American History Honors Mid Term Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Moctezuma
the ruler of the Aztecs when the Spanish made the first contact
Paleo-Indian
the earliest Americans who crossed over the Bering Strait and hunted animals and lived in small bands
Archaic period
The period roughly between 8000 and 1500 BCE, during which time Native Americans adapted to a changed continental climate, developed larger communities, and in several regions, adopted agriculture
culture areas
geographical regions inhabited by peoples who share similar basic patterns of subsistence and social organization
nomads
people without a permanent home who travel in small packs following the animals and plants around for food
hunter-gatherers
people who are usually nomadic and (typically) the men hunt for animals while the women gather fruits and vegetables
Mesoamerica
the birthplace of agriculture in North America that extends from central Mexico into Central America and was the home of the Olmecs, Mayas, Aztecs, Incas, etc.
Mayans
a civilization of Native Americans located in Mesoamerica that influenced a lot of Mesoamerica through trade and conquest, between 150 and 900 CE
Aztecs
a warrior people who dominated the Valley of Mexico from 1100-1521
Tenochtitlan
the Aztec capital north of the Valley of Mexico and home to a great pramid that was where many Aztec sacrificial and religious ceremonies took place
Ancestral Puebloans
in Western North America (Colorado, New Mexico, etc.), this group of people settled in farming communities built on mesas and canyon floors but eventually started carving their homes into canyon walls
Mesa Verde
a high plateau in souther Colorado, with the remains of many prehistoric Pueblo Indian dwellings
Vikings
a group of Scandinavian sea-faring pirates who came to the Americas to trade with the Native peoples
plains Indians
a group of Indians that moved around frequently always searching for more fertile land so their women could farm and men could hunt animals
Mound-builders:
societies made large groups of "earthworks" that flourished in Louisiana between 1500 and 700 BCE
Cahokia
one of the largest urban centers created by Mississippian peoples, containing 30,000 residents in 1250
Eastern Woodlands Indians
the first to encounter English explorers and the English settlers; they relied on agriculture, hunting, fishing, and gathering for food in villages with a few hundred people
Caribbean Islanders
a group of people originally from the mainland that came to the Caribbean in search for fertile soil and they trades by going on canoes to the mainlands and other islands and they were warred over and with the Europeans
Songhai Empire
A powerful West African state that flourished between 2450 and 1591, when if fell to a Moroccan invasion
Timbuktu
the seat of the Songhai empire and located in the middle of West Africa
Ghana
a center of slave trade that became a British colony in 1874 and it is was called the Gold Coast
Mali
a place in Africa that became a French colony
Benin
a country in West Africa
Asante
a term used to denote people from that part of Ghana
slave trade
the procuring, transporting, and selling of human beings for work (the Africans by the European countries and North America)
Black Death
a great epidemic in the 14th century in Europe of the bubonic plague that killed a large majority of Europe's population (especially workers and laborers)
Hundred Years War
a war between France and England in the 13th and 14th centuries
Renaissance "rebirth"
the revival of art and literature inspired by the classic models of the Greeks and Romans between the 14th and 16th centuries
Hierarchical
being arranged in order of rank
Patriarchal
men controlled everything, land was passed from father to son and never wife or daughter
Reconquista
The long struggle (ending in 1492) during which Spanish Christians re-conquered the Iberian Peninsula from Muslim occupiers
Catholic church
controlled European religion for a very long time until the protestant reformation started happening and many people turned on them and came to the Americas fro religious freedom
Martin Luther
the founder of the Lutheran religion and a German theologian who also started the reformation which challenged the Catholic Church to change into "purer practices"
Protestant Reformation
all European supporters of religious reform under Charles V's Holy Roman Empire
John Calvin
French theologian who was a large supporter of the protestant reformation
Predestination
the belief that God decided at the moment of Creation which humans would achieve salvation
spice trade
a trade between Asia and Europe that led to the search for quicker ways to Asia and the discovery of the Americas
Prince Henry of Portugal
he sponsored the efforts of ship-builders and map=makers so he could advance the ships and skills needed to travel quickly and easily
Caravel
a small, fast Spanish or Portuguese ship
magnetic compass
a tool used to navigate ships towards the Americas
astrolabe
a tool used to navigate by the stars towards the Americas
Christopher Columbus
sailed the ocean blue in 1492 with the aid of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain trying to find an easier passage to the Spice Islands but ended up finding America
Ferdinand and Isabella
the kind and queen of Spain in 1492 who sponsored Columbus' voyage
Conquistadores
a Spanish conqueror in Mexico or South America in the 16th century
Cortez
the first of the Spanish conquistadores who overthrew the Aztec Empire
Pizarro
Spanish conquistadore who conquered the Inca Empire
Cabeza de Vaca
an explorer who wrote a book that inspired other Spaniards to seek the treasures that were in the Americas, leading to many more explorations and conquering of Native American lands
Coronado
an explorer who opened the southwest to Spanish explorations and trade
Las Casas
the appointed Protector of the Indians (1516)
Columbian Exchange
the transatlantic exchange of plants, animals, and diseases that occurred after the first European contact with the Americas
Treaty of Tordesillas
treaty negotiated in 1494 to resolve the territorial claims of Spain and Portugal
Cartier
a French explorer (who found an abundance of bison) who explored Canada in the 1530s and 1540s
Cabot
sent to explore Canada for the English in 1497, but didn't hae enough money to do anything with his findings
Northwest Passage
the passage found by Cartier through Canada to Asia
Sir Walter Raleigh
1584, an expedition to find a colony and they looked at the Carolina coast on Roanoke Island and ended up returning to England in 1586
