Praxis ESL exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Acculturation
(U-curve Hypothesis: Honeymoon, Hostility, Humor, Home) The process by which an individual adapts to a new culture.
Affective filter
The affective filter controls how much input the learner comes in contact with, and how much of that input is converted into learning. It is sometimes compared to a defense mechanism because it negatively impacts the learner's motivation, self-confidence, or anxiety level.
Allophone
Phones that makeup one phoneme ("All the phones")
Allophones
Phones that make up one phoneme ("All the phones")
Antonyms
A word that means the opposite of another word. For example, "hot" is the antonym of "cold."
Aspiration
Pronunciation accompanied by breathing out
Audiolingual Method
A rapid means of learning foreign languages (use to train military troops). It is a patterns of drills and dialogue designed to develop grammatical structures and vocabulary in a highly sequential manner. Teachers reinforced accurate producation and error correction through consistent feedback (Terrell, Egasse, & Voge, 1982). Developers of the audiolingual method believe that when language learners practiced pattern drill and dialogue designed to develop particular language structures, the new language structures would become a habit. They viewed language acquisition as the memorization and recall of language patterns.
Audiolingualism
"Audio-language"
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS)
The language ability needed for casual conversation. This usually applies to the interpersonal conversation skills of CLD students (i.e, playground language). It's everyday, straightforrward communication skills that are helped by contextual supports such as gestures.
Behaviorism
The belief that learning occurs through environmental stimuli and a learner's responses to those stimuli.
Bilingual Programs
Two-way developmental bilingual education, One-way developmental education, transitional bilingual education, ESL taught through academic content using current approaches, ESL putt-out
CALLA
(Congitive academic language learning approach) A methos of instruction that is grounded in the cognitive approach and focuses on the explicit instruction of learning strategies and the development of critical thinking as a means of acquiring deep levels of language proficiency.
CALP
(Cognitive academic language proficiency) the language ability needed for learning academic skills and concepts in situations in which contextual clues are not present and an abstract use of language is required.
Circumlocution
The use of more words than necessary to express something, especially to avoid saying it directly.
Code-switching
Sometimes use both languages in the same conversation to express themselves
Congitive academic language proficiency
The language ability needed for learning academic skills and concepts in situations in which contextual clues are not present and an abstract use of language is required.
Communicative competence
The ability of an individual to comprehend incoming messages and effectively communicate responses in ways that are appropriate for a given situation.
Communicative Language Teaching
Stressing the importance of language as a tool for communicating information and ideas through teaching
Communicative-based instruction
The communicative approach assumes that language production contains an infinite number of possible language combinations, so memorizing patterns and rules does little to prepare language learners for authentic language use.
Comparative adjectives
Ex: FastER, HappIER, MORE famous
Comprehensible input
Language delivered at a level understood by a learner
Consonant Clusters
In linguistics, a consonant cluster is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel. In English, for example, the groups /spl/ and /ts/ are consonant clusters in the word splits
Consonant diagraph
Diagraphs are "voiceless" combinations of two consonants. Following are examples: st, ch, sh, th, wh.
Consonant voicing
For all vowels, the air flows freely. Consonant sounds are formed when the air is constricted as it moves toward the lips. This constriction can involve simply slowing the air down or stopping it completely. The different consonant sounds depend on how and where the air is slowed or stopped.
Constructivism
Represents a throretical body of literature that views the human brain as having certain fundamental structures of understanding that enable it to draw meaning from experience. They believe that learning occurs as a result of interactions between the environment and the learner's mind.
Cultural bias on the test
Testing that contain issues of validity and biases in testing.
Cummins' cognitive academic language proficiency
The language ability needed for learning academic skills and concepts in situations in which contextual clues are not present and an abstract use of language is required.
Demonstrative pronouns
This, that, these, those, none and neither are examples.
Direct method
A grammatical approach that focuses less on explicit instruction of grammar rules and structures and more on the repetition and memorization of language patterns.
Dual-immersion programs
Refers to programs in which native and non-native speakers of English work together, with all students learning content and language through two languages.
EFL
English as a Foreign Language
ELL
Individuals who are in the process of transitioning from a home or native language to English
English for Special Purposes
Seek to prepare students to learn language for different environments, including the fields of medicine, engineering, computer science, and others.
ESL
( English as a Second Language) A programming model in which linguistically diverse students are instructed in the use of English as a means of communication and learning. This model is often used when native speakers of multiple first languages are present within the same classroom.
ESL Program Models
Programs that are culturally and linguistically sensitive towards students.
Ethnocentrism
The discriminatory belief that one's culture is superior. Persons who hold this perspective fail to acknowledge the value of other cultures
Formative Evaluations
A type of on-going or in process evaluation that allows the teacher to evaluate the effectiveness of the lesson to ensure CLD student comprehension
Homophones
Words that are pronounced in the same way as one or more other words, but is different in meaning and sometimes spelling, as are "hair" and "hare".
