EOC US History Review - BHS Flashcards

Terms Definitions
suffrage
the right to vote - early America was white male land owners
Judiciary Act of 1789
established supreme court and 13 district courts
XYZ Affair
french ambassadors wanted to charge $250,000 to negotiate with American officials; Adams' attempt to deal with impressment
Jay's Treaty
treaty b/t US and Britain that temporarily kept us out of a war with Britain; Washington's attempt to deal with impressment
Marbury v. Madison
judicial review
Alien and Sedition Acts
arrest and deport immigrants who spoke negatively against the government
Election of 1800
first time power switched political parties
Louisiana Purchase
land that doubled the size of America; explored by Lewis and Clark; went against Jefferson's strict interpretation
Development of two-party system
federalists: loose, wealthy, strong central government,manufacturing Democratic-Republicans: strict, common, agriculture, strong state
Whiskey Rebellion
first test of new government, farmers refused to pay tax, federal marshals sent to collect, farmers rebelled, Washington sent troops to enforce tax
Midnight Judges
last minute appointments by Adams, not allowed by Jefferson, led to Marbury v. Madison and judicial review
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
established nullification
Hamilton's Economic Plan
pay off national debt: tariff, taxes and est. of National Bank
Washington's Precedents
cabinet and 2 four year terms
Washington's Farewell Address
1. no two party system 2. do not entangle in foreign affairs 3. good government is based on religion and morality
War of 1812 causes
impressment of US sailors by the British Navy; Tecumseh's confederation
War of 1812 outcomes
rise of Jackson (battle of New Orleans), northern border of the Louisiana Territory set with Britain
Treaty of Ghent
ended war of 1812
Manifest Destiny
belief that the country was destined (by God) to control from Atlantic to Pacific
Missouri Compromise
maine free, missouri slave, everything north of 36'30' parallel free, everything south of it slave; first attempt to deal with the expansion of slavery
Indian Removal
Trail of Tears, development of Indian Territory
Worchester v. Georgia
Cherokee could not be forced from their land; Jackson disobeys
Hudson River School
painting of American landscape
Eli Whitney/Cotton Kingdom
"necessary evil" - needed slaves to harvest cotton in the south; increased the demand for slavery
Nativism
strong dislike for immigrants ; Know-Nothing Party
"Corrupt Bargain"
1824 Election: clay gave his vote to John Quincy Adams for Cabinet position
Henry Clay
American System
American system
effort to unite the nation: internal improvement (roads and canals), protective Tariff, national bank
Tariff of Abominations
tariff signed by John Quincy Adams that many opposed - led to SC Nullification Crisis
Spoils System
also known as patronage - put friends in office who were not qualified
Mormons
led by Joseph Smith and later Brigham Young - went to Utah to escape religious persecution
Horace Mann
education reform
Dorothea Dix
prison reform
Seneca Falls
declaration of sentiments; women's right; Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Transcendentalism
self-reliance; Ralph Waldo Emerson
Women's Reform Movement
right for women to vote
Utopian Communities
wanted to form perfect communities (Brook Farm, Oneida, New Harmony) failed because people are lazy
American Literature
Nathanial Hawthorne (Scarlet Letter) - setting of a New England Puritan Town
Noah Webster
dictionary - "Americanized" english language
Adams-Onis Treaty
with Spain; gained FL for US
Pinckney's Treaty
with Spain - gave US access to use the Mississippi River
Embargo Act of 1807
Jefferson's attempt to stop impressment - hurt US economy
Monroe Doctrine
no more European colonization or intervention in the Western Hemisphere
Hartford Convention
during War of 1812 - New England states threatened to secede - led to downfall of Federalist Party
Kansas-Nebraska Act
repealed Missouri Compromise, allowed Kansas and Nebraska to decide slavery issue by popular vote
Popular Sovereignty
people decide on slavery issue
Indian Removal Act
forced NA's to move west of Mississippi Rover
Wilmot Proviso
banned slavery from all territories gained from Mexico, WAS NOT ACCEPTED BY CONGRESS
Compromise of 1850
settlement between slave and free states, California came in as a free state, popular sovereignty for Mexican cession, fugitive slave act
Emancipation Proclamation
order by Lincoln to free all slaves IN THE SOUTH ONLY
Jim Crow Laws/ Black Codes
laws passed to make it harder for former slaves to have rights
Compromise of 1877
ended Reconstruction
Homestead Act
gave 160 acres of land to those who would go West and farm it
Morill Land Grant Act of 1862
gave states land to develop agricultural colleges
Dawes Act
effort to assimilate Native Americans, broke up reservations
Interstate Commerce Act
allowed Federal government to regulate RR
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
outlawed monopolies
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
effort to limit the number of Chinese immigrants
