Exit Level Social Studies TAKS Review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Absolute Chronology
Time and date measurements based upon an exact date (example: July 4, 1776)
Relative Chronology
Time and date calculated from a major event (example: "Ten years after the birth of Jesus", "25 years before World War I", etc.), one event comes before or after another one
Magna Carta
First document of English rights, trial by jury, Could not be deprived of life, liberty and property, signed by King John in 1215
Representative government
Philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people
Spatial diffusion
The process where plants, animals, diseases, ideas, or innovations are transmitted from one group or culture to another across space, examples - bubonic plague, Columbian exchange
Bubonic plague
Example of Spatial Diffusion, - Black Death, spread from Asia to Europe, 1347 to 1352, 25 million (one third of population) died in Europe
Columbian exchange of food
Example of Spatial Diffusion of Food, Plants, Animals, and Diseases between New World (the Americas) and Old World (Europe, Africa, Asia)
Traditional economy
An economic system where production is determined by tradition and customs and goods and services are exchanged by bartering without money
Command economy
An economic system where the production of goods and services is determined by the government
Market economy
An economic system where the production of goods and services is determined by demand from consumers; also called capitalism
Subsistence agriculture
Goods produced by a family only for own consumption, small scale, low technology, no surplus, no trade with others
Cottage industries
Products usually made in the home or in small shops, small scale production of goods for sale in markets in traditional economy
English Bill of Rights
Passed by Parliament in 1689 - English rights reinforced, no taxation, right to petition, individual rights
Physical geographic factors
Factors related to natural environment - topography, climate, vegetation, land forms, water bodies, natural resources, and location on earth
Human geographic factors
Factors related to people - population distribution, population density, population growth rates, agriculture and industry, culture, environment, government, language, religion, history, economy, education, etc.
Demographic patterns
Changes and trends in population and settlement patterns, for example: increases in income or birth rates, migration or immigration of people between areas
1776
Declaration of Independence signed, start of Revolutionary War, United States established as an independent nation
Declaration of Independence
July 4, 1776, written by Thomas Jefferson, American colonies declare independence from England, list of grievances against King George III
Thomas Jefferson
Main author of the Declaration of Independence, 3rd President of U.S.
Unalienable right
Right/privilege which, according to the Declaration of Independence, cannot be taken away, these include life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness (and property)
Colonial grievances
Taxation without consent, no representation, no trial by jury, quartering troops, standing armies, etc. - addressed by Constitution & Bill of Rights
Revolution
Armed rebellion, uprising against the government or authority, a period of great change
Independence
Free from influence or control of other nations, sovereign
American Revolution
War for U.S. Independence, 1775 - 1783, major battles - Lexington & Concord, Saragota, Yorktown
George Washington
Commander in Chief of Continental Army, 1st President of U.S.
Confederation
An alliance of states where states have the majority of the power and retain their sovereignty
Articles of Confederation
First government of United States from 1781 - 1788, state sovereignty, weak national government - no standing army, no power to tax, no courts, no executive
1787
U.S. Constitution written at Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, Ratification of Constitution and Federalist Papers in 1788
Philadelphia Convention
1787, constitutional convention resulted in creation of FEDERAL government (separate executive, judicial and legislative branches), replaced the Articles of Confederation and wrote the U.S. Constitution
Constitution
A document that defines the government a constitution restrains the powers of the government and guarantees certain rights to the people
1787-1788
Basic law and government of the United States, based on 7 principles - republicanism, popular sovereignty, federalism, limited government, separation of power, checks and balances, individual rights
Limited government
Limits are placed on the powers of government, everyone including all authority figures must obey the laws
Republicanism
Power is held by the people and exercised through the efforts of representatives elected by those people
Federalism
Distribution of the powers of government between a central (federal) government and the regional (states) governments
Separation of powers
Form of government organized in three branches - a legislative branch (Congress), an executive branch (the President) and a judicial branch (Supreme Court)
Checks and balances
Each branch of the government shares its power and checks the other two, prevents any branch of government from becoming too powerful
Popular sovereignty
All political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government
Federalist Papers
Newspaper articles in New York state - explained reasons why people should adopt the new US constitution, authors: Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay
Individual rights
The rights of the people protected in the Bill of Rights including economic rights related to property, political rights related to freedom of speech and press, and personal rights related to bearing arms and maintaining private residences
Bill of Rights
Basic rights outlined in the first 10 amendment of constitution
1st thru 10th Amendments
Basic rights - 1 Speech, press, religion, assembly, petition 2 Bear arms 3 Quarter soldiers, 4 Searches, 5 Due process, 6 Fair trial, 7 Jury trial,8 Cruel/Unusual punishment, 9 States rights reserved, 10 Individual rights not listed
Free speech
1st Amendment right, right to speak one's own mind
Freedom of the press
1st Amendment right, right to state anything in the printed form
Nullification Crisis
Attempt by South Carolina to nullify of federal law in 1832, issue - high federal tariffs, South Carolina protested/refused to pay, Pres Jackson -Force Act, SC backed down
States' rights
A view held by Southerners before the Civil War that the states were sovereign and had rights independent of the federal government and law
Civil war
A war between people, factions, or regions with a country
1861-1865
Dates of the Civil War between North and South, War Between the States, began with Ft. Sumter and ended at Appomattox Courthouse, major battles - Gettysburg and Vicksburg
Civil War
1861 - 1865, War Between the Northern and Southern states, North wins, Abraham Lincoln president, main battles - Gettysburg & Vicksburg
Reconstruction amendments
13th - 1865 - abolished slavery
14th
1868 - guaranteed all citizens, including former slaves, civil rights and equality
15th
1870 - guaranteed voting rights to former male slaves
13th Amendment
Ended slavery in United States, adopted during Reconstruction period
14th Amendment
Due process and equal protection under the law, applies to the states, defined U.S. citizenship, adopted during Reconstruction period
15th Amendment
Guaranteed right to vote to African American males, adopted during Reconstruction period
Free enterprise system
All economic systems answer the following 3 questions - WHAT should be produced? HOW should it be produced? WHO should it go to? In the free enterprise system, people are free to produce what they can and to buy what they can afford, the interaction of decisions in the market by producers and consumers determines what is produced
Market-oriented agriculture
Growing crops and raising animals for sale in the market to make a profit
Farm issues
Issues surrounding the production of agricultural products. The main issues were the high cost of transportation (caused railroad monopolies), low prices for farm products (caused by overproduction), and mortgaged farms in order to buy seed and supplies.
Industrialization
Production of goods and products in factories by machines, occurred in the late 19th century, led ed to more goods being produced at lower prices, new sources of energy replaced human and animal power, factories and machines replaced the production of goods by hand (cottage industry), farmers left the countryside to work in cities, while population growth increased
Commercial industry
Products usually made in a factory by a machine to sell in a market, production of manufactured goods in a market economic system
Big business
Large companies that control major portions of the economy, owners of big businesses became politically powerful because of their wealth from profits
Labor union
Workers who band together to demand better working conditions, shorter hours, and higher pay, COLLECTIVE BARGAINING allows all in the union to benefit equally.
Child labor
Children under 14 years were exploited (taken advantage of) as workers, children were often forced to do dangerous jobs or work long hours for low pay
Population growth
Increase of the number of people in an area (state, region, country) as result of increases in food/resources, migration, immigration
Migration
Process of people moving to a new place to stay permanently or for a long time
Immigration
Movement of people out of one country and into another. Note: people EMIgrate out of one country and IMMIgrate into another.
Minority group
Any group of persons identified by race, ethnicity, religion, etc., and numbering less than 50 percent of total population.
Urbanization
Major move from countryside to cities in late 19th century, caused growth of cities and four major problems as a result - inadequate public services, overcrowding, social tensions, and corruption
Economic growth
The growth of the economy of nation as measured by its gross domestic product (GDP) and at the personal level by per capita GDP
Standard of living
Level of development in a country, measured by factors like the amount of personal income, levels of education, food consumption, life expectancy, availability of health care, ways natural resources are used, level of technology
Scientific discoveries
Technological improvements based on science such as the telephone, radio, airplanes, television, medicine vaccinations, etc.
Technological innovations
New ways of doing things which are based on a technology, major changes that improve how people live, examples - fire, agriculture, writing, electricity, industry, telephones, airplanes, computers, A/C
Telegraph
New form of communication over long distance, patented by Samuel Morse in 1837, messages were sent using a code (Morse Code) in a matter of seconds
Railroads
Helped westward expansion of the US by carrying large amounts of goods, cattle, and people, main means of transportation in US from 1840s to 1940s, railroads also became powerful politically.