Roanoke Island
where Raleigh founded his failed colony of stubborn British men and also the sight of the destruction of the first colony "the lost colony"
Virginia Dare
the first child born in the Americas
Beaver
an animal that the Europeans traded with the Native Americans (...and bibles) Wanted by french for fur
Fish
a main source of food and trade in New England
coureurs de bois
French for "woods runner" an independent fur trader in New France
Champlain
the French explorer who founded a permanent settlement at Quebec
Quebec
a colony of the French that consisted of three villages and was founded by Champlain in 1608
Jesuit missionaries
in the 1630s members of a Catholic religious order founded during the Counter-Reformation tried to convince Indians to convert to Christianity
Indentured servant
individuals who contracted to serve a master for a period of four to seven years in return for payment of the servant's passage to America
St. Lawrence River:
a river located in New France that was heavily populated because of fur trade with Natives
Robert, Sieur de La Salle, 1682
in 1681-1682 this French explorer followed the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico, claiming the entire valley (which he named Louisiana in honor of the king) for France
Dutch East India Company
the instrument of colonial dominance in Asia and Africa, founded in 1602
West India Company
founded in 1621, the instrument that controlled the slave trade of West Africans to the Caribbean and North America
Henry Hudson
an Englishman sailing for the Dutch, who discovered the river that bears his name in 1609
Fort Orange
1624, the first permanent Dutch settlers on mainland North America to set up a fur trading post here (now Albany)
Tobacco
a plant made in the Chesapeake colonies (Virginia) that caused a cash-crop lifestyle and a large need for labor
joint stock company
business enterprise in which a group of stock holders pooled their money to engage in trade or to fund colonizing expeditions
Jamestown colony
a fortified settlement built by all-male colonists in 1607 to get money for the investors of the Virginia Company and eventually became a royal colony
Jamestown
a fortified settlement built by all-male colonists in 1607 to get money for the investors of the Virginia Company and eventually became a royal colony
Captain John Smith
in 1608 the Jamestown colonists turned to this man who provided them with military discipline and making people work
Northwest Passage
a sea passage along the northern coast of the North American continent, through the Canadian Arctic from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. It was sough for many years as a possible trade route by explorers that included Sebastian Cabot, Sir Francis Drake, and Martin Frobisher; it was first navigated in 1903 by Roald Amundsen
headright system
instituted by the Virginia Company in 1616, this system gave fifty acres to anyone who paid his own way to Virginia and an additional fifty for each person (or "head") he brought with him
House of Burgesses
the legislature of colonial Virginia, first organized in 1619 and was the first institution of representative government in the English colonies
Powhatan
Powhatan's daughter who married John Rolfe in 1614 and was baptized
Pocahontas
Powhatan's daughter who married John Rolfe in 1614 and was baptized
John Rolfe
an English colonist who married Pocahontas in 1614
"freedom dues"
the money, food, clothing, etc. an indentured servant would get after completing his years of servitude
proprietary colony
a colony created when the English monarch granted a huge tract of land to an individual or group of individuals, who became "lords proprietor"
Lord Baltimore
the man (AKA George Calvert) who was granted 10 million acres of land north of the bay by King Charles I in 1632
George Calvert
the man (AKA Lord Baltimore) who was granted 10 million acres of land north of the bay by King Charles I in 1632
Cecilius Calvert
George Calvert's son who saw his father's plans for Maryland unravel and fall apart
Act of Religious Toleration
the first law in America to cal for freedom of worship for all Christians
Puritan
individuals who believed that Queen Elizabeth's reforms of the Church of England had not gone far enough in improving the church
Pilgrims
Settles of Plymouth Colony who viewed themselves as spiritual wanderers
Plymouth Colony
the first of New England settlements, founded in 1620, and the members of the colony were reformers who believed that Queen Elizabeth had not rid the Church of England of all Catholic practices.
Church of England, Anglican Church
a Protestant denomination that was the main religion of England
conversion experience
to change ones religion, many Christians wanted the Indians to do this
separatist Puritans
Members of an offshoot branch of Puritanism. They believed that the Church of England was too corrupt to be reformed and hence were convinced they must separate from it to save their souls
Mayflower Compact
signed in 1620, established self-government in the Plymouth Colony and Pilgrim leaders urged all adult males to sign this
Wampanoag
a member of a confederacy of native peoples of southeastern Massachusetts who spoke the extinct Algonquian language Massachusett
Massachusetts Bay Colony
the non-separatist Puritans who founded Massachusetts in 1629
Non-separatist Puritans
people who believed in purifying the Anglican Church but not completely separating themselves from it
John Winthrop
a prosperous lawyer who was selected as the Massachusetts Bay colony's governor in 1630
Covenant
a contract with God, binding settlers to meet their religious obligations in return for God's favor
General Court
included the share-holders of the join-stock company that transformed into a two-house legislature for people to elect representatives to the lower house and eighteen members called "assistants" to the upper house that choose the governor and deputy gov.
Pequot War
Conflict between English settlers and Pequot Indians over control of land and trade in eastern Connecticut 1637
Connecticut
the site of the Pequot War in 1637
Fundamental Orders
in 1639, the settlers adopted this to create a government similar to that of Massachusetts, and the English government granted them a charter in 1662
Roger Williams
the founder of Rhode Island was a separatist minister who declared that because Massachusetts churches had not rejected the Church of England they shared its corruption.
