AP Euro Tests Flashcards

Terms Definitions
The phenomenon of witches was most likely due to:
Extreme uncertainty in a religiously turbulent time
The belief that definitive or absolute knowledge in generally unattainable is:
Fifteenth-century Europeans were forced to look westward because o territorial expansion by the:
Ottoman Turks
The expedition that completed the first circumnavigation of the globe was led by:
Ferdinand Magellan
Phillip II of Spain was generally a successful king, but his reign also suffered from:
Loan defaults, inflation, a wide gap between rich and poor
What percentage of German towns were destroyed during the Thirty Years' War?
The Aztec Empire was conquered by:
Hernando Cortes
In the mid-sixteenth century, the commercial capital of the European world was:
The politiques were men who believed that:
Civil order was France's first priority
According to the text, the influx of silver from the New World into Spain:
Had no direct correlation to the inflationary spiral
The group of people who benefited the most from large price increases in the sixteenth-century was the:
Middle Class
The sixteenth-century wars of religion in France:
Were essentially a new form of the old feudal rebellion against a higher central authority
The quinto was:
A Spanish tax on precious metals in which 1/5 was given to the monarchy
The Huguenots were:
French Protestants
The French budget in the first half of the sixteenth-century was strained by the Habsburg-Valois Wars and:
Extravagant promotion of the arts
In order to pay for the Habsburg-Valois wars, the French monarchs
Sold public offices
The wars of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were different from earlier wars in that:
The armies were much larger and more expensive
The most significant product of the Concordant of Bologna was the:
Perpetuation of disorders in the French church
In France, Calvinism:
Often served as a cloak for noble independence
The Saint Bartholomew's Day massacre:
Exemplified the hatred between the French Catholics and Protestants
The Edict of Nantes:
Granted the Huguenots the right to worship
The primary causes of the Revolt of the Netherlands were the repression of the Calvinists and:
High Taxes
In the sixteenth-century, French foreign policy was based on the:
Continuation of political fragmentation of Germany
The defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588:
Prevented Philip II from reuniting western Europe
The Bohemian phase of the Thirty Years' War ended with the:
Battle of White Mountain
During the French (or international) phase of the Thirty Years' War:
The French supported the Protestants
In the aftermath of the Thirty Years' War:
The peasantry in eastern Germany was enserfed
The "winner" of the Thirty Years' War seems to have been:
In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Protestants:
Saw marriage as a contract between husband and wife
The art of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries indicates that this was a period of:
The Peace of Westphalia of 1648:
Brought official recognition to Calivinism in the Holy Roman Empire
The dominant characteristic of Michel de Montaigne's writings was his:
Tolerant Sensitivity
The Authorized Version of the Bible reflected the efforts of the Anglicans and Puritans to:
Encourage the laity to read the Bible
Baroque art was:
Intended to kindle the faith of the common people
Francis I further consolidated centralized power by levying the taille, a tax on:
all land and property
When Henry IV remarked, "Paris is well worth a Mass," he was referring to:
His conversion to Catholicism to gain popular favor
What is NOT true of women from 1550-1650?
Were considered to be on equal terms with their husbands
What is NOT true of the Peace of Westphalia?
It established French authority over political and religious affairs in Germany
What is NOT a result of the War of the Three Henrys?
All forms of religion except Catholicim are outlawed in France
Luther Posts the 95 Theses
The peace of Augsburg
The Peace of Westphalia
According to Locke:
The monarch rules by divine right
According to Hobbes:
The Leviathan is the immortal God
Cromwell gained almost dictatorial power by use of:
His army
Oliver Cromwell's Protectorate was based on:
Military Power
The purpose of the English Test Act of 1673 was to:
Create religious uniformity
The spark that caused the Glorious Revolution was the:
Fear of a Catholic dynasty being established in England
According to text, Colbert's most important contribution to the economy of France was:
Creating a powerful merchant marine to transport French goods
The government of the United Provinces was:
A loose confederation of independent provinces
In 1649 the English beheaded:
Charles I
The minister who helped Henry IV lay the foundations for French absolutism was:
The state that gained the most from the War of the Spanish Succession was:
Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes because he believed that:
Religious unity was necessary for his absolutist goals
The English Bill of Rights:
Was a direct response to Stuart absolutism
During the English Revolution the Levellers advocated the idea that:
All men should have the vote regardless of whether they own property
The War of the Spanish Succession ended with the Peace of:
The most important lesson Louis XIV learned from the Fronde was that the:
sole alternative to anarchy was absolute monarchy
The restoration of Charles II to the throne in 1660 indicates that many Englishmen:
Were tired of what they perceived to be the anarchism of the English Republic
Francis I further consolidated centralized power by levying the taille, a tax on:
All land and property
What is NOT a provison of the English Declaration of Rights, 1689
The king may maintain a standing army without the consent of Parliament
William and Mary's ascension to the English throne in 1689:
indicated the supremacy of Parliament
Probably the most important step Cardinal Richelieu took to strengthen centralized government and an absolutist monarchy in France was:
To institute the intendant system to oversee the provinces
James I agreed to a new translation of the Bible in his one concession to the:
What doesn't accurately describe the reign of Louis XIV?
