AP Chem Ch. 5 Reactions in Aqueous Solution pgs. 179 - 227 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
aqueous solution
new substances are made using chemical reactions that occur in water, that is in _____
solution
homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances, in which one is generally considered the solvent, the medium in which another substance, the solute is dissolved
solvent
medium in which solute is dissolved
solute
what is dissolved in a solvent
electrodes
conducters of electricity; i.e.: copper wire; if 2 are placed in a solution and connected to a battery, cations migrate through the solution to the negative electrode and anions move to the positive electrode
electrolytes
compounds whose aqueous solution conducts electricity; all ionic compounds that are soluble in water
strong electrolytes
substances whose solutions conduct well
weak electrolytes
substances that produce a small concentration of ions when they dissolve :. poor conductors of electricity
nonelectrolytes
substances that dissolve in water but don't ionize; solutions don't conduct electricity
precipitation reaction
produces insoluble product, precipitate
precipitate
byproduct of precipitation reaction; insoluble
spectator ions
present in solution before & after reaction, so appear on both reactant & product sides of balanced chemical equation; not involved in net process
net ionic equation
balanced equation that results from leaving out spectator ions; only requires aqueous ions & nonelectrolytes (which can be insoluble compounds or soluble, molecular compounds such as sugar) that participate in a chemical reaction
acid
any substance, that, when dissolved in pure water, increases concentration of hydrogen ions in water; i.e. hydrogen chloride, which ionizes in water to form a hydrogen ion & a chloride ion
HCl
strong acid; strong electrolyte; completely converted to ions in aqueous solution
weak acids
partially ionized in aqueous solution; i.e.: hydrogen sulfate & acetic acid
base
substance that increases concentration of hydroxide ion when dissolved in water
ammonia
weak base & weak electrolyte
acidic oxides
oxides like carbon dioxide that can react with water to produce positive hydrogen ions
basic oxides
oxides like CaO that react w/ water to produce OH⁻ ions
H⁺(aq) + OH⁻(aq) ---> H₂O (l)
net ionic equation for reaction between any strong acid & any strong base
neutralization reactions
reactions between strong acids & strong bases; called this b/c, on completion on of the reaction, the solution is neutral (neither acidic or basic)
exchange reactions
reactions in aqueous solution are called this b/c the ions of the reactants change partners ∴ we are able to predict products of precipitation, acid-base, & gas-forming reactions
oxidation-reduction
occurs in water; involve transfer of electrons from one substance to another rather than exchange of partners
reducing agent
in the reduction of iron oxide w/ carbon monoxide to given iron metal, carbon monoxide removes oxygen from iron (III), so iron (III) oxide is said to have been reduced; carbon monoxide is the agent that brings about the reduction of iron ore to iron metal, so carbon monoxide is the ______
oxidation
any process in which oxygen is added to another substance
oxidizing agent
agent responsible for oxidation; in the reaction w/ magnesium, oxygen is the _____
redox reactions
abbreviation of oxidation-reduction reactions; called this b/c if one substance is oxidized, another substance in the same reaction must be reduced
transfer of electrons between substances
all oxidation & reduction reactions involve _______
reduced
describes a substance that accepts electrons; called this b/c there is a reduction in electric charge in atom of substance
oxidized
describes a substance that loses electrons, causing the positive charge on an atom of the substance to increase
oxidation number
(of an atom in a molecule or ion) defined as electric charge an atom has, or appears to have; can tell you which substance has gained or lost electrons
concentration
amount of solute dissolved in given volume of solution; solution ____ is abbreviated as "c" & is usually reported as moles of solute per liter of solution
molarity
moles of solute per liter of solution; concentration = quantity of solute (mol)/volume of solution (L)
quantitative chemical analysis
determination of quantitiy of a given constituent in mixture
titration
procedure in which the following conditions are filled: 1) you can determine when the amount of sodium hydroxide added is just enough to react w/ all the oxalic acid present in solution; 2) you know the volume of the sodium hydroxide solution added at the point of complete reaction; 3) you know the concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution; solution containing oxalic acid is placed in flask w/ acid-base indicator
indicator
dye that changes color when reaction used for analysis is complete
equivalence point
point at which number of moles of OH⁻ added directly equals the number of moles of H⁺ that can be supplied by the acid
standardization
procedure by which concentration of an analytical reagent is determined accurately; 2 approaches: 1) weigh accurately sample of pure, solid acid or base (primary standard) & then titrate sample w/ solution of base or acid to be standardized; 2) titrate solution w/ another solution already standardized
primary standard
pure, solid acid or base that can be accurately weighed for preparation of a titrating reagent
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