Rhode Island
a colony founded by Roger Williams for extreme-separatists who thought the the MA Bay Colony was corrupt like the English Church
Anne Hutchinson
a woman who moved the New England in 1634 and became a religious leader who got banished from Boston and moved to Rhode Island with many of her followers
Sugarcane
a plant that caused Caribbean to be the home of massive slavery and a cash-crop agriculture
slave trade
the (economical) act of Africans being brought to the Americas to do cheap labor for the colonists especially in the Caribbean for sugarcane growth
slavery
the system of owning, buying, selling, trading, and exploiting people of a certain race for life without paying them for their work
biracial society
when the slaves consisted of a major part of the population of the Caribbean it became this
slave codes
a series of laws passed mainly in the southern colonies in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries to define the status of slaves and codify the denial of basic civil rights to them
The Restoration Colonies (1660-1685)
a lot of internal political stuff going on in England
Carolina
a large stretch of land from Virginia to Florida which Charles II granted to a group of supporters in 1663
Aristocracy
the highest social class in many societies that holds the highest rank of hierarchal titles or offices
Rice
a crop introduced to Carolina in the 1690s that soon became its main crop and caused a lot of slavery
Pennsylvania
a colony founded by William Penn for the people of Great Britain who were prosecuted for their religion
Quaker
members of the Society of Friends, a radical religious group that arose in the mid-seventeenth century who rejected formal theology and focused on the Holy Spirit that dwelt within them
William Penn
the founder of Pennsylvania who dreamed of a colonial utopia for all religions
"Holy experiment"
something that required colonists to live as neighbors to the Delaware Indians and one another
Frame of Government
William Penn's constitution for Pennsylvania, which included a provision allowing for religious freedom
New York
carved out of the Dutch colony of New Netherland and was granted by Charles II in 1664 to his brother James Duke of York (got to be in English control because of 2 wars and Dutch giving up easily)
New Jersey
the other part of New Netherland formed in 1664
Encomienda
In the Spanish colonies, the grant to a Spanish settler of a certain number of Indian subjects, who would pay in tribute in goods in labor
Repartimiento
In the Spanish colonies, the assignment of Indian workers to labor on public works projects
King Philip's War 1675
Conflict in New England (1675-76) between Wampanoags, Narragnsetts, and other Indian peoples against English settlers; sparked by English encroachment on native lands
Bacon's Rebellion
Violent conflict in Virginia 1675-76 beginning with settler attacks on Indians but culmination in a rebellion led by Nathaniel Bacon against Virginia's government
The Pueblo Revolt
Rebellion in 160 of Pueblo Indians in New Mexico against their Spanish overlords sparked by religious conflict and excessive Spanish demands for tribute
Beaver Wars
Series of bloody conflicts, occurring between 1640s and 1680s during which the Iroquois fought the Hurons and French for control of the fur trade in the east and the Great Lakes region
indentured servant
a Europeans sent to America (travel, food, and housing prepaid) to work for 3-7 years and then receive freedom dues
Anthony Johnson
a former servant who was freed and became a tobacco farmer that soon got his own slaves
slave code
any of several laws that defined slavery and its limit/expectations
Middle Passage
voyage between West Africa and the New World slave colonies (disgusting)
Creole
slave born in America rather than Africa that lived longer and had more children than the Africans
Stono Rebellion, 1739
Uprising in 1739 of South Carolina slaves against whites it was inspire by Spanish official's promise of freedom for American slaves who escaped to Florida
Redemptioner
similar to an indentured servant, except that a ... signed a labor contract in America rather than in Europe
tenant farmer
someone who rents a farm from another and pays in cash or kind
push pull immigration theory
people want to move from really densely populated areas to less densely populated areas (High to low)
mercantilism
Economic system whereby the government intervenes in the economy for the purpose of increasing national wealth.
enumerated products
Items produced in the colonies and enumerated in acts of parliament that could be legally from the colony of origin only to specified locations.
Navigation Acts
(1651) Britain controlled trade, all trade in empire had to be conducted in English or colonial ships.
chart of Average Annual Value of Colonial Exports by Region, 1768-1772
Staple crops- especially sugar- produced by slave labor were the most valuable items exported from Britain's North America.
artisan
Mostly lived in cities and near ports to take part in trade. Some manufactured ships, or items relating to trade. Skilled artisans lived in a fairly modest life, while basic skilled sometimes faced unemployment.
Paul Revere
Successful artisan in Boston
"courtesy books"
Books containing the rules of polite behavior. Americans were influenced by impeccable British manners.
John Locke
English philosopher who argued that god does not dictate knowledge, however gives us tools to acquire knowledge.
Ben Franklin
English member of the Royal Society. Embodied enlightenment ideas, made electrical advances.
Halfway Covenant
Plan adopted in 1662 by New England clergy to deal with problem of declining church membership, allowing children to baptize weather or not their parents had experienced conversion.
Great Awakening
Tremendous religious revival in colonial America striking first in the middle colonies and New England in the 1740s and then spreading to the souther colonies.
George Whitefield
An Anglican minister who preached powerfully in northern colonies. Captured many with dramatic sermons.
New Lights
People who experienced conversion during the revivals of the great awakening.
Dominion of New England
James II's failed plan of 1686 to combine eight northern colonies into a single land provence, to be governed by a royal appointee with no elective assembly.
