Chapter 17,18,19 Vocabulary Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Health Maintenance Organization (HMO)
Organizations contracted by individuals or insurance companies to provide health care for a yearly fee. Such network health plans limit the choice of doctors and treatments; About 60 percent of Americans are enrolled in HMOs or similar programs.
Patients' Bill of Rights
A controversial proposal before congress that would give patients certain rights against medical providers, particularly HMO's including the right to sue them.
National Health Insurance
A compulsory insurance program for all Americans that would have the government finance citizens' medical care. First proposed by President Harry S. Truman, the plan was soundly opposed by the American Medical Association.
Medicare
A program added to the Social Security system in 1965 that provides hospitalization insurance for the elderly and permits older Americans to purchase inexpensive coverage for doctor fees and other health expenses.
Medicaid
A public assistance, health care program, administered through Social Security, designed to provide health care for poor and/or disabled Americans. It is funded by both the federal government and state governments.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
An agency of the federal government created in 1970 and charged with administering all the government's environmental legislation. It also administers policies dealing with toxic wastes. It is the largest federal independent regulatory agency.
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
The law passed in 1969 that is the centerpiece of federal environmental policy in the U.S. This law established the requirements for environmental impact statements.
Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)
A report required by the National environmental policy act that specifies the likely environmental impact of a proposed action.
Clean Air Act of 1970
The law that charged the Department of Transportation with the responsibility to reduce automobile emissions.
Water Pollution Control Act of 1972
A law intended to clean up the nations rivers and lakes. It requires municipal, industrial, and other polluters to use pollution control technology and secure permits from the EPA for discharging waste products into waters.
Endangered Species Act of 1973
This law requires the federal government to protect actively each of the hundreds of species listed as endangered-regardless of the economic effect on the surrounding towns or region.
Superfund
A fund created by Congress in 1980 to clean up hazardous waste sites. Money for the fund comes from taxing chemical products.
Social Welfare Policies
Policies that provide benefits to individuals, either through entitlements or means testing.
Entitlement Programs
Government benefits that certain qualified individuals are entitled to by law, regardless of need.
Means-Tested Programs
Government programs available only to individuals below a poverty line.
Income Distribution
The "shares" of the national income earned by various groups.
Income
The amount of funds collected between any two points in time.
Wealth
The value of assets owned.
Poverty Line
A method used to count the number of poor people, it considers what a family must spend for an "austere" standard of living.
Feminization of Poverty
The increasing concentration of poverty among women, especially unmarried women and their children.
Progressive Tax
A tax by which the government takes a greater share of the income of the rich then of the poor. For example, when a rich family pays 50% of its income in taxes and a poor family pays 5%.
Proportional Tax
A tax by which the government takes the same share of income from everyone, rich and poor alike- for example, when both a rich family and a poor family pay 20%.
Regressive Tax
A tax in which the burden falls relatively more heavily upon low-income groups than upon wealthy taxpayers. The opposite of a progressive tax, in which tax rates increase as income increases.
Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC)
A "negative income tax" that provides income to very poor individuals instead of charging them federal income taxes
Transfer Payments
Benefits given by the government directly to individuals. These may be either cash transfers, such as Social Security payments and retirement payments to former government employees, or in-kind transfers, such as food stamps and low-interest loans for college education.
Social Security Act of 1935
Created both the Social Security Program and a national assistance program for poor children, usually called AFDC.
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA)
The official name of the welfare reform law of 1996.
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)
Once called "Aid to Families With Dependent Children," the naw name for public assistance to needy families.
Social Security Trust Fund
The "Bank account" into which Social Security contributions are "deposited" and used to pay out eligible recipients.
Capitalism
An economic system in which individuals and corporations, not the government, own the principal means of production and seek profits.
Mixed Economy
An economic system in which the government is deeply involved in economic decisions through its role as regulator, consumer, subsidizer, taxer, employer, and borrower.
Multinational Corporations
Businesses with vast holdings in many countries, many of which have annual budgets exceeding that of many foreign governments.
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
The federal agency created during the New Deal that regulates stock fraud.
Minimum Wage
The legal minimum hourly wage for large employers.
Labor Union
An organization of workers intended to engage in collective bargaining
Collective Bargaining
Negotiations between representatives of labor unions and management to determine pay and acceptable working conditions.
Unemployment Rate
As measured by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the proportion of the labor force actively seeking work but unable to find jobs.
Inflation
The rise in prices for consumer goods.
Consumer Price Index (CPI)
The key measure of inflation that relates the rise in prices over time.
Laissez-Faire
The principle that government should not meddle in the economy.
Monetary Policy
Based on monetarism, this is the manipulation of the supply of money in private hands by which the government can control the economy.
Monetarism
An economic theory holding that the supply of money is the key to a nation's economic health. Monetarists believe that too much cash and credit in circulation produces inflation.
Federal Reserve System
The main instrument for making monetary policy in the United States. It was created by Congress in 1913 to regulate the lending practices of banks and thus the money supply.
Fiscal Policy
the policy that describes the impact of the federal budget-taxes, spending, and borrowing-on the economy
Keynesian Economic Theory
The theory emphasizing that government spending and deficits can help the economy weather its normal ups and downs. Proponents of this theory advocate using the power of government to stimulate the economy when it is lagging.
Supply-Side Economics
an economic theory advocated by President Reagan holding that too much income goes to taxes so that too little money is available for purchasing and that the solution is to cut taxes and return purchasing power to consumers.
Protectionism
Economic policy of shielding an economy from imports.
World Trade Organization (WTO)
International organization that regulates international trade.
Antitrust Policy
A policy designed to ensure competition and prevent monopoly, which is the control of a market by one company.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
the federal agency formed in 1913 and assigned the task of approving all food products and drugs sold in the United States. All drugs, with the exception of tobacco, must have their authorization.
National Labor Relations Act
A 1935 law, also known as the Wagner Act, that guarantees workers the right of collective bargaining sets down rules to protect unions and organizers, and created this to regulate labor-managment relations.
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