Pendleton Act
ended the Spoils System
Open Door Policy
John Hay; leave China open to US and other nations to trade
Federal Reserve Act
1913 - Wilson; est. the Federal Reserve
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
helped Unions, made monopolies more illegal
Selective Service Act
authorized the draft to fight WWI
Treaty of Versailles
ended WWI, treated Germany very harshly, USA never ratifies it
Espionage and Sedition Acts
limited freedom of speech during wartime
Hawley-Smoot Tariff
tried to help deal with the Depression
Dred Scott v. Sanford
a slave remains a slave even if they are taken to free territory
Plessy v. Ferguson
separate but equal
Mann v. Illinois
federal government can regulate interstate trade
Schenck v. US
federal government can limit free speech if the speech presents a "clear and present danger"
Korematsu v. US
government is lawful to relocate Japanese Americans into internment camps
Brown v. Board
overturned Plessy v. Ferguson
Roe v. Wade
abortion is legal
US v. Nixon
forced Nixon to release Watergate tapes
Swann v. Charlotte Mecklenburg Schools
allowed for busing in order to integrate schools
Texas v. Johnson
flag burning is constitutional
Causes of Secession
slavery, state's rights, sectionalism, tariffs, election of Abraham Lincoln
"Lincoln's Republicans"
mid 1800s - opposed the EXPANSION of slavery
Anaconda Plan
North's strategy during Civil war - a) blockade b)control Mississippi c)capture Richmond
1st Battle of Bull Run
first major battle of Civil War
Antietam
bloodiest SINGLE DAY of the civil war
Gettysburg
last push for the South into the North - fails ; Turning Point in the Eastern Theatre
Vicksburg
Grant lays siege on Vicksburg; Union able to control the Mississippi and split the Confederacy into 2
Appomatox Courthouse
ends Civil War
Reconstruction Plans
Lincoln (10% Plan), Johnson's plan too lenient. Radical Republicans/Congressional (break south into military zones)
Reconstruction Amendments
13th - freed slaves 14th citizen if born in US, due process 15th - right to vote for black men
Helen Hunt Jackson
"A Century of Dishonor" - wrote about the sufferings of Native Americans
Transcontinental Railroad
built by Chinese and Irish immigrants
Populist Party
bimetallism; graduated income tax/government owns RR to lower the costs for farmers
William Jennings Bryan/Cross of Gold Speech
presidential candidate for Democratic Party (1896) - address about advocating bilmetallism
barb wire
ended the open range
Jacob Riis
"How the Other Half Lives" - exposed terrible working and living conditions for immigrants
Jane Addams/Settlement House
part of Social Gospel/ Addams started the Hull House - offered assistance to immigrants
Melting Pot/ Cultural Pluralism
different cultures assimilated into society/ presence of many cultures in society
Monopolists of late 1800s
Rockefeller (Standard Oil - first Trust)/// Carnegie (steel/vertical integration/Bessemer Process)/// Vanderbilt- railroad/// Morgan - banking
Social Darwinism
survival of the fittest
Robber Barons
someone who gets rich at the expense of the poor
Laissez-Faire
hands off (referring to government's relationship to business)
Homestead Strike/Haymarket Riot
made the public view unions as radical
Uncle Tom's Cabin
by Harriett Beecher Stowe - stirred up abolition feelings " So you're the little lady who started this big war"
Major Inventions of Industrialization
telegraph, light bulb, telephone, elevators, typewriter
Gilded Age
thin layer of prosperity that covers up corruption/poverty
Ellis Island
immigration center for European immigrants (located in NY)
Boss Tweed/Tammany Hall
Political Boss/NY Democratic Political Machine
Thomas Nast
brings down Boss Tweed with cartoons
Muckrakers
progressive period reformers who wrote about society's problems
Upton Sinclair
The Jungle
Ida Tarbell
Standard Oil
Robert LaFollett
Progressive Governor from Wisconsin
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
exposed problems with working conditions - Progressives used this as prime example for their cause
Bull Moose Party
Progressive Party- 1912 Election - Theodore Roosevelt
Progressive Amendments
16th - income tax /// 17th - direct election of senators ///18th - prohibition /// 19th - women's suffrage
Booker T. Washington
thought Af. Ams should gain equality through their economic impact, learning trades. Opened Tuskegee institute
WEB DuBois
thought Af. Ams should gain equality through education. Helped est. the NAACP
Great Migration
African Americans moved from the South to Northern cities
Poll Taxes, literacy tests, grandfather clauses
ways to keep African Americans from voting
Henry Ford
assembly line
Reasons for Imperialism
money, markets, materials, missionaries
Alfred T. Mahan
"Influence of Sea Power Upon History" belief that US needed to build powerful navy to be a world power
Yellow Journalism
exaggerated journalim to ignite US emotions
Causes of Spanish-American War
Yellow journalism, U.S.S. Maine, de Lome Letter
Platt Amendments
America retains influence in Cuba after Spanish-American War
Teller Amendment
America promises not to take over Cuba after Spanish American War