He impoverished the national treasury by building the Palace of Versaille
Probably the most significant long-term result of the Puritan revolution (16143-1660) was:
The increased authority of Parliament
During the 16th and 17th centuries, while France developed absolutism, the English monarchy was chekced by:
A strong Parliament
This is not a reason why England developed a constitutional government:
The English kings rejected the divine right theory
A significant feature of English society in the 16th and 17th centuries was the:
Growing wealth of the country gentry and Middle-class businessmen
Perhaps the most striking characteristic of the Dutch Republic was its:
Religious toleration
In his political theories, John Locke:
Linked economic liberty and private property with poll freedom
This is not a reason by Spain declined in the 17th century:
Conflict between the church and the state
At its most basic level, constitutionalism:
implies a balance between the authority of the government and the rights of its subjects
The economic success of the Dutch was based on:
Fishing and overseas trasnport
The guiding force behind Cardinal Richelieu's domestic policies was:
The subordination of all groups and institutions to the monarchy
Colbert's contribution to mercantilistic thought was his belief in:
Economic self-sufficiency
Political power in the Dutch Republic was:
Controlled by an oligarchy of wealthy merchants
In general the wars of Louis XIV:
Had a disastrous impact of the French economy
The decline of the Dutch economy was caused by:
The wars of the 17th century
Richelieu responded to the Huguenots' revolt in 1625 by:
Destroying their armed strongholds
The primary motive underlying Richelieu's administrative reforms was to:
Weaken the nobility's local power base
Mercantilist theory set forth that:
Government should intervene to secure the largest share of limited resources
This is not true of the Baroque style in Eastern Europe:
The goal of many Baroque works of art and architecture was "the exaltation of despotic rule"
This person is not a Baroque artist:
In response to the problems of the 14th and 15th centuries, the landlords of Eastern Europe:
Offered better economic terms to their peasants
The first tactic employed by the landlords to cope with tlabor shortages was to:
Restrict peasant freedom of movement
The administration of justice in Eastern Europe generally was:
Controlled by local landlords
As a result of the revolt by the Czech nobility in 1618:
The native nobility was wiped out
This is not a reason why the absolute monarchs in east Europe monopolized power:
Foreign policy
To further their absolutist goals, the Austrian Habsburgs used the fear of invasion by the:
The Thirty Years' War served as a catalyst for the development of absolutism in:
This is not a reason why Peter the Great of Russia modernized his states:
The disbanding of the Cossacks
The most striking feature of the ottoman Social and political organization was:
The absence of private landed property
This is the best description of Peter's form rule over Russia:
Peter succeeded in making the Russian economy resemble other European economies by abolishing many medieval practices
The most striking feature of the social system in eastern Europe was a:
Peasantry reduced to serfdom
After the Time of Troubles, the tsars:
Relaxed the obligations of the nobility
According to the text, Peter I was most interested in:
Increasing Russian military power
The reign of Peter the Great was characterized by:
Incessant warfare
The primary unit on which taxation was based in Peter's Russia was:
One important consequence of Peter I's reforms was the:
Imposition of royal justice in the provinces
The most significant factor in the emergence of the princes of Moscow as the rulers of Russia was their:
Cooperation with the Mongols
The Pragmatic Sanction issued by Charles IV in 1713:
Proclaimed that Habsburgs lands would never be divided
This was not a factor in the Hungarians' fight against Habsburg absolutism:
The economic resources of Hungary
The territorial basis of the Hohenzollern absolutist state was Prussia and:
Critical to the success of absolutism in Prussia was:
The power to tax without the nobles' consent
During the constitutional struggle between Frederick William and Great Elector and the Prussian nobility:
War and invasion strengthened Frederick William's hand
During the reign of Frederick William I. Prussian:
Absolutism grew stronger
The policies and actions of Frederick William I were based on his belief that the welfare of the king and state depended on the:
The First Russian ruler to assume the title of tsar was:
Ivan the Terrible