Glorious Revolution
Bloodless revolt that occurred in England in 1688 when Parliamentary leaders invited william of orange, a protestant, to assume the English throne.
virtual representation
The notion that parliamentary members represented the interests of the nation as a whole, not those of the particular district that elected them.
actual representation
The practice whereby elected representatives normally resided in their districts and are directly responsive to local interests.
backcountry
Settlements beyond British Empire, Appalachian Mt. Area
Iroquois League
Indian tribe, once allied with English, however because of lack of protection and other benefits, they became neutral
Albany Plan of Union
Plan put forward in 1754 calling for an intercolonial union to manage defense and Indian affairs. This plan was rejected by participants at the Albany congress.
Treaty of Paris, 1763
The formal end of British hostilities against France and Spain in Febuary 1763.
Pontiac
Indian who resisted colonization. Believed that although Europeans occupied land, god intended American land for Indians.
Proclamation of 1763
Royal proclamation setting the boundary known as the proclamation line that limited British settlements to the eastern side of the Appalachian Mts.
Quartering Act
Acts of Parliament requiring colonial legislatures to provide supplies and places to stay for the troops stationed in America.
Cherokee War
Conflict (1759-1761) on the southern frontier between the Cherokee indians and colonists from Virginia southward.
Pontiac's Rebellion
Indian uprising led by Pontiac of the Delawares.
Sugar Act
Law passed in 1764 to raise revenue in the American colonies. It lowered the duty from 6 pense to 3 pense per gallon on foreign molasses imported into the colonies and increased the restrictions on colonial commerce.
external tax
Tax on export
indirect tax
customs duty (sugar act)
Stamp Act
1765: Law passed by parliament to raise revenue in America by requiring taxed, stamped paper for legal documents, publications and playing cards.
direct tax
Tax consumer pays
internal tax
Tax on import
British Constitution
The principles, procedures, and precedents that governed the operation of the British government, unwritten.
country ideology
Americans views on government, they wanted to be represented in parliament- Also stated that humans are selfish and government is inherently expansive and aggressive.
taxation
Americans shouldn't be taxed without representation in parliament
John Locke
Argued that rulers only act on public good. Citizens have right to rebellion
vigilante
A member of a self-appointed group of citizens who undertake law enforcement in their community without legal authority, typically because the legal agencies are thought to be inadequate.
vigilante justice
Regulators conflict with local elites. Response to regulators demonstrated inflexibility of British government.
Regulator
Vigilante group in 1760s and 1770s in western ports of North and South Carolina. Carolina regulators attempted to rid the area of outlaws; the North Carolina regulators were more concerned with high taxes and court costs.
Townshend Duty Act
act of parliament passed in 1767, imposing duties on colonial tea, led, paint, paper and glass.
nonimportation
Americans boycott against all British goods. Some spun clothes at home, forged a since of common purpose among all who participated.
Boston Massacre
After months of increasing friction between townspeople and the British troops stationed in the city, on march 5, 1770, British troops fired on American civilians in Boston.
committees of correspondence
Committees formed in the Colonies to keep Americans informed about British measures that would affect them.
Gaspee
A ship in Rode Island, caused controversy burned by John Brown.
Tea Act, 1773
Act of parliament that permitted the East India company to sell through agents in American without paying the duty customarily collected in Britain, thus reducing the retail price.
British East India Company
Trading company established in India, ship where tea was dumped in Boston Tea party.
Boston Tea Party
Incident that occurred in 1773 in which Bostonians disguised as indians, destroyed 9,000 pounds worth of tea belonging to the British east Indian company in order to prevent payment of the duty on it.
Coercive Acts
Legislation passed by parliament in 1774, included the boston port act, mt. government act, the administration or justice act, and the quartering act of 1774.
Intolerable Acts
American term for the coercive acts and quebec acts.
Boston Port Act
The Boston harbor was closed from trade until the destroyed tea was paid for.
Quebec Act
Law passed by parliament in 1774 that provided an appointed government for canada, enlarged boundaries of Quebec and confirmed the privileges of the catholic church
First Continental Congress
meeting of delegates from most of the colonies held in 1774 in response to the coercive acts. The congress endorsed the suffolk resolves, adapted the dec. of rights and grievances and agreed to establish the continental association.
Suffolk Resolves
Militant resolves adopted in 1774 in response to the coercive acts by representatives from the towns in suffolk country, MT, including Boston.
Continental Association
Agreement, adopted by the first continental congress in 1774 in response to the coercive Acts to cut off trade with Britain until the objectionable measures were repealed.
Whigs
The name used by advocates for colonial resistance to British measures during the 1760s and 1770s
Tories
A deceive term applied to loyalists in America who supported the King and Parliament just before and during the Am. revolution
Patriots
People for American freedom during Am. revolution
Loyalists
People loyal to the English throne during Am. revolution. Mostly recent immigrants, believed crown offered more protection than Americans. 20% of the free population was loyal, 100,000 moved back to Britain.
Minute Men
Special companies of militia formed in Massachusetts and elsewhere beginning in later 1774.
Conciliatory Proposition
Plan whereby parliament would forbear taxation of Americans in colonies whose assemblies imposed taxes considered satisfactory by the British government.
Battles of Lexington and Concord
The first two battles of the American revolution which resulted in a total of 273 British soldiers dead, wounded and missing and nearly one hundred Americans dead, wounded and missing.
