Colonial Latin American History Final Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Mestizaje
16th - 18th Century - Colonial Latin America
Racial Categories complicated by races mixing
64 main categories
Examples:
Mestizos - Euro/Indian
Mulatto - Euro/African
Zambos - Indian/African
Race relations were complicated in the colonies: things further complicated when these sub-groups started mixing
Only 3 racial categories in early colonial world: white, black, indian
Castas
17th and 18th Century - Colonial Latin America
By 18th Century, there was a vast taxonomy of "race"
Someone of mixed racial heritage
Did not reflect social reality, but attempt to order society
demonstrate strict hierarchy of race and ethnicity (obsession with categorizing people)
Used pictures/charts to determine castas and thus social standing
A slaves ethnicity would be a major determinant of how their master would treat them and the kind of work they would do
Demonstrates how race was socially constructed
Peninsulares/reinois
17th - 18th Century - Colonial Latin America
Spaniards born in Spain who live in the Americas (known as Reinois in Brazil)
Place of birth was another category used to determine status in addition to ethnicity, occupation, limpieza de sangre, free/unfree, skin color, and pacified/non-pacified (heathen) Indians
They tended to hold the most important positions during the colonial period
Criollos/Mazambos
17th-18th Century
Spaniards born in the colonies (americas) (known as mazambos in Brazil)
by end of 18th century, many criollos saw themselves more as americanos than as Spaniards
Disliked being seen as inferior to peninsulares and became moving force behind movement towards colonial rebellion
Place of birth was another category used to determine status in the colonial latin america
Creates carpetbagging system because peninsulares have more power and rights because of where they were born than criollos
Limpieza de Sangre
17th - 18th Century Colonial Latin America
"Cleanliness of your blood"
Central to determining quality
Didn't guarantee positions of political power
At times difficult to prove because you had to document back many generations.
Ladino
17th-18th Century - Colonial Latin America
Another categorization (besides castas) to determine social status: cultural self-identification
Groups that defined themselves the way that they wanted
Some people could take on status that went beyond their race
Indians that go to urban centers that take on Spanish culture, dress, diet, etc (full Indians that embrace Spanish culture and were scorned and hated for it)
Gracias al Sacar
17th-18th Century - Colonial Latin America
Money maker for Spain when they were broke
Paying for whiteness
Document by the King that gives you official "whiteness" even if you are mestizo (not possible if you are mulatto though)
Some Mestizos could pass as white and wouldn't need it
Many times after you were awarded this, it was still not recognized by institutions of higher authority.
Significance: demonstrates the socially constructed nature of race and how privileges changed depending on official identity
Patria Potestad
17th - 18th Century - Colonial Latin America
Family conceived as miniature state with father as absolute ruler
Father was allowed to punish and chastise as he saw fit as long as he doesn't kill them
gives legal right to control their families
Patriarchy was essential to colonization (male dominated society); also essential to setting up gender hierarchies -> colonization was gendered just like society is gendered)
The same system transfers to Spanish/Indian relations (Spanish are patriarch over Indian population)
Machismo
17th - 18th Century - Colonial Latin America
This is an elite standard of honor and virtue
Illustrates a double standard of family morality with the idea that the men should be honorable, while the female should be virtuous
men are defined by their authority and sexual conquest.
Marianismo
17th - 18th Century - Colonial Latin America
This is an elite standard of honor and virtue
Illustrates a double standard of family morality with the idea that the men should be honorable, while the female should be virtuous
Women should be judged based on their loyalty and virginity/purity
It was more difficult for women to preserve their sexual virtue if they were poor because they were often working in the public realm as prostitutes where white masters could exploit them. There virtue was already compromised by a lesser social status
Beata
17th - 18th Century - Colonial Latin America
A religious laywoman who wore a habit, but had not profesed solemn vows of religion and who generally lived an un-cloistered life
Some women became beatas who took vows of chastity, poverty, did charity work, etc.