Seward's Folly
America's purchase of Alaska
Queen Lillukalani
Queen of Hawaii; overthrown
Roosevelt's Corollary
expanded on Monroe Doctrine; US could intervene if nation had trouble paying off its debt
Pancho Villa
mexican rebel who came into US and killed 19 US citizens (almost started a war with Mexico)
Big Stick Diplomacy
Theodore Roosevelt - use military if needed
Dollar Diplomacy
Taft - give money rather than military aid
Causes of WWI
Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, Nationalism
Spark that started WWI
assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Allies (WWI)
US, Great Britain, Russia, France
Central Powers ( WWI )
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire
US goes from Neutrality to Involvement (WWI)
Unrestricted submarine warfare by Germans, Zimmerman Note, sinking of Lusitania
Red Scare
fear of communism
Grant Scandals
Credit Moblier, Whiskey Ring
Harding
Tea Pot Dome Scandal, "return to normalcy"
Palmer Raids
raids/arrests on suspected communists after WWI
Sacco and Vanzetti
Italian Americans put to death for murder charges w/little evidence
Science v. Religion (1920s)
Scopes Trial over the teaching of evolution
Flappers
1920s women who challenged traditional roles -danced "The Charleston"
speakeasies
underground saloons
Causes of the Great Depression
speculation, buying on margin, overproduction, easy credit
Black Tuesday
10/29/1929 - stock market crashes
Bonus Army
WWI vets gassed during protests b/c they did not receive bonuses
New Deal Agencies
Tennessee Valley Authority - provided electricity to SE USA /// FDIC - insured bank deposits /// Social Security - provided unemployment and retirement income
Rosie the Riveter
icon of woman in factory (WWII)
Allies (WWII)
France, Britain, US, USSR
Axis (WWII)
Germany, Italy, Japan
Pearl Harbor
surprise attack by Japan - brings USA into WWII
Lend-Lease Act
attempt of neutrality - US would trade with any nation deemed vital to our security
Stalingrad
turning point in Eastern Europe during WWII
Battle of the Bulge
turning point for US/GB against Germany
D-Day
June 6, 1944: Allied invasion of Nazi occupied Europe at Normandy, France
Yalta Conference
plan for postwar Europe - divide Germany into four zones
island hopping
US strategy in Pacific during WWII
Battle of Midway
turning point in the Pacific
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
sites of atomic bomb explosions (developed in Manhattan Project)
G.I. Bill
money provided to WWII veterans, job priority, low interest loans to purchase a house
Levittowns
mass produced houses made assembly line style in Post WWII America
Cold War
rivalry between the US and USSR
Domino Theory
idea that once one nation became communist, the whole region would fall
Containment
the US wanted to keep communism only in the areas where it already existed
Truman Doctrine
assist fre people trying to keep from becoming Communist
Marshall Plan
$12 billion in aid to rebuild Europe
Berlin Wall
symbol of "Iron Curtain"/Cold War
Warsaw Pact
Soviet Union military alliance with Satellite Nations
Korean War
War between communist N.Korea and Democratic S. Korea ///split among the 38th Parallel
UN/SEATO/NATO
military alliances that agreed to collective security
McCarthyism
idea of accusing people without evidence of being a supporter of communism
Detente
Nixon's idea of easing tension with communist countries through diplomacy, not force
Sit-ins
NC A&T students used sit-ins at all white restaurants as a form of boycott against racism
MLK/Malcom X
MLK- non-violent protests - major leader of the Civil Rights /// Malcom X - preached blacks should used any means necessary
Feminine Mystique/Betty Friedan
leader of women's movement that changed the roles of women
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
gave the President the authority to take necessary actions agains countries who are aggressive to the US w/o approval from Congress ( LBJ -Vietnam)
My Lai Incident
killing of innocent citizens by US during Vietnam - William Calley Jr. is responsible
Kent State incident
killing of four college students protesting Vietnam War
War Powers Act of 1973
if president deploys troops, he must notify Congress within 48 hours so they can approve the deployment
Watergate Scandal
Nixon's aides break into the Democratic National Headquarters - eventually resigns over it
Cesar Chavez
leader of migrant workers in America
Camp David Accords
Where Egypt and Israel agree to peace treaty - led by Jimmy Carter
Title IX
equality for women in education - especially in sports
NAFTA
Bill Clinton - free trade between Canada, US, Mexico
Brady Bill
Bill Clinton
Helsinki Accords
Gerald Ford - wanted to create more cooperation with Eastern and Western Europe
Star Wars (SDI)
led by Reagan - increase defense spending program to use space technology in defense
Operation Desert Storm
US became involved in a war to defend Kuwait from Iraq
Iran-Contra Affair
used profits from sales of weapons to Iran to aid Contras in Central America - Oliver North was blamed
Vietnamization
Nixon - removed US troops from Vietnam
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