This is not a reason why Poland disappeared as an independent nation in the 18th century:
The Catholic Church was unsympathetic to Polish statehood
The Later Baroque style is known for:
Its extreme ornamentation
In its geography, government, economy, and social structures, the Russian empire in the 18th century most closely resemble:
In eastern Europe, the 17th century commercial revolution:
Encouraged small-scale farming
Frederick William, the Great Elector, learned from the Thirty Years' War that the security of his state must rely mainly upon:
The support of his army
After the reign of the Great Elector, Prussia became famous for its:
Militarism, under which military needs and values permeated all spheres of life
In order to promote the Prussian economy, Frederick William, the Great Elector,:
Admitted Jews from Poland and Huguenots from France
This is not true of Prussia's social structure:
It was easier for the bourgeoisie to attain noble status than in France
Prior to 1650 the Ottoman Empire had:
Enacted uniform legal code throughout the empire
What explains the growth of habsburg power after the disaster of the Thirty Years' War?
Their leadership of the Holy Roman Empire
The Ottoman siege of Vienna in 1683, the highpoint of Turkish power in Europe,:
Ended the war between Europe and the Ottomans
This is not a long term cause of the Protestant Reformation:
The activities of the Jesuits
"Salvation by faith and by faith alone" is a major tenet first adopted by:
According to Luther, the ultimate authority for the interpretation of Christian doctrine is:
The Bible
Luther's political conservatism is revealed in this:
His preference for political order over social justice, His willing acceptance of the support of the German Princes, His condemnation of the Peasants' War, His support for the extermination of the Munster Commune
Calvin differed from Luther by stressing which theological doctrine?
The concept of predestination
"Poverty, considered a virtue by the Catholic Church, became shameful to the Calvinists. The middle class found in Calvinism a justification for the pursuit of wealth." This passage implies that Calvinism may have been a powerful influence in the developm
This accurately depicts a doctrine defined by the Council of Trent:
The ultimate authority for Christian doctrine is the Bible, Church traditions and the writings of the Church Fathers
The Brethren of the Common Life were:
An example of popular piety
The Jesuits:
Became involved in the education of Catholic children, served as advisors to Catholic kings, rooted out heresy through press censorship, converted "heathens" through missionary work
"It began with attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, and it ended by shattering the religious unity of Europe." This best describes:
The Protestant Reformation
Martin Luther's decision to post his Ninety-Five Theses on the door of the church at Wittenburg Castle was prompted by:
A new campaign to sell indulgences
The Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation:
Stated that the actual body and blood of Christ was present at communion
In his "On Christian Liberty", Luther used the term 'freedom' to mean:
Freedom from the Roman Church
The dissolution of the English monasteries:
Resulted from Henry VIII's desire to confiscate their wealth
Luther's ideas about Roman exploitation of Germany:
Appealed to political aspirations of german princes
Charles V believed it was his duty to:
Maintain both political and religious unity of Europe
The individual who dominated the Scottish Reformation was:
John Knox
The majority of the German princes who adopted Lutheranism did so:
For economic and political reasons
Calvin initiated his reform movement in:
despite the obvious flaws of the Catholic church, most Italians remained loyal because:
It provided them with social order and tradition
According to Calvin, the elect were:
Those individuals chosen for salvation
Calvin's Geneva Consistory:
Outlined Calvin's faith and carried out its doctrine
This is not a "new monarch" of the Reformation:
Frederick of Saxony
This act established King henry VIII as the head of the Church of England:
Supremacy Act
The Anabaptists were oppressed by other Europeans because they believed:
In the strict separation of church and state
The Catholic Church banned the work of which of the following humanist writers?
Calvinism, despite its aristocratic outlook, contributed to the development of what later became democracy by:
Allowing the possibility that all people, regardless of social rank, might be predestined for salvation
The Peace of Augsburg, in 1555:
Was a victory for Lutheranism and states' rights
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