1898
Spanish-American War: USS Maine attacked Feb. 15, US defeated Spain in war, gained control of Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Guam, Rough Riders, San Juan Hill
Spanish-American War
USS Maine attacked Feb. 15, 1898, US defeats Spain, gains control of Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Guam, Rough Riders, San Juan Hill
Expansionism
The belief in the early 20th century that the United States needed to grow outside its continental boundaries, areas of expansion included American control of the Caribbean, building of the Panama Canal, acquisition of islands in the Pacific to be used as coaling stations for U.S. ships
Panama Canal
Built between 1901-1914, provides shortcut across narrowest portion of Central America to connect Atlantic and Pacific Oceans; cost 5,000 lives to construct, 50 mile long canal
Theodore Roosevelt
26th US president (1901-09); hero of Spanish-American War, moved U.S. into position as a world power, reform president during progressive period, conservationist, founder Bull Moose Party; "Speak softly, but I carry a big stick!" Square Deal, Rough Riders
World power
A nation becoming a dominant force throughout the world, this process usually involves colonization, having a strong military presence, and the protection of countries weaker than it against other world powers
Reform
The need to change things for the better, some of the major areas of reform in US history were abolition of slavery, working conditions and pay, moral issues, muckrakers, prohibition, Second Great Awakening, spoils system, urban welfare, women and children in the workplace, civil rights, business practices
16th Amendment
Established a national income tax (1913), Congress has power to tax individual incomes
17th Amendment
Allowed voters to choose US senators (1913), before 17th amendment US senators were chosen by state legislatures, examples of popular sovereignty
W.E.B. DuBois
Early 20th-century African-American political leader; early member/ founder of National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP); first Black to receive Ph.D. from Harvard University
Susan B. Anthony
Leader of SUFFRAGETTE (women's voting rights) movement in 19th century, 1872 arrested in NY for trying to vote, 19th Amendment approved 13 years after her death
19th Amendment
Equal voting rights for women in federal and state elections (1920), suffrage amendment
Imperialism
Domination of one country by another, the quest for colonial empires, examples for the United States: Hawaii, Spanish-American War, Philippines, Panama Canal, Latin America, Mexican Revolution
Militarism
To glorify military strength - before World War I the arms race by major European powers developed large armies and more powerful weapons than their rivals, strong nations began to form alliances to add even more strength to their military might
Nationalism
National pride or loyalty - a cause of World War I which began in the Balkans with rival national groups, led to assassination of Archduke Ferdinand which started World War I
1914-1918
World War I: Involved most of Europe, US, Allies vs. Central Powers, U-boats sink Lusitania - 128 US killed and US enters war in 1917, war noteworthy because of cost, number of killed, and use of aircraft, tanks, poison gas and machine guns
World War I
From 1914 to1918: "The Great War" and "War to End All Wars", involved most of Europe, Allies vs. Central Powers, noteworthy because of cost, number of killed, and use of aircraft, tanks, poison gas and machine guns, US enters was in 1917 after U-boats sink Lusitania - 128 US killed
Unrestricted submarine warfare
Germany's policy of sinking any ships on the seas to prevent war supplies from reaching its enemies, England and France, this practice forced the US into World War I in 1917
Woodrow Wilson
28th President (1913-21); president during World War 1, Wilson in his 14 Points offered conditions for ending World War I and called for creation of League of Nations to settle differences between countries, Progressive Democrat
Wilson's Fourteen Points
President Wilson's plan for the post-World War I world, included SELF- DETERMINATION (self-rule) for small countries and League of Nations (pre-UN), freedom of the seas
Treaty of Versailles
Peace treaty ending World War 1, declared Allies winners of the war and set out terms of German REPARATIONS (payment for war damages), based on Wilson's 14 Points.