Second Continental Congress
convened in philly on may 10, 1775, the second continental congress caled for the patchwork of local forces to be organized into the continental Army, authorized the formation of a navy, established a post office, and printed paper continental dollars to meet expenses.
Continental Army
The regular or professional army authorized by the second continental congress and commanded by General George Washington during the Rev. Wars.
Olive Branch Petition
Petition adopted by the second continental congress as a last effort of peace that avowed American's loyalty to George III and requested that he protect them from further aggressions.
Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms
Declaration of the second continental congress that Americans were ready to fight for freedom and liberty.
Declaration of Independence
Declaration of the Second Continental congress announced and justified its decision to renounce the colonies allegiance to the British government.
contract theory of government
The government is established by human beings to protect certain rights- life liberty and property that are theirs by natural, divinely sanctioned law and that when government protects these rights, people are obligated to protect it.
republicanism
Self government: the best foundation for society and individual freedom. Called for consent of the governed. Suspicious of excessively centralized government.
militia
A military force that is raised from the civil population to supplement a regular army in an emergency. Am. had no trained army, not prepared for war.
Hessians
German mercenaries employed by British government, gave Am. best idea of a professional army.
"camp followers"
Women who assisted soldiers in the war. They cooked, cleaned for men.
Battle of Saratoga
British lost- gave France reason to join americans and get back and British (1777). Britain's objective was to cut off New England from rest of the colonies. But Burgoyne's troops were attacked at Saratoga by troops commanded by American generals.
(General) "Gentleman Johnny" Burgoyne
British general who led Battle of Saratoga.
Valley Forge
Area of Pennsylvania approx. 20 miles northwest of Philly where Washington's continental troops were quartered from dec. 1777- June 1778 while British forces occupies Philly during the rev. war.
privateer
An armed ship owned and officered by private individuals holding a government commission and authorized for use in war, esp. in the capture of enemy merchant shipping.
Battle of Yorktown
American victory when Cornwallis marched his troops. The British army surrendered. This was the last major battle of the revolutionary war.
Peace of Paris, 1783
Treaties signed in 1783 by Great Britain, the US, France, Spain and the netherlands that ended the revolutionary war.
suffrage
The right to vote in a political election
republican motherhood
A positive view of women's influence entrusted mothers with the responsibility of passing on republican virtues from one generation to the next.
Phillis Wheatley
An acclaimed African American poet who was kidnapped into slavery as a child in Africa, she was a domestic slave to the Wheatley family of boston when her first poems were published in 1773.
Articles of Confederation
Written document setting up the loose confederation of states that comprised the first national government of the US.
Hector St. John Crevecoeur
Wrote optimistic letter about America- expressed American dream.
"legislative despotism"
The abuse of power by Tyrannical lawmakers
fiscal crisis
Debt America faced after war, $11. Congress could not tax states, therefore had no way to interfere in economy.
nationalists
Group of leaders in the 1780s who spearheaded the divide to replace the Articles of Confederation with a stronger central government.
Daniel Shays
Lead shays rebellion
Shays' Rebellion
An armed movement of debt- ridden farmers in western Massachusetts in the winter of 1786-1787. The rebellion created a crisis atmosphere.
inflation
Price goes up, demand goes down. Value of money drops
creditor
Money collectors
debtor
Money owers
Land Ordinance of 1785
Act passed by congress under the Articles of Confederation that created the grid system of surveys by which all subsequent public land was made available for sale.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Legislation that prohibited slavery in the northwest territories and provided the model for the incorporation of future territories into the union as co-equal states.
right of deposit
spain didn't allow americans to unload goods onto New Orleans ports to then be reshipped.
Annapolis Convention
Conference of state delegates at Annapolis, Maryland, that issued a call in september 1786 for a convention to meet at Philadelphia to consider fundamental changes to the articles.
Constitutional Convention
Convention that met in Philly in 1787 and drafted the constitution of the US
Constitution of the U.S.
The written document providing for a new central government of US
Virginia Plan
Proposal calling fora national legislature in which the states would be represented according to population. Drafted by James Madison. Organized government in executive, judicial, legislative.
New Jersey Plan
Proposal of the New Jersey delegation for a strengthened national government in which all states would have equal representation in a unicameral legislature.
judicial review
A power implied in the constitution that gives federal courts the right to review and determine the constitutionality acts passed by congress and state legislature.
federalism
the sharing of powers between the national government and the states
Federalists
A supporter of the constitution who favored its ramification
Antifederalists
An opponent of the constitution in debate over its ratification.
New England uniformity
Slavery was not an essential part of their economy, owning slaves was seen more as a status symbol.
Mid-Atlantic region
Religiously tolerant region that consisted of Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey and Delaware.
George Washington
General (valley forge) and first president of the United States.
Bill of Rights
A written summary of inalienable rights and liberties- first 10 amendments
Judiciary Act of 1789
Act of Congress that implemented the judiciary clause of the Constitution by establishing the supreme court and a system of lower federal courts.
Alexander Hamilton
Head to the treasury who attempted to fix the national debt. He issued many reports in his attempt.
Hamilton's financial plan
Plan to address revolutionary war debts
Call for an excise tax on distilled whiskey
Proposal to charter a national bank
Recommendation for government to promote industry
public credit
The reliability citizens have to pay back their debts.
national debt
America faced a large debt that eventually reached 52 million dollars. It was to be paid back with taxes.
assumption
Take over state debt
excise tax
A tax on the production, sale, or consumption of a commodity, a tax on something particular. Hamilton called for this on distilled whiskey produced within the US to raise revenue to pay of debt.
