) to raise T of 1g by 1C
Molar Heat Capactiy
Energy (J) to raise T of 1 mol of 1C
Molar Heat of Fusion
Amount of kJ neeed to melt 1 mol
Molar Heat of Vaporization
kJ needed to boil 1 mol
mH (Hfus or vap)
Change in Phase
m x change in T x c
Temp Equation
Heat of Reaction
Energy change based on mole ratios in balanced reaction
Standard heat of formation
Change in enthalpy while forming one mole of a compound from its elements at standard conditions
Heat of Combustion
Energy released when one mole of hydrocarbon comusts
Products - Reactants
Change in heat equation
Hess's Law
Treats reactions like equations in a system to form final reaction
Reactants - Products
Calculation Change in heat from bond energies
1st Law of Thermodynamics
Conservation of Energy
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
Entrophy of a universe is increasing
3rd Law of Thermodynamics
Entrophy of a perfect crystal at absolute zero is zero
Heat + work (q+w)
Change in Energy
enthalphy = energy
when no work is done... (enthalpy/energy relationship?)
Gibbs Free energy
The total amount of energy available to do work
Decreased (negative)
Spontaneous reactions have a _____ free energy
0
The reaction is at equilibrium when change in G is____
Change in H - Temp x Change in S
Change in G formula?
Reaction Rates
How quickly or slowly the concentrations of reactnats and products change with tim
Reaction Mechanism
Series of steps through which a reaction occurs
Intermediate
Susbstance that is produced, but then consumed before reaction is complete
Elementary Steps
Reactions wehre the rate law can be written from the stoichiometry
Rate-Determining Step
Slowest Step in reaction mechanism
Collision Theory
Reaction Rate depends on the number of collisions, orientations of collisions, and the energy of collisions
Transition State THeory
Effects of Collisions: Bonds broken, New bonds formed
energy, orientations, number
Collision theory depends on ___,___,___ of collisions
Activation Energy
Energy required to produce activated Complex
Transition State Theory
Transition State/ Activated complex are part of ____ theory
Catalyst
Speeds up reaction without being used up
lowers, changes, changes
catalyst ____ activation energy, and _____ k, and _____ rate law
more surface area
smaller particles =
higher kinetic energy
higher temperature =
10 C
Rate doubles with a _____ increase in T
more solute
higher concentration =
/ 151
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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