AP Chemistry Chapter 17 Vocabulary (Electrochemistry) Flashcards

Terms Definitions
electrochemistry
the study of the interchange of chemical and electrical energy
oxidation reduction reaction
a reaction in which one or more electrons are transferred
reducing agent
a reactant that donates electrons to another substance to reduce the oxidation state of one of its atoms (electron donor)
oxidizing agent
a reactant that accepts electrons from another reactant (electron acceptor)
oxidation
an increase in oxidation state(a loss of electron)
reduction
a decrease in oxidation state(a gain of electrons)
half-reactions
the two parts of an oxidation-reduction reaction, one representing oxidation, the other reduction
salt bridge
a U-tube containing an electrolyte that connects the two compartments of a galvanic cell, allowing ion flow without extensive mixing of the different solutions
porous disk
a disk in a tube connecting two different solutions in a galvanic cell that allows ion flow ithout extensive mixing of the solutions
galvanic cell
a device in which chemical nergy from a spontaneous redox reaction is changed to electrical energy that can be used to do work
anode
the electrode in a galvanic cell at which oxidation occurs
cathode
the electrode in a galvanic cell at which reduction occurs
cell potential (electromotive force)
the driving force in a galvanic cell that pulls electrons from the reducing agent in one compartment to the oxidizing agent in the other
volt
the unit of electrical potential defined as one joule of work per coulomb of charge trasferred
voltmeter
an instrument that measures cell potential by drawing electric current through a known resistance
potentiometer
a resistor with three terminals, the third being an adjustable center terminal
standard hydrogen electrode
a platinum conductor in contact with 1 M H+ ions and bathed by hydrogen gas at one atmosphere
standard reduction potential
the potential of a half-reaction under standard state conditions, as measured against the potential of the standard hydrogen electrode
faraday
a constant representing the charge on one mole of electrons
concentration cell
a galvanic cell in which both compartments contain the same components, but at different concentrations
Nernst equation
an equation relating the potential of an electrochemical cell to the concentration of the cell components
glass electrode
an electrode for measuring pH from the potential difference that develops when it is dipped into an aqueous solution containing H+ ions
ion-selective electrode
an electrode sensitive to the concentration of a particular ion in solution
battery
a group of galvanic cells connected in series
lead storage battery
a battery (used in cars) in which the anode is lead, the cathode is lead coated with lead dioxide, and the electrolyte is a sulfuric acid solution
dry cell battery
a common battery used in calculators, watches, radios, and tape players
fuel cell
a galvanic cell for which the reactants are continuously supplied
corrosion
the process by which metals are oxidized in the atmosphere
galvanizing
a process in which steel is coated with zinc to prevent corrosion
cathodic protection
a method in which an active metal, such as magnesium, is connected to steel to protect it from corrosion.
electrolysis
a process that involves forcing a current through a cell to cause a nonspontaneous chemical reaction to occur
ampere
the unit of electric current equal to one coulomb of charge per second
Downs cell
a cell used for electrolyzing molten sodium chloride.
mercury cell
a primary cell consisting of a zinc anode and a cathode of mercury oxide and an electrolyte of potassium hydroxide
Chlor-alkali process
the process for producing chlorine and sodium hydroxide by electrolyzing brine in a mercury cell
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