Federalist
Supporters of Hamilton's program; they were American's most fully integrated into the market economy- and in control of it
Republican
Party headed by Thomas Jefferson that formed in opposition to the financial and diplomatic policies of the Federalist party; favored limiting the powers of the national government and placing the interests of farmers overt those of financial and commercial groups.
French Revolution
Civil war in which the third estate rebelled against their monarchy government. They were inspired by the declaration of independence and the American revolution. The American federalist to help the French while the Republicans didn't.
Treaty of Greenville, 1794
Treaty in which Native Americans in the Old Northwest were forced to cede most of the present state of Ohio to the united states
Whiskey Rebellion, 1794
Armed uprising in 1794 by farmers in western pennsylvania who attempted to prevent the collection of the excise tax on whiskey.
Jay's Treaty, 1795
Treaty with Britain negotiated in 1794 in which the united states made major concessions to avert a war over the British seizure of American ships.
Pinckney's Treaty or Treaty of San Lorenzo, 1795
Treaty with spain in which Spain recognized the 31st parallel as the boundary between the US and Spanish Florida. US also gained the right of deposit in New Orleans. Spain wanted to be on the US side because of US relations with Britain and France.
XYZ Affair
Diplomatic incident in 1798 in which Americans were outraged by the demand of the French for a bribe as a condition for negotiating with American diplomats.
Quasi-War
Undeclared naval war of 1797 to 1800 between the US and France
Alien and Sedition Acts
Collective name given to four acts passed by Congress in 1798 that curtailed freedom of speech and the liberty of foreigners resident in the US
states' rights
Favoring the rights of individual states over rights claimed by the national government
Franco-American Accord of 1800
Favoring the rights of individual states over rights claimed by the national government
nullification, compact theory of the Constitution
A constitutional doctrine holding that a state has a legal right to declare a national law null and void within its borders.
Deism
Religious orientation that rejects divine revelation and holds that the workings of nature alone reveal God's design for the universe.
Revolution of 1800
The republicans (Jefferson) had gotten rid of the federalists (Hamilton). Republicans believed they had restored the US to what it was meant to be after the revolution and gained their rightful control of the government. A peaceful transformation of power.
Marbury v. Madison
Supreme court decision that created the precedent of judicial review by ruling as unconstitutional part of the judiciary act of 1789. (1803)
Madison
New secretary of state 1803
Marbury
Appointed to Justice of Peace- commission 1803
Judiciary Act of 1789
Supreme court. could order secretary of state to deliver commissions
Chief Justice- John Marshall of supreme court (federalist)
Supreme court review federal laws for constitutionality - precedent
judicial review
The power of the supreme court to rule on the constitutionality of federal laws that was created by Marshall after Marbury V. Madison.
Touissant L'Ouverture
Former slave who was the leader of the Haitian revolution.
Louisiana Purchase
Jefferson wanted to purchase New Orleans to have control of the port for international trade. Napoleon sold entire Mississippi delta to Jefferson because he had no need for it without the control of Haiti.
pragmatist
Practical- Jefferson became this during the Louisiana purchase when he acquired the land without constitutional direction telling him how to incorporate the new land & people into the US.
impressments
The coercion of American sailors into the British navy.
Chesapeake Incident
Attack in 1807 by the British ship Leopard on the American ship Chesapeake in American territorial water.
Embargo Act of 1807
Act passed by congress in 1807 prohibiting American ships from leaving for any foreign port.
Nonintercourse Act
A measure that prohibited US trade only with Britain and France. At the president's discretion, trade could be reopened with either nation once it lifted its restrictions on US shipping.
Macon's Bill No. 2
Bill that opened American trade to every country and said that if either France or England lifted its restrictions, the president would resume penalties sanctions against the other.
pan(all)-Indian resistance movement
Movement calling for the political and cultural unification of Indian tribes in the late eighteenth and and early nineteenth centuries.
War Hawks
Members of Congress, predominately from the south and West, who aggressively pushed for a war against Britain after their election in 1810.
The War of 1812
War fought between the US and Britain from June 1812 to January 1815 largely over British restrictions on American shipping.
invasion of Canada
-Madison hoped to conquer canada
-Three offensives against Canada in 1812 were failures
-By the end of 1812 British controlled half of the Northwest
British blockade
Br. three prong attack on US
Treaty of Ghent
Treaty signed in December 1814 between the US and Britain that ended the war of 1812. Pre-war boundaries & nothing said about maritime issues
-not much content
Battle of New Orleans
-General Andrew Jackson
-America Victory
Decisive American war of 1812 victory over British troops in January 1815 that ended any British troops in January 1815 that ended any British hopes of gaining control of the lower Mississippi River Valley.
The Era of Good Feelings
The period from 1817 to 1823 in which the disappearance of the Federalists enabled the Republicans to govern in a spirit of seemingly nonpartisan harmony.
election of 1824
Andrew Jackson-republican (TN) John Quincy Adams- republican (MA)-- Becomes president
William Crawford - republican (GA)
Henry Clay- republican (KY)
-was the speaker of the house
-wanted to become secretary of state in exchange for giving his votes to John Quincy Adams "Corrupt Bargain"
Andrew got 43% of popular vote
Got most of the electoral votes however still lost election
"corrupt bargain"
Henry Clay gave his electoral votes to John Quincy Adams in the election of 1824 allowing J.Q. Adams to win and Henry Clay to become the secretary of state.
