ap biology campbell-reece unit 1 ch 5 vocab Flashcards

DNA
Terms Definitions
alpha helix
a spiral shape constituting one form of the secondary structure of proteins, arising from a specific pattern of hydrogen bonding
amino acid
an organic molecule possessing both carboxyl and amino groups; serves as the monomers of polypeptides
antiparallel
the opposite arrangement of the sugar-phosphate backbones in a DNA double helix
beta pleated sheet
one form of the secondary structure of proteins in which the polypeptide chain folds back and forth. two regions of the chain lie parallel to each other and are held together by hydrogen bonds.
carbohydrate
a sugar or one of its dimers or polymers
catalyst
a chemical agent that increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction
cellulose
a structural polysaccharide of plant cell walls, constituting of glucose monomers joined by beta glycosidic linkages
chaperonin
a protein molecule that assists in the proper folding of other molecules
chitin
a structural polysaccharide, consisting of amino sugar monomers, found in many fungal cell walls and in the exoskeleton of all arthropods
cholesterol
a steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids, such as hormones
collagen
a glycoprotein in the extracellular matrix of animal cells that forms strong fibers, found extensively in connective tissue and bone; the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom
condensation reaction
a reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other through the loss of small molecules, usually water, in which case it is also called a dehydration reaction
dehydration reaction
a chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule
denaturation
a process in which a protein unravels and loses its native shape, thereby becoming biologically inactive
deoxyribose
the sugar component of DNA nucleotides, having one fewer hydroxyl group than ribose the sugar component of RNA
disaccharide
a double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides, joined by a gylcosidic linkage formed during dehydration synthesis
disulfide bridge
a strong covalent bond formed when the sulfur of one cysteine monomer bonds to the sulfur of another cysteine monomer
DNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid)
a double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule, consisting of nucleotide monomers with a deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases: adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine; capable of being replicated and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins
double helix
the form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent antiparallel polynucleotide strands would around an imaginary axis into a spiral shape
enzyme
a macromolecule serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction
fat
a lipid consisting of three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule; also called triacylglycerol or triglyceride
fatty acid
a long carbon chain carboxylic acid; varies in length and number and location of double bonds
gene
a discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA
glycogen
an extensively branched glucosestorage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch
glycosidic linkage
a covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction
hemoglobin
an iron-containing protein in red blood cells that reversibly binds oxygen
hydrolysis
a chemical process that splits molecules by the addition of water, functioning in disassembly of polymers to monomers
hydrophobic interaction
a type of weak chemical bond formed when molecules that do not mix with water coalesce to exclude water
lipid
one of a group of compounds, including fats, phospholipids, and steroids that mix poorly if at all in water
macromolecule
a giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules, usually by a condensation reaction. (polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids)
monomer
the subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer
monosaccharide
the simplest carbohydrate, active alone or serving as a monomer for disaccharides or polysaccharides. also known as simple sugars.
nucleic acid
a polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for protein. the two types are DNA and RNA.
nucleotide
the building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group
peptide bond
the covalent bond between the carboxyl group on one amino acid and the amino group on another; formed by dehydration reaction
phospholipid
a lipid made up of glycerol joined to two fatty acids and a phosphate group. the hydrocarbon chains of the fatty acid act as nonpolar hydrophobic tails, while the rest of the molecule acts as a polar hydrophilic head.
polymer
a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together
polynucleotide
a polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers in a chain
polypeptide
a polymer of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds
polysaccharide
a polymer of many monosaccharides formed by dehydration reactions
primary structure
the level of protein structure referring to the specific sequence of amino acids
protein
a functional biological molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides folded and coiled into a specific three dimensional structure
purine
one of two types of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides, characterized by a six-membered ring fused to a five-membered ring. (adenine and guanine)
pyrimidine
one of two type of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides, characterized by a six-membered ring. (cytosine and thymine)
quaternary structure
the particular shape of a complex, aggregate protein, defined by the three dimensional arrangement of its constituent subunits, each a polypeptide
RNA (ribonucleic acid)
a type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil; usually single stranded, functions in protein synthesis, gene regulation, and as the genome of some viruses
ribose
the sugar component of RNA nucelotides
saturated fatty acid
a fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds, thus maximizing the number of hydrogen atoms that are attached to the carbon skeleton
secondary structure
the localized, repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bond formation between constituents of the backbone
starch
a storage polysaccharide in plants, consisting entirely of glucose monomers joined by alpha glycosidic linkages
steroid
a type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four rings with various chemical groups attached
tertiary structure
irregular contortions of a protein molecule due to interactions of side chains involved in hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bridges
trans fat
an unsaturated fat containing one or more trans double bonds
triacylglycerol
three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule; also called a fat or triglyceride
unsaturated fatty acid
a fatty acid possessing one or more double bonds between the carbons in the hydrocarbon tail.
x-ray crystallography
a technique that depends on the diffraction of an x-ray beam by the individual atoms of a crystallized molecule to study the three-dimensional structure of a molecule
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