Lived in public (not cloistered life)
Isabel Flores was a well known beata who alter became known as Santa Rosa de Lima
Characterized by fasting and moritification
Significance: This was one of the only accepted public roles for women in the colonial period
Santa Rosa de Lima
17th - 18th Century - Peru
Well known beata with given name Isabel Flores
Rejected her beauty and cut off her hair
Bcame well known for self mortification (act of pentance to make up for sins)
She felt great religious vocation and dedicated herself to being a laywoman, without belonging to any particular religious order
Canonized very quickly
Was viewed as a miracle worker and healer
Confradia/Irmandade
17th and 18th Century - Spanish America
Form of popular religion
Ordinary people expressed religiosity through these
Unofficial religious group based around a particular patron saint
Held festivals to honor patron saint
Provided mutual support financially, socially, etc (especially since they are groups made up of poor people)
Especially popular among Indians and slaves
Significance: Demonstrates the degree to which Catholicism had effected marginalized populations in the colonies
Curanderas
17th Century - Colonial Latin America
highly respected and important figures in communities; religious figures and medicine people
Inquisition stepped in to control African interpretation and influence on Catholicism
Catholicism was a legal requirment in the New World
Inquisition monitored practices such as self-confession, slaves selling their souls to devil, women using potions on husbands/lovers, and curanderas
Pulque
late 17th Century (1692)
Spaniards often remarked about Indian alcohol consumption
cheap and had low alcohol content (made from maguey plant); pre-conquest drink Indians drank to get around rules.
In 1692, pulque production was outlawed after riot in Mexico city, but pulque tax was an important source of income for the crown and was often safer to drink than water
Jesuits
16th Century (1551) - Brazil
In 1551, the first universities authorized in Peru and Mexico
Brazil built no universities because Jesuits dominated education
One reason for absence of a university in Brazil was the relative weakness of the church - because Spanish America had a stronger church, and the church brought the educational system, Brazil would suffer in the future by not having a lesser educated population
Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz
1648 (Born) - Spanish America
An illegitimate criolle woman - the colonial worlds most celebrated and recognized writer
A feminist, highly self-educated, and a poet
Evaded marriage by joining a convent
The church eventually clamped down on her writing because she lost a battle against conservative opinion
Dedicated herself to fasting and self mortification after she stopped writing
Her letter to Sor Fioleta demonstrates the merging of church and science and gender and religion
Significance: an influential woman in a patriarchal society and her work transcends time and place
Pedro Alvarez Cabral
1500 - Brazil
Portuguese explorer (funded by the King of Portugal) who discovered Brazil
Found 2.5 million semi-sedentary and non-sedentary Indians
1st interest Portugal had in BRazil was for wood (Brazil and dyewood)
Atlantic Trade Triangle
1502-1860
Very profitable slave trade
Europe - Africa: cloth, guns, and alcohol
Africa - Americas: slaves
Americas - Europe: raw materials (cotton, tobacco, sugar, diamonds, coffee, etc.)