Political democracy
majority rule of white males
Egalitarian impulse
politics opened to mass participation, empowerment of the common man, popular styles of religious leadership and worship emerged
Common man
Economic class referring to Jackson's preferred economic class.
Salary Act of 1816
in 1789 congress set the pay of reps. and senators at $6 + travel, by 1816 inflation had occurred and government clerks were making more than members of Congress. Congress thought them prudent and justified when they voted itself a hefty raise to $1500 a year, people hated this, and 70% of the members of congress were not reelected in the next election
Suffrage
the right to vote
Franchise
all white men be treated equally, land ownership not a qualification for voting, political rights for white men expanded and shrunk for women and free blacks
Universal white male suffrage
all white men have the right to vote
Second Great Awakening
religious revivals, priests reshaped religious to fit the needs and values of ordinary Americans, "free religion"
Evangelical Christianity
equality, women treated fairly, empowered blacks
Election of 1828
centered on personalities not issues, Jackson was elected; campaign managers were more skillful in image
Democratic Party
states' rights and limited role of the government
Spoils system, rotation in office
Jobs in the government; common people hold office, no political class, jobs to winning party loyalists
Maysville Road veto
bill which would have provided money for a road to be built entirely within Kentucky, didn't benefit the US as a whole
Indian Removal Act of 1830
Remove tribes to west of the MS River, White settlement threat to Indian way of life, land hungry
Cherokee Cases
Supreme Court said Cherokees were independent nations not subject to GA laws
Trail of Tears
forced march of 1828 for the Cherokee Indians from their homelands of Georgia to the Indian Territory in the West
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831)
court ruled that Georgia had violated the US Constitution in extending jurisdiction over the Cherokees
Nullification crisis
If a state doesn't agree with a federal law it can not obey it, South Carolina, tariff on goods coming into the country, price of goods goes up
N: industry, manufactured goods, will benefit from tariffs, protect domestic industries
S: consumer goods more expensive, Cotton agricultural exports
Tariff of 1816- 20-25%, 1828- 50% (abominations)
Jackson- states' rights kind of guy, if every state could nullify something then there would be no national government
John C. Calhoun
argued that a state, acting through a popularly elected convention, had the sovereign power to declare an act of the national government null and inoperative
Eaton Affair
when the wives of Jackson's cabinet members, led by Flordie Calhoun, called Peggy Eaton (wife of sec. of war) a loose woman, Jackson was convinced that Calhoun was plotting to discredit his admin. Calhoun fell from Jackson's favor and the entire cabinet resigned
Force Bill
1833, Jackson asked for and received full authorization to put down nullification by military force
Bank War
(Hamilton's National Bank 1791-1811)
2nd US Bank- credit- loans to businesses not individuals, shares- foreigners, individuals, government
Biddle- monopoly, favored businesses, foreigners, north
Jackson vetoed bank, government favored one group, not democratic
Abolitionist movement
radical antislavery crusade committed to the immediate end of slavery that emerged in the three decades before the Civil War
Whig Party
political party formed in mid-1830s in opposition to the Jacksonian Democrats, favored a strong role for the national government for promoting economic growth
Specie Circular, 1836
proclamation issued by President Andrew Jackson in 1836 stipulating that only gold or silver could be used as payment for public land
Independent Treasury System
Van Buren- the government dispensed with banks entirely, the treasury would now only conduct its business in gold and sliver coins and would store its specie in regional vaults or sub-treasuries
William Lloyd Garrison
The Liberator
Gag rule
procedural device where antislavery petitions were automatically tabled with no discussion
Second party system
national two-party competition between Democrats and Whigs from the 1830s through early 1850s
Eli Whitney
Invented the cotton gin
Long staple cotton
limited to humid Sea Islands and off the coast of GA and SC, required major investments in machines, dikes, and labors
Short staple cotton
no constraints, could grow profitably anywhere, and required no additional costs for machinery or drainage systems
Gang system
division of labor, teams of field hangs made of women as well as men, worked at a steady pace or felt the lash
Urban slavery
artisans, semiskilled laborers, domestics, lived apart from their owners; had more freedom than field hands, some could hire out their labor
Border South
Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri
Middle zone
South of the Border South, Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee and Arkansas
Agricultural reform
promotion of marl (calcium-rich seashell deposits), deeper plowing, systematic rotation of crops, upgrading the breeding stock for animal husbandry
African Americans
native born Africans
Slave codes
laws defining the status of slaves and the rights of masters; masters had near absolute power over their human property
Diet
corneal, slat pork, occasional veggies grown on the small garden plots, occasional catches of game and fish
Housing
15-by-15 foot hut, 5-6 occupants inside, little shelter against the elements, usually in a row
Working conditions
field hands toiled at hard physical labor from sunup to sun down. Sometimes there were incentives for them to work harder (extra rations, time off, passes to visit loved ones, etc.) worked hard under the constant fear of being whipped
Field slaves
worked 24/7
House slaves
or skilled artisans, had lighter and less regimented work loads than field hands, some planters used the prospect of transfer to this as an incentive to work harder
Family life
loved families, stayed close, formed tight bonds with all slaves (brothers, sisters, aunts, uncles), committed to their marriages
African religious influences
African Christianity, folklore, oral histories, used to create a religion that fit their needs, kept with African Traditions
Baptists
slaves favored them, allowed the slaves more leeway to choose their own preachers and engage in their physical call-and-response pattern of worship
Gabriel Prosser's Rebellion
