Prehistoric-Ancient Near East Flashcards

Sumer
Terms Definitions
le tuc d' audoubert
two bison
altamira cave
bison
Pech-Merle, Lot, France
spotted horses and negative hand imprints
Jasperite
reddish-brown rock
South Africa 3,000,000 BCE
waterworn pebble
Apollo 11 cave
animal facing left
willendorf, austria
venus of willendorf
found traces of paint, hair in patterns, meant to be carried
venus of willendorf
relief, showed traces of paint, exaggerated sexual organs, painted limestone
Woman of Laussel
Lascaux
Hall of the Bulls
Evidence of scaffolding, composite view
Hall of the Bulls
Plaster, painted and inlaid w/ cowrie shell and bitumen
Human figure from Ain-Ghazal
Planned town/architecture, city living, depended on trade, evidence inside of wall paintings
çatal höyük
post and lintel, accurate solar calendar, built in at least 4 stages
Stonehenge
henge
large circle of stones
monument to a ruler
stelai
between tigris and euphrates
mesopotamia
SABHAP
sumerian, akkadian, babylonian, hittite, assyrian, persian
Iraq
sumerian, akkadian, babylonian, assyrian
Turkey
Hittite
Iran
Persian
emergence of a guardian figure that protects entrances to important sites
Ancient Near-East
Architecture for religious purposes, made of mud-brick
Ancient Near-East
writing of Ancient Near-East
cuneiform
why Ancient Near-East mud-brick?
stone is expensive, wood is scarce
Ancient Near-East view of nudity
form of debasement, used for slaves or conquered peoples
eyes wide open
sumerian
men waer kilts, women have left shoulder covered
sumerian
dedicated to goddess inanna
ziggurat at ur
tapered so rainwater can drain, 4 corners oriented to compass points, only king has access to temple
ziggurat at ur
one of 1st examples of narrative, hierarchy of scale, slaves in middle are nude, horizontal registers, conceptual representation
Warkavase
votive offerings, wide eyes, sculpture in the round, patterning of hair
Tell Asmar statue
gypsum inlaid with shell and black limestone
Tell Asmar statue
inlaid with shell, lapis lazuli, and red limestone
Standard of Ur
hierarchy of scale, depicts sumerian military victory, aftermath on one side, peace on other
Standard of Ur
4 registers, conceptual view, donkey playing harp, Gilgamesh fighting bull
Soundbox of lyre
Wood inlaid with gold, lapis lazuli, and shell
soundbox of lyre
White temple and ziggurat
sumerian
ziggurat at ur
sumerian
warka vase
sumerian
tell-asmar statue
sumerian
standard of ur
sumerian
soundbox of lyre
sumerian
akkadian ruler from north of sumer who defeats sumerians
Sargon I
ninevah, stylized hair, eyes stolen later
head of an akkadian ruler
victory over the lullubi
victory stele of naram-sin
heavens indicated by 3 stars at top
victory stele of naram-sin
hierarchy of scale, spatial isolation, horned crown of divinity
shows naram-sin as a god-king
one of 1st uses of foreshortening
stele with law code of hammurabi
282 laws, 3500 lines
stele with law code of hammurabi
1780 BCE basalt
stele with law code of hammurabi
goddess skirt similar to zigguar, she is handing ruler a scepter
stele with law code of hammurabi
575 bce, glazed brick
ishtar gate
babylon
ishtar gate
use stone, not mud brick
hittites
turkey, 1400 bce, limestone
lion gate
evident in most assyrian art
cuneiform
specialty is shallow relief sculpture (bas relief)
assyrian
bas relief
low relief
divine guardians of the people, meant for protection from enemies and evil, huge, conceptual view
lamassu
winged, human-headed bull
lamassu
patterning of beard, realistic face, semlance of rectangular block carved from, impression of movement
lamassu
645-640 bce, ninevah
ashurbanipal hunting lions
art used to praise greatness of kings and intimidate neighbors and enemies
assyrian
lions show great emotion, use of ground line, unrealistic depth, shows power of king
ashurbanipal hunting lions
architecture characterized by large columns topped by two bull-shaped capitals holding a wooden roof
persian
victory stele of naram-sin
akkadian
stele with law code of hammurabi
akkadian
lion gate
hittite
lamassu
assyrian
ashurbanipal hunting lions
assyrian
650 paintings: most common are cows, bulls, horses, and deer
lascaux caves
bodies seen in profile; frontal or diagonal view of horns, eyes, and hooves
lascaux caves
large individual stones
menhirs
menhirs cut into rectangular shapes and used in the construction of a prehistoric complex
megaliths
circle of megaliths, usually with lintels placed on top
cromlech
two upright stones used to support a horizontal beam
post-and-lintel
lintels grooved in place by mortise-and-tenon system
stonehenge
humans do not play a central role
prehistoric art
first written epic
gilgamesh
means of private communication in ancient-near east
cylinder seal
pinkie in spiral; chin a wedge shape; ear a double volute
tell asmar statues
inscribed on back: it offers prayers
tell asmar statues
figures represent mortals, placed in a temple and praying, perhaps to the god abu
tell asmar statues
buttresses spaced across the surface to create a light and shadow pattern
ziggurat
whitewash used to disguise mud appearance
ziggurat
holes in surface probably used for flags or banners
ziggurat
dedicated to moon god nanna
ziggurat
folded hands; long, fine fingers, sense of calm, made of dolerite
gudea
gudea
sumerian
victory stele of naram-sin medium
sandstone
sun god, shamash, enthoned on ziggurat and hands over a rope, a ring, and a rod of kingship
stele of hammurabi
crenellations give a warlike appearance to the gate
ishtar gate
city on a platform 50-ft high, made of mud-brick, contains ziggurat, huge palace complex
palace of sargon II
palace of sargon II
assyrian
built by darius I and xerxes I, destroyed by alexander the great
persepolis
persepolis
persian
built on artificial terraces, mud-brick with stone facing, lamassu gates
persepolis
empty space around an object or a person
negative space
an audience hall in a Persian palace
adapana
stele
a stone slab used to mark a site or a grave
first ruler in recorded history to make himself a god
Naram-sin
animal facing left (date)
23,000 BCE
animal facing left (medium)
charcoal on stone
venus of willendorf (medium)
limestone
venus of willendorf (date)
28,000-25,000 BCE
woman of laussel (date
25,000-20,000 BCE
woman of laussel (medium)
painted limestone relief
bison, altamira (date)
12,000-11,000 BCE
Two Bison (medium)
clay
two bison (year)
15,000-10,000 BCE
hall of bulls (date)
15,000-13,000 BCE
human figure from Ain Ghazal (date)
6750-6250 BCE
victory stele of naram-sin (date)
2254-2218 BCE
victory stele of naram-sin (medium)
pink sandstone
white temple of uruk (date)
3200-3000 BCE
bent-axis staircase, only priest could enter
white temple at uruk
stele code of hammurabi (medium)
basalt
stele code of hammurabi (date)
1780 BCE
ashurnasirpal hunting lions (medium)
gypsum
ashurnasipal hunting lions (date)
645-640 BCE
Istar gate (date)
575 BCE
votive figures (date)
2700 BCE
votive figures (medium)
gypsum inlaid with shell and black limestone
standard of ur (date)
2600 BCE
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