AP EURO secs. 52-57 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
liberalism
a political orientation that favors progress and reform
radicalism
the political orientation of those who favor revolutionary change in government and society
socialism
a political theory advocating state ownership of industry; Henri St. Simon
conservatism
preserves traditions (status quo)
individualism
the quality of being individual
constitutionalism
advocacy of a system of government according to constitutional principles
humanitarianism
the doctrine that people's duty is to promote human welfare
feminism
the movement aimed at equal rights for women
monarchism
favoring an absolute monarch
nationalism
the doctrine that your national culture and interests are superior to any other
communism
a form of socialism that abolishes private ownership
capitalism
an economic system based on private ownership of capital
Marxism
the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will untimately be superseded
romanticism
a movement in literature and art during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that celebrated nature rather than civilization
republicanism
equal representative; no monarch
neolithic revolution
agricultural revolution
enclosure acts
authorizing walls fences, or hedges of the common lands
mills
cotton mills industry was here (factories)
Boulton & Watt
1st successful steam engine
George Stephenson's Rocket
1st locomotive
cotton lords
factory owners
factory act
1802 Robert Peel regulate conditions for children working the factories
reasons for Britian's success in Industry
Natural Resources, geography, climate for new ideas, good banking system, political stability
Metternich's main goals after Napoleon
maintain balance of power, stop revolution
succeeded Louis XVIII
Charles X
Charles X's policy
absolute monarch
rebellion in poland 1823
crushed by Russia, Russia wanted to control that territory
Carlsbad decrees
Issued by Metternich, required 39 independent German states, including Prussia and Austria, to root out subversive ideas. (censorship) Also established permanent comittee with spies to punish any liberal or radical organization.
battle of peterloo
1819 Great Britian demonstration of liberalism
Six Acts
aimed to prevent radical meetings, like the one that sparked the Peterloo Massacre. It called such meetings 'overt act[s] of treasonable activity'. The laws passed, despite opposition from the Whigs.
3 meetings reasons
congress of vienna decided to meet when problems arose- resulting in
congress of aix-la-chapelle
withdrew forces from France, Alex I suggests Euro Union, other powers did not like idea
congress of troppau
Metternich was horrified because of the revolution rising once again. Calling a conference at Troppau in Austria under the provisions of the Quadruple Alliance Metternich and Alexander I proclaimed the principle of active intervention to maintain all autocratic regimes whenever they were threatened. (p.758)
congress of verona
Austria, Prussia, Russia, and France vowed to put down a revolutionary uprising in Spain and threatened to help Spain reconquer its New World colonies.
decemberist revolt
rebellion in Russia; called for Constantine and Constitution Nicolas I Crushed it
Charles X 1830
forced abdication
Louis Phillippe
new bourbon ruler in France after Charles X
Treaty of Vienna
Belgium is independent and Britian will defend it
polish revolution 1830
crushed by Nicolas I, congress poland was not a part of Russia
Reform bill of 1832
gave representation in parliament to growing towns, eliminated "rotten boroughs", suffrage to men who owned property
Factory act 1833
Created factory worday for children between 9-13 to 8 hours a day. Not applicable to home. Outlawed child labor under 9-factory owners establish schools. Destroyed family unit.
ten hours act
limited workday for women and young people in factories to 10 hours
repeal of corn laws 1846
­ Tory prime minister Robert Peel joined with the Whigs to repeal the Corn Laws in 1846- also wanted to allow imports of grain- England is able to successful repeal laws, escape famine­ Effects- liberal doctrine of free trade becomes sacred to the British  dictates much of their policy in the 2nd half of the 19th-showed increasing influence of working class people on gov't-Tory aristocrats were becoming more responsive to needs of other classes  began to compete for their support
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