AP Chem Ch. 5 Reactions in Aqueous Solution pgs. 179 - 227 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
aqueous solution
new substances are made using chemical reactions that occur in water, that is in _____
homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances, in which one is generally considered the solvent, the medium in which another substance, the solute is dissolved
medium in which solute is dissolved
what is dissolved in a solvent
conducters of electricity; i.e.: copper wire; if 2 are placed in a solution and connected to a battery, cations migrate through the solution to the negative electrode and anions move to the positive electrode
compounds whose aqueous solution conducts electricity; all ionic compounds that are soluble in water
strong electrolytes
substances whose solutions conduct well
weak electrolytes
substances that produce a small concentration of ions when they dissolve :. poor conductors of electricity
substances that dissolve in water but don't ionize; solutions don't conduct electricity
precipitation reaction
produces insoluble product, precipitate
byproduct of precipitation reaction; insoluble
spectator ions
present in solution before & after reaction, so appear on both reactant & product sides of balanced chemical equation; not involved in net process
net ionic equation
balanced equation that results from leaving out spectator ions; only requires aqueous ions & nonelectrolytes (which can be insoluble compounds or soluble, molecular compounds such as sugar) that participate in a chemical reaction
any substance, that, when dissolved in pure water, increases concentration of hydrogen ions in water; i.e. hydrogen chloride, which ionizes in water to form a hydrogen ion & a chloride ion
strong acid; strong electrolyte; completely converted to ions in aqueous solution
weak acids
partially ionized in aqueous solution; i.e.: hydrogen sulfate & acetic acid
substance that increases concentration of hydroxide ion when dissolved in water
weak base & weak electrolyte
acidic oxides
oxides like carbon dioxide that can react with water to produce positive hydrogen ions
basic oxides
oxides like CaO that react w/ water to produce OH⁻ ions
H⁺(aq) + OH⁻(aq) ---> H₂O (l)
net ionic equation for reaction between any strong acid & any strong base
neutralization reactions
reactions between strong acids & strong bases; called this b/c, on completion on of the reaction, the solution is neutral (neither acidic or basic)
exchange reactions
reactions in aqueous solution are called this b/c the ions of the reactants change partners ∴ we are able to predict products of precipitation, acid-base, & gas-forming reactions
occurs in water; involve transfer of electrons from one substance to another rather than exchange of partners
reducing agent
in the reduction of iron oxide w/ carbon monoxide to given iron metal, carbon monoxide removes oxygen from iron (III), so iron (III) oxide is said to have been reduced; carbon monoxide is the agent that brings about the reduction of iron ore to iron metal, so carbon monoxide is the ______
any process in which oxygen is added to another substance
oxidizing agent
agent responsible for oxidation; in the reaction w/ magnesium, oxygen is the _____
redox reactions
abbreviation of oxidation-reduction reactions; called this b/c if one substance is oxidized, another substance in the same reaction must be reduced
transfer of electrons between substances
all oxidation & reduction reactions involve _______
describes a substance that accepts electrons; called this b/c there is a reduction in electric charge in atom of substance
describes a substance that loses electrons, causing the positive charge on an atom of the substance to increase
oxidation number
(of an atom in a molecule or ion) defined as electric charge an atom has, or appears to have; can tell you which substance has gained or lost electrons
amount of solute dissolved in given volume of solution; solution ____ is abbreviated as "c" & is usually reported as moles of solute per liter of solution
moles of solute per liter of solution; concentration = quantity of solute (mol)/volume of solution (L)
quantitative chemical analysis
determination of quantitiy of a given constituent in mixture
procedure in which the following conditions are filled: 1) you can determine when the amount of sodium hydroxide added is just enough to react w/ all the oxalic acid present in solution; 2) you know the volume of the sodium hydroxide solution added at the point of complete reaction; 3) you know the concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution; solution containing oxalic acid is placed in flask w/ acid-base indicator
dye that changes color when reaction used for analysis is complete
equivalence point
point at which number of moles of OH⁻ added directly equals the number of moles of H⁺ that can be supplied by the acid
procedure by which concentration of an analytical reagent is determined accurately; 2 approaches: 1) weigh accurately sample of pure, solid acid or base (primary standard) & then titrate sample w/ solution of base or acid to be standardized; 2) titrate solution w/ another solution already standardized
primary standard
pure, solid acid or base that can be accurately weighed for preparation of a titrating reagent
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