AP Euro Chap 15 IDs Flashcards

Great Northern War
Terms Definitions
Dutch Golden Age
Dutch farming, advanced shipping, unified political leadership, profitable banking, seaborne empire, religious toleration all factors for success. Decline due to death of William III (stadtholder), decline of naval and fishing industry.
William III
He was hesitant to come into England from the Netherlands and immediately take over the thrown but most of the British army took his side so it was easy to make James II flee. During his rule, he passed the Act of Toleration in 1689 which garanteed religious tolerance to Protestants. stopped catholic rule. He also placed more power towards the Parliament and stopped many of the illegal activities that James II was doing.
house of orange
Stadholder/leader for most provinces of Holland was usually from HofO. It has been prestigious since days of William the Silent(fought agnst Spain in reign of Philip II). Prince of Orange, in addition to being stadholder was also one of the feudal noblemen(military experts). When foreigners threatened invasion - power of stadholder increased as provinces sought his military leadership & protection. When all was calm and economic activity as usual in the provinces, the merchant/burgher class prevailed.
Stadtholder
Dutch hereditary chief excecutive; A hereditary chief executor over provinces in Holland. Ex: William III of Orange (1650-1702)
United Provinces of the Netherlands
formed in 1581 (the Dutch republic), and led by William of Orange I against the Spanish Inquisition, eventually declaring political and religious independence from spain with help from Elizabeth I of GB.
Dutch Reformed Church
United Provinces of the Netherlands. The rise of Calvinism here set the stage for a revolt against the Inquisition of King Philip II of Spain
Tulip Bulbs
keh
Dutch East Indies Company
Joint stock company that obtained government monopoly over trade in Asia; acted as virtually independent government in regions it claimed.
Duke of Orleans
regent of France, messed up via parlament (he strengthened them) and the Mississippi Bubble affair
John Law
Scottish drunk who became financial advisor of France and created the disatrous Mississippi Company.
Mississippi Bubble
created by John Law, it failed so the ecomoy went bankrupt and the government didn't by the investors back the money they lost, no trust in the French economy
Cardinal Fleury
most important advisor of Louis XV, trying to help stablize France, try to isolate France, so can work on economy, debt because nobles were not paying taxes, greates failure was when France got involved in the War of Austrian Succession (last year of life), England was able to isolate because island (trying to copy England)
Hanoverian Dynasty
Anne is last of Stewarts, and then use Act of Succession and got to Sophie of Hanover, all Hanovers were George, spoke German, and did not know the ways of the English and so made new traditions (prime minister)
George I
1700's was a German Protestant prince who spoke no English, therefore completely let Parliament have control and started the Cabinet, which was a handful of Parliament advisers
The Stuart Pretender
Keh
Whigs v Tories
Keh
Robert Walpole
the first minister to maintain continuing support for royal government by exercising both careful use of Crown patronage and untiring leadership in the House of Commons
South Sea Bubble
sold shares but then went bankrupt, Walpole made Parliament give the investors their money back, created trust for the English economy
Leopold I
the head of Habsburg elected in 1657 and in return keeping two promises: give no help to his cousins, the rulers of Spain, and the empire would be a state of princes, in which each ruler would be free from imperial interference
Charles IV
As a Czech who grew up in France, he was able to make Progue a multi-cultural city when he returned there to rule. He founded a university modeled after the University of Paris and was a leader in cultural rebirth. He also helped take apart the Holy Roman Empire and issued the Golden Bull regarding how it should be governed. In the 100 Years War, he fought successfully against France, in addition to being the rightful heir to the French throne.
Pragmatic Sanction
This was the act passed by Charles VI that stated that Hapsburg possessions were never to be divided, in order to allow his daughter to be ruler
Prussia
largest of north German states; centered at Berlin; ruled by Hohenzollern - along w/ Junkers - Prussian nobility; built strong army; one of the great electors of the HRE
Hohenzollerns
turned small disconeccted territories of prussia into string military powers. with a agreement of the loyal landowning nobles or junkers. they challenged the hapsburgs for dominance over central europe.
The Great Elector
the name given to Frederick William who was on the greatest Hohenzollerns. He reorganized the armies into one strong force and improved tax and encouraged agriculture, industry, and transportation
Junkers
The nobility and the landowning classes' known as the "Junkers" dominated The Estates of Brandenburg and Prussia. Frederick William I grab for power brought him into considerable conflict with the Junkers. In his early years, he even threatened to destroy them; yet, in the end, the Prussian nobility was not destroyed-but enlisted-into the army. Responding to the combination of threats and opportunities, the Junkers became the officer caste. The Great Elector weakened the powers of the Junkers (572-575)
King in Prussia
KEH
Frederick William I
the son and successor of Frederick I who disliked French ways and got rid of most of its luxury and used the saved money to strengthen Prussia by doubling the size of its army and makign it the most efficient fighting force in Europe. He also created an efficient government bureaucracy and encouraged trade and the development of new industries. He required that all parents send their children to school.
Frederick the Great
invaded Selisia when Maria Theresa took throne, smashed her army, and made Prussia a world power in 1742. Focused on education, improved schools and allowed free press- did nothing to change social STRUCTURE of Prussia
General Directory
established by Fred Will. I to supervise military, economic, and financial affairs as the chief administrative agent of the central gov
Ivan IV
set up secret police, the most powerful of the early czars. Learned, religious, and cruel. Saw treason everywhere and arrested, exiled, or excecuted many advisors, reduced boyars power, increased Russia's trade with western Europe and worked to expand borders, conquered Mongul lands to the east and south of Moscow
Time of Troubles
followed death of Ivan IV without heir early in 17th century; boyars attempted to use vacuum of power to reestablish their authority; ended with selection of Michael Romanov as tsar in 1613.
Boyars
These were the hereditary nobility of Muscovy, who had a great deal of power there. They were treated terribly by Ivan the Terrible, who stripped many of life, status, and/or property, and appointed new ones who owed him allegiance.
Streltsy
Moscow's aritocracy - business men, government officials, etc. are opposed to westernization so compete with Peter. Peter doesnt want to compete, kills whole streltsy in 1698.
Romanovs
An old family of Russian nobles. After Ivan the Terrible Died they came to power. Peter the Great and Ivan the Terrible's wife, Anastasia were part of this family. They ruled Russia from 1613 to 1917, Dynasty that ruled Russia for 300 years 1613-1917
Peter the Great
Became the ruler of Russia and known for westernzing the country in order to be successful. He made Russia come out of their isolation and created the first navy. He soon moved his capital to St. Petersburg, where he expanded the size of Russia.
St. Petersburg
Capitol city created by Peter the Great to resemble a French city. It was built on land taken from Sweeden
Great Northern War
Russia vs. Sweden. Russia had Poland, Denmark and Saxony as allies. Treaty of Nystad is where Russia gained Latvia and Estonia and thus gained its Window on the West in the Baltic Sea
Battle of Poltava
After a decisive Russian victory at Poltava in 1709, greatly reduced the threat of the Swedish armies, Peter moved in high gear and wanted to build a city like no other in the world, the St. Petersburg. (587)
Aleksei
entered a military plot with the habsburg emperor against the tsar and was condemned to death
Table of Ranks
insisted that all nobles must work their ways up from lower class to the highest administraive class. it reversed the heiarchy of russian noble society.
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