Basics of geology quiz - select questions Flashcards

Terms Definitions
topaz
On the Mohs hardness scale, _ is an 8.
feldspars
_ are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals which make up as much as 60% of the Earth's crust.[1]
crystallization
Most minerals form by inorganic processes like the cooling and _ of lava.
SiO4
A continuous framework of _ is common in many compounds.
more, quickest
On Bowen's reaction series, rocks with a low relative crystallization temperature like quartz are _ stable, and the ones at the top that crystallize first in magma are _ to weather.
igneous
In the rock cycle, rocks start off as _, then undergo erosion and sedimentation to produce sedimentary rocks.
metamorphism
Rock cycle: Tectonic burial happens with recrystallizing _.
phaneritic
You can see the component crystals of _ rocks.
light
Felsic objects like quartz are _ (light/dark) in color.
3
Felsic objects have specific gravities/relative densities (with respect to water) less than _.
magnesium
A mafic material is rich in _ and iron.
low
Ultramafic rocks have a very _ (low/high) silica content of less than 45%.
sedimentary
Quartz is an important _ mineral because it's very hard.
little
Clastic rocks mean _ (little/large) particles of pre-existing rock combine.
lithification
_ helps form layers of solid rock.
supersaturated
Chemical sedimentary rocks form when minerals in solution become _ and precipitate, like forming limestone.
clasts
_ can come in sizes of sand, silt, and clay.
sedimentary
Coquina, the Rice Krispies rock, is an important chemical _ rock.
chemical
Limestone, an important _ (organic/chemical) rock, contains calcite.
pressurized
Metamorphic rocks are heated up and _ just enough but not enough to melt.
contact
In _ metamorphism, the rock directly touches magma.
deep
In regional metamorphism, the rock forms very _ down in the earth.
above
Lava refers to molten rock _ the surface.
Wegener
Alfred _ discovered continental drift around 1912 when he saw landmasses fit together like a jigsaw puzzle.
recrystallization
Metamorphism is the solid-state _ of pre-existing rocks due to changes in physical and chemical conditions.
large
Phaneritic means that the size of matrix grains in the rock are _ enough to be distinguished with the unaided eye as opposed to aphanitic (which is too small to see with the naked eye).
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