By 1860, US had twice as many slaves as Brazil:
Slaves don't live as long in Brazil (harsh conditions)
Slaves reproduce more in US (more women Africans)
Slaves bought freedom much more often in BRazil
Detrimental to once powerful African kingdoms
Most people (except for the very poor) owned slaves
Slavery was an African practice that Europeans tapped into
Middle Passage
1502-1860
Harsh conditions within trans-atlantic slave trade
Filfth and overcrowded boats: many died, disease, rotten food, bad water, people suffered from stiff joints, and limited food
Confinement accelerated the spread of disease (the avg ship had about 400 people on it)
High mortality rate (8-30%) *much higher than Europeans traveling the Americas
Casa Grande
1502-1860
Popular misconception that slavery in BRazil only took place here (plantation labor)
True that most slaves did work there, but many undertook other kinds of labor depending on how integrated that region was with the local economy
5 Slave Labor Sectors:
1. Agricultural
2. Mining
3. Managerial
4. Domestic
5. Urban
Quilombos
19th Century - Brazil
Large runaway slave communities (Palmares is so large that they have their own army)
Operate under African political beliefs/practices
Took an army onslaught to take them down after 40 years
Also known as marronage which is popular in the Caribbean in the 19th century and aided in the Haitian revolution
Overseas Council
1642 - Brazil
Part of Brazilian political structure
Similar to Council of Indies (Governing body of Colonies in Spain)
Very late development
Tome de Sousa
1549 - Brazil
Introduced as Governor General
Made Bahia the capital of Brazil - area rich in sugar production
Reformed loose government structure as new position similar to viceroyal (Governor General)
Served an average of 3 years
Tended to come from elite, noble families with military backgrounds
Represented a change in Brazil's political structure
Relacao
1580-1640 - Brazil
High court for all of Brazil - Not well liked
Established when Portugal ruled by Spain
much like audiencia (high courts in Spanish America)
10 judges heard judicial cases and carrier out adminstrative functions: The judges had administrative and advisory responsibilities also
Represented a change in Brazil's political structure
Their frequent use in assignments outside the court adversely affected its administration of justice and led to repeated complaints about its sluggish conduct (Frequently went outside of their jurisdiction)
Camara municipal
17th Century - Brazil
Much like cabildo in spanish america
Municipal council that carried out day-to-day functions
Councilmen held elected positions (important because elected positions tended not to last in the Americas within cabildos - positions began to be appointed)
Subject to administrative review by RElacao
Distributed lands
Responsible for public work projects
responsible for policing
Answer directly to the crown
Mazambo
17th Century Brazil
Brazil's large landowning elite not offered land and labor grants comparable to Spanish America (repartimiento)
Similar to criollos
Buy the land from the crown but do not get large land or labor grants
Pardos
Brazil
A mulatto
HEld a central place in the work force - Bulk of working population dominated by pardos (most common form of slave labor)
Free pardos and blacks provided the majority of the skilled urban workforce
10% of Brazil's population were slaves (high as 40% in Bahia)
Essential to peace and stability of colony by filling the enlisted ranks of the military
War of Spanish Succession (1701-1713)
(1701-1713)
An alliance of European monarchs that didn't want to see France with too much power
Considered a global war because of the number of countries involved in Europe
Ended by the Treaty of Utrecht which brought Philip V to the throne in Spain
Treaty of Utrecht
1713 - Spain
Ended the War of Spanish Succession and brings Philip V to the throne
Philip V is the grandson of Louis XIV and had enlightenment/absolutist ideals
First Bourbon Monarch
Absolutist ideals would come to dominate colonial politics in the 18th century and be the driving force behind colonial independence movements
Marquis de Pombal
1750 - Brazil
Portuguese prime minister in Brazil
Leades a series of social reforms to bring more order to the colonies
Espoused absolutist ideals to consolidate royal authority, make the tax system more efficient and strengthen the economy and military
The reform was to strengthen Portugal economically and politically
Jose de Galvez
1700s - New Spain
Colonial official government inspector in New Spain
These colonial officials took away the power of the Council of Indies
Reported directly to the King
Part of the Bourbon Reforms - break down territory into more efficient political units