fail, 50 armed slave (1,000 knew about it) tried to seize a key road to Richmond, slave informers' warned white authorities, 25 and Prosser were executed
1811 Louisiana slave revolt
several hundred slaves, poorly armed, U.S. troops and militiamen stopped them, 60 died, slave leader's heads were posted on poles along the MS River to warn other rebellious slaves
Denmark Vesey's Conspiracy
failed, most carefully devised slave revolt, plan to seize control of Charleston and escape to freedom in Haiti, betrayed by other slaves
Nat Turner's Rebellion
Southampton County, VA, led by Nat Turner, killed 60 white people, Turner hid for 2 months before being found, him and 30 others were killed, panicky whites killed 100 more
Underground Railroad
support system set up by antislavery groups in the Upper South and North to assist fugitives
Runaways
runaway slaves trying to get to free states
Planter class
those who held a minimum of 20 slaves, constituted only around 3% of all Southern families in 1860
Plantation mistress
raised children, managed household staff, oversaw cooking and cleaning, gardened, dispensed medicine and clothing to the slaves, and often assisted slaves in their religious instruction, secretly angry
Small slaveholders
younger than planters, scant economic security, diverse (10% were women, 20% were merchants, business men, artisans, urban professionals), most were farmers trying to acquire enough land and slaves to become planters, bought small slaves so they could grow
White majority (75%) non-slaveholders
predominated where the soil and climate were not suitable for plantation agriculture, Upper South, yeoman farmers who worked their own land with family labor, limited their market involvement to the sale of livestock and an occasional cotton crop that could bring in needed cash
Black codes
codes that denied nearly all rights to free black people
Free blacks
had to carry freedom papers, official certificates of their freedom, were shut out of the political process, couldn't testify against white people in court, most occupations were closed to them, upper south
Religious justifications
the bible said, through selective reading, that slavery was in full accord with His moral dictates, slavery became a matter of family governance, southern (evangelical) churches supported it
Evangelicals
supported slavery, accepted the bible as God's literal word, dominated southern religious expression
Paternalism
based on patriarchy, thought to deprive individuals of freedom and responsibility
Emancipation
freedom of slaves
Transportation Revolution
dramatically reduced transportation costs and shipping times, opened up new markets for farmers and manufacturers, provided incentive for expanding production
Steamboats
first transportation breakthrough, reduced cost and time of upriver shipments by 90%
Erie Canal
1825, artificial waterway designed to link eastern seaboard cities with western markets, stretched from Albany to Buffalo, reduced $$
Robert Fulton
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)
Railroads
(1825 first railroad in England) late 1820s in America, pushed outward from seaboard cities to the Western market, kept expanding, vital part of US society
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
affirmed the supremacy of the national government to regulate interstate commerce, Ogden had a monopoly on a steamboat service between NY and NJ. Gibbons, Ogden's competitor, had a federal license for the coastal trade. The court ruled that the right to compete under the national license took legal precedence over Ogden's monopoly
New York City
harbor for ships, situated for trade, access to the Eerie Canal, largest city, countries chief financial center, by 1820-1860 1/3 of the nations exports and 3/5 of imports passed through New York, benefited from rich and extensive hinterland
Omnibus
horse drawn coaches carrying up to 20 passengers, were in common use by the 1820's
Fall line
rural New England, rapidly falling water provided cheap power to drive the industrial machinery of factories and machine shops
Lowell, Massachusetts
founded in 1822, America's first large-scale planned manufacturing city, model for other to follow
Immigration
most Irish and German, tenfold increase, in 1840s economic and political upheavals in Europe spurred mass migration,
Irish
moved to the US during the Potato Famine, joined construction gangs for canals and railroads, took the worst and lowest paying jobs
Germans
second to the Irish, escape poor harvests and political turmoil, had the capital to purchase land in the West and the skills to join ranks of small businessmen in cities, entered US through Baltimore or NOLA and fanned out in to the MS and Ohio valleys
Putting-out system
merchants would furnish raw materials for rural households
Artisan, mechanic
skilled craftsmen known as mechanics, produced small batches of finished goods, specific skill
Apprentice
learned the "mysteries of the craft" lived with artisans and worked with them, adolescent boys
Journeyman
learned a specific skill, lacked the capital to open their own shops
Master
knows the "mysteries of the craft"
Factory system
after 1815 could produce goods quicker and cheaper per worker than could artisans or rural households, put workers under systematic controls, boosted workers' productivity through the use of power-driven machinery
Samuel Slater
British mechanic who took over the operation of a fledging mill in Providence, Rhode Island, with his knowledge of how to build the water-powered spinning machinery, he converted the mill into the nationals first permanent cotton factory in 1790
Waltham system
during the industrialization of the early 19th century, the recruitment of unmarried young women for employment in factories, factory wages were more than women would be making at home
Child labor
Irish, desperate for work, sent their children to the mill at an earlier age than Yankee families
"Mill girls"
single female workers who lived in company-owned boardinghouses, had curfews, screened visitors, mandated church attendance, worked 6 days a week from dawn till dusk
Cotton gin
cheaply and quickly removed the seeds from cotton fibers, spurred the cultivation of cotton across the South
Steam power
high pressure steam engine allowed power-driven industry to locate in port cities of the NE and the booming cities on the Great lakes, helped W. manufacturers after 1840 enlarge their region's industrial base and create a new industry- mass production of agricultural implements
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