Immersion Programs
Refers to programs in which native and non-native speakers of English work together, with all students learning content and language through two languages
Krashen's Natural Approach
The notion of stages of second language acquisition is consistent with what Krashen has referred to as the natural order hypothesis
Language Interference
CUP vs. SUP, Transfer hypothesis
Lau vs. Nichols
Equal vs. Equitable treatment for ELL/CLD students
LEP
An individual who is in the process of acquiring English as his or her second language. (Limited English Proficient)
Morphology
The study of how words are formed including aspect such as compounds, derivations, and so forth
NABE
National Association of Bilingual Education
Nasalization
To make a sound nasal by lowering the soft palate so that air flows through the nose.
Natural Approach
This hypothesis asserts that language is acquired in a more or less natural order - a predictable sequence of progression
Politicization
The pronunciation of a speech sound by raising the tongue to or toward the hard palate.
Phonetic
The study of sound across languages
Phonology
The study of sounds in speech, including their distribution and pronunciation
Proxemics
The study of distance individuals maintain between each other in social interactions and how this separation is significant.
Psycholinguistic
The study of language acquisition and use in relation to the psychological factors controlling its use and recognition
Semantics
The study of the meaning in language; the analysis of the meaning of words, phrases, sentences
Semiotics
The study of signs and symbols of all kinds, what they mean, and how they relate to the things or ideas they refer to.
Semiphonetic
Indicated that spellers write only some of the letters in a word.
Silent period
The first stage of the process of second language acquisition, the preproduction stage, is often called the silent period because the CLD students may not communicate during this period except in nonverbal ways.
Silent way
It presented learners with simple linguistic situations that they were to observe and then describe in the target language, focusing especially on the actions they witnessed.
Stages of second-language development
Preproduction, Early production, speech emergence, intermediate fluency, and advanced fluency
Suggestopedia
The communicative method of suggestopedia was designed to place as much language teaching emphasis on learner personally and motivation as that typically placed on intellect.
Summative Evaluations
The culminating assessments that occur at the end of lessons
Superlative Adjectives
is the form of an adjective or adverb that expresses the highest or a very high degree of the quality of what is being described.
Synonyms
A word that means the same, or almost the same, as another word in the same language, either in all of its uses or in a particular context.
Syntax
The pattern of structure of word order in sentences, clauses and phrases' the grammatical rules that govern language
TESOL
Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages
Total Physical Response
Language learning method based on the coordination of speech and action.
Word Stress
In English, we do not say each syllable with the same force or strength.
World Englishes
An international journal committed to theoretical research on methodological and empirical study of English in global, social, cultural and linguistic contexts.
Zone of proximal development
The area between the level of independent performance and the level of assisted performance.
phonemes
smallest units of sound in the human language, like consonants or vowels
Stops
Sounds in which, for several milliseconds, the airstream is blocked
glottal_stop
a stop consonant articulated by releasing pressure at the glottis
fricatives
sustained turbulence or vibration (f,v,th,s,z,h)
Affricates
Sounds formed by a stop and then a slow release (tch, for example)
liquids
Unlike other consonant sounds, these sounds /r/ and /l/, do not obstruct air in the mouth. These sounds are more vowel-like in that they do not involve direct contact between the lips, tongue and the roof of the mouth as other consonants do.
Glides
Sounds that result from gliding movement. (Hint: [L] and [r]
affective filter hypothesis
Includes motivation, ego permeability, ambiguity tolerance, attitude, introversion/extroversion, self-confidence, and anxiety. If the filter is up, input is prevented from passing through and no acquisition can take place (Input will not reach language acquisition device).The aff. filter is responsible for individual variation in SLA. Child lang. acquisition does not have an affective filter.
fossilization
relatively permanent incorporation of incorrect linguistic forms into a person's second language competence. Could be the result of too many green lights when there should have been correction.
Noam Chomsky
est universal grammar theory. believes human brain has set of ways for organizing language, have hardwired language acquisition device. According to Chomsky, the presence of Universal Grammar in the brains of children allow them to deduce the structure of their native languages from "mere exposure". Supporting evidence from the mistakes children do, and do not make, in lang acq process
language acquisition device
apart of the nativist theory that proposes that humans are equipped with this mechanism or process that facilitates the learning of language (i.e. humans learn language because we are biologically equipped for it). reasons for this belief- children acquire languages easily and quickly, language development unfolds at the same time pace for most children, early course of development is similar cross culturally
voiced
referring to consonants, such as b, d, and v, that cause vibration of the vocal folds when sounded
voiceless
referring to consonants, such as p, t, and f, that do not cause vibration of the vocal folds when sounded
bilabial
a consonant that is articulated using both lips
labiodental
speech gestures using lower lip and upper front teeth -- f, v
dental
speech gestures using tongue tip or blade and upper front teeth -- th
Interdental
point of articulation: produced by placing the tip or blade of the tongue between the upper and lower front teeth (ø)
Alveolar
the tongue against the alveolar ridge of the gums just behind the upper front teeth (t,d,s,z,n,l,)
velar
produced with the back of the tongue touching or near the soft palate (as 'k' in 'cat' and 'g' in 'gun' and 'ng' in 'sing')
fricative
of speech sounds produced by forcing air through a constricted passage (as 'f', 's', 'z', or 'th' in both 'thin' and 'then')
affricate
a composite speech sound consisting of a stop and a fricative articulated at the same point (as 'ch' in 'chair' and 'j' in 'joy')
interjection
word that expresses emotion and is not related grammatically to other words in the sentence. Examples: oh, wow, well
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