Spanish minister of the West Indies and chief architect of colonial reform; moved to eliminate creoles from upper bureaucracy of the colonies; created intendents for local governments
Nueva Granada
1739 - Spanish America (Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela)
New territorial division in Spanish America reflected important changes happening in the colonies
More easily and effectively manageable and defensible and taxes could be more readily collected
New territories have increased immigration
People began to move to Venezuela and Colombia and mine for gold after the more popular areas filled up
Rio de la Plata
1776 - Argentina, Chile, Uruguay and Paraguay
New territorial division in Spanish America reflected important changes happening in the colonies
More easily and effectively manageable and defensible and taxes could be more readily collected
New territories have increased immigration
People also start moving to the Pampas region in in this territory
Bourbon and Pombaline Reforms
18th Century - Colonial Latin America
worked to enhance greater power for the kings, protect colonies from European rivals, improve government efficiency, strengthen economy, bring order to the colonies, enhance monarchical powers
army of inspectors sent to colonies to ensure that changes were made - undermines the authority of viceroys (they became the supreme court of the colonies)
executive powers were only passed on to the king which was delegated to a new position called the Secretary of Indies and Marine
Political goals - officials reported directly to the king, the council of Indies had lost power and hit was handed to a single person
More government inspectors (like Jose de Galvez)
Bourbons raised the salary of political officials in hopes of disallowing them from becoming corrupt
Part of a more efficient government for the SPanish and Portuguese was breaking down the territory into smaller administrative units
Intendency System
Mid-18th Century - Spanish America
Intendents are regional governors, viceroyalties were split into smaller administrative units called intendents (more political authority over smaller territories - put forward policies that fit the realities of the area and in charge of taxing)
executive and judicial powers were consolidated into a much smaller unit
part of the Bourbon reforms
Juan Santos Rebellion
1742-1756 - Peru
Revealed long standing grievances
Rebellion began in the eastern forest and spread throughout the colony, supported by Indians, opposed by the Spanish, priests and blacks
He was a religious leader who declared to be a descendant of Inca and emerged as a natural leader in part because of his language skills which allowed him to make allies in many areas; he had a diverse group of followers
wanted crown and lands back, "true" Christianity and an end to slavery
Jacinto Canek Rebellion
Mid-1700s - New Spain and southern Mexico
Causes: religious and political subjugation, called for a return of native government (not religion), tax and tribute
failed within two months once royal forces stepped in but region continued to be a hotbed of rebellion until the 19th century
1761 leader travelled through villages claming to be King and called himself Canek in reference to his heritage
he never negotiated with the Spanish: abolished tribute and repartamiento
Followers killed Spanish and slaughtered all pigs (representative of Spanish)
Leader claimed that pigs had the souls of the Spanish and for every pig that they slaughtered a Spaniard would die too
Reparto de comercio
18th century - New Spain
Corregidores can control the price of goods sold in a local community and the prices for which they are bought
low for them to buy and a high price for corregidores to sell
this becomes one of the most hated of the new policies introduced by Spain
Tupac Amaru II
1780 - New Spain
Mestizo curaca who didn't like local authorities to abuse their power
led over 100 rebellions across the Andes and gave criollos a new reason to oppose the Spanish crown
His rebellion was ultimately crushed by royal forces
Ferdinand VII
1808 - Spain
King of Spain during Napoleon's conquest, arrested by Napoleon
Joseph Bonaparte was made king of Spain after him but he wasn't legitimate
Viceroy in New Spain sets up a joint meeting of the cabildo and the audiencia and asked the question of "what will we do without a king" after he was arrested - cabildo wanted the power to elect their own officials for an autonomous New Spain
Ferdinand returns in 1814 when he abolished the 1812 Constitution which had granted equality between Spaniards and Criollo - leads to independence movements in the colonies
Juntas
1808 - New Spain
governing bodies set up by Spanish elite after the arrest of Ferdinand VII to rule themselves until Ferdinand came back to power
Significance - colonial governments learned that they could rule themselves
Central one in Spain was Cortes in Cadiz where they invited colonies to send representatives - they jointly drafted the Constitution of 1812
which declared autonomy
colonists got a taste of self-governance and equality with Spain that would embolden their independence movements
Joseph Bonaparte
1808 - France
Napoleon puts his brother on the throne of Spain, known as Pepe Botellas and he was not legitimately recognized by his subjects
Led to the self-governance of the colonies, formation of juntas and drafting of the Constitution of 1812
Father Miguel Hidalgo
1810 - New Spain (Mexico)
Liberal priest (upper-middle class) and criollo, trusted by his parishioners, upset by the Bourbon Reforms
Led the independence rebellion in Mexico
Book club discussed colonial problems and enlightenment ideas
declared an end to slavery and Indian tribute
executed in 1811
Grito de Dolores
September 15, 1810 - Mexico (New Spain)
Beginning of the Mexican War of Independence
Passioned speech to parishioners by Hidalgo saying "long live us and death to Spaniards"
Ringing of the church bells in the church bells in the town of Dolores, congregation gathers, Hidalgo charges them to revolt against the Spanish colonial government
army was a bunch of rag-tag radicals
Jose Maria Morelos
1811 - New Spain
ethnically mixed, poor priest
called for independence, land reform and to maintain catholicism as the religion of the colonies
had a more mobile military campaign than Hidalgo's movement - smaller, more professional army
more socially conscious than Hidalgo and had more pronounced ideas and called for full independence
as criollos see the success he is having they start to form their own army
writes "The Sentiment of a Nation" which declares independence and hammers out the details of a new nation in New Spain
Agustin de Iturbide
1820s
led the royal army against Guadalupe Victoria and Vicente Guerreo
realizes Spanish isn't sending anymore back-up and switches sides
reinstates 1812 constitution, agrees to switch sides if he is guaranteed leadership of Mexico (called the Plan de Iguala)
1822 - crowned himself king, deposed in 1824
Plan of Three Guarantees
1820s - Mexico
Shows a compromise between liberals and conservatives
1. Catholicism is the official religion of New Spain
2. Freedom from Spain, even though New Spain would be a European-style empire
3. Equality between creoles and Spaniards
Mariano Moreno
1770s-early 1800s - Rio de la Plata
Enlightened businessman who said that the colonies would prosper if they could trade with Britain
Enlightened ideas like these were influential to the independence movements of Spanish South America
Jose de San Martin
1810 - Spanish South America
Helped lead the independence movements in the interior of Spanish South America
Thought that the entire continent should be liberated from Spanish Control
emerges as a leader of movement, decides Argentina isn't enough, goes around liberating other nations later with the help of Simon Bolivar in Peru (Simon worked towards the south, he worked towards the north until they met)
Significance - broadened the independence movements in Spanish South America
Bernardo O'Higgins
(1778-1842) South American Independence leader who freed Chile from spanish rule in the Chilean War of Independence, considered one of Chile's founding fathers
Simon Bolivar
EARLY 1800S - SPANISH SOUTH AMERICA/NEW GRANADA
ENLIGHTENED MERCHANT, MUCH LIKE MORENO
EMERGES AS A DE FACTO LEADER OF INDEPENDENCE IN NEW GRANADA
LEARNED TO MAKE CONCESSIONS WITH THE REBELS AND AGREES TO FREE ALL SLAVES IF THEY JOINED THE ARMY AGAINST THE SPANISH
UNDERTOOK WARS OF INDEPENDENCE IN SPANISH SOUTH AMERICA
WANTED A CONTINUATION OF THE ROYAL MONOPOLY BECAUSE "IT WORKED WELL FOR HIM IN THE PAST"
Inconfidencia Mineira
1780-1789 - Minas Gerais, Brazil
"Minor disloyalty"
Crown raised taxes on mining which pushed radicals and intellectuals over the edge (20 of them sumbitches) to rebel
Attempted to make the captaincy a republic and the leaders were arrested
Tailors' Revolt
1789 - Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
Sugar plantations
Mainly blacks and mulattoes demand freedom and equality
Pedro I
1822 - Brazil
Joao's son refuses to return to Portugal and declares independence
Brazilians preferred a stable monarchy and declared an independent empire,
Son and successor of João VI in Brazil; aided in the declaration of Brazilian independence in 1822 and became constitutional emperor.
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