Red Scare
Fear in Western countries after World War I that Bolsheviks/Communists were trying to start revolutions and take over democracies. In the United States the Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer conducted raids to depot aliens suspected of being Communists
Prosperity
"Good times" enjoyed by Americans in 1920s after World War I, employment and wages were high and workers bought more consumer goods and had more leisure time
Henry Ford
Inventor of "Model T" in 1905 and "Model A" cars; introduced MASS PRODUCTION methods of building many cars quickly in a large factory, assembly line in 1914
Scopes Trial
Trial in Tennessee in 1925 involving John Scopes, biology teacher who taught theory of evolution at a time when only creation theory accepted in Tennessee and 12 other states, "Monkey trial", lawyers - Clarence Darrow vs. William Jennings Bryan
Clarence Darrow
Famous defense attorney known for flamboyant courtroom behavior and antics, defended Eugene Debs in 1894 union case, defended John Scopes in 1925 "Monkey Trial"
William Jennings Bryan
Nebraska congressman; candidate for president in 1896; prosecuting attorney in John Scopes 1925 "Monkey Trial", Bible man, presidential candidate in 1900 and 1908 elections, Democrat, POPULIST movement, which declared rich should pay more
Prohibition
US constitutional amendment (18th amendment) that made illegal the manufacture, transportation, possession, or sale of alcohol, led to black market and rise of crime
Charles A. Lindbergh
Hero of the 1920s; first aviator to cross the Atlantic non-stop in the "Spirit of St. Louis" aircraft (1927), NY to Paris 33 hours, former US Army and airmail pilot
1929
Stock Market Crash, Black Tuesday Oct. 29, end of prosperity period of 1920s with cheap credit, overvalued stocks, and consumer greed, plunges US and world into the Great Depression of the 1930s
Stock Market Crash
October 1929: Thousands of investors go broke when stocks lose their value because of greed, margin buying and shady business deals, beginning of the Great Depression
Bank failures
Bad bank loans drained cash out of peoples' savings accounts; depositors later demanded their cash, which banks no longer held, caused banks go bankrupt (fail)
Depression
A time of economic decline caused by a sharp drop in business activity; accompanied by rising unemployment, the Great Depression (1929-1941) was a serious global economic decline that began with the crash of the US stock market in 1929
Great Depression
Began in 1929 and lasted throughout the 1930s, economic crisis caused by stock market crash; Americans suffer job loss, hunger and other hardships for more than a decade
New Deal
President Franklin Roosevelt's effort to jump-start the US economy and create jobs, New Deal programs emphasized relief, recovery, and reform
FDIC
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. Created to insure bank (checking and savings) accounts against loss in case of mismanagement or financial disasters.
Social Security Act
Passed in August 1935 as part of FDR's New Deal; intended to protect American who were unable to support themselves - single parents, disabled, retired and elderly
Dictatorship
One person holds all of the political power in a country
1941-1945
Years of US involvement in World War II, America enters war when Japan attacks US base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Dec. 7 ("Day of Infamy"), Europe and Pacific theaters, Japan-Italy-Germany vs. U.S.-Great Britain-Russia, war end in Europe May 8 and Japan Aug. 14, 1945
Pearl Harbor
Surprise Japanese attack on largest US base in Hawaii on Dec 7, 1947("Day of Infamy"); caused US to enter World War II, more than 2,000 US military and civilians are killed.
World War II
1941-1945 were years of US involvement, but war began in Europe in 1939, America enters war when Japan attacks US base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on Dec. 7 ("Day of Infamy"), Europe and Pacific theaters, Japan-Italy-Germany vs. U.S.-Great Britain-Russia, war ends with surrenders in Europe on May 8 and by Japan on Aug. 14, 1945
Internment of Japanese Americans
In response to Pearl Harbor, US government suspects all Japanese-Americans as possible spies; thousands especially on West Coast relocated to prison camps on US mainland
Battle of Midway
Considered "turning point" of World War II in the Pacific; US ships and planes defeat large Japanese fleet on its way to capture Midway Island for use as military base (1942)
Home front
What was happening in the United States while America was at war. Examples: women in the economy (Rosie the Riveter), war bonds, rationing coupons, victory gardens, scrap metal drives
Rationing
Goods needed for the armed forces or wartime production was rationed (limited); included rubber, gasoline, oil, sugar, butter, and meat, Americans used coupons to obtain their supply of the rationed item.
Holocaust
Imprisonment, torture and extermination (genocide) of more than 6 million Jews by Nazi Germany, millions of other people also killed in camps; major death camp - Auschwitz
Normandy Invasion
June 6, 1944, "D-Day", Operation Overlord, Allied invasion of France, beginning of the end for Germany in World War II
Harry S. Truman
VP who became president in 1945 with death of Franklin Roosevelt, decided to drop atomic bomb on Japan, stood up to USSR, Potsdam Treaty, Truman Doctrine 1947, Korean War
Atomic bomb
Harry S Truman decision to use the bomb on Hiroshima & Nagasaki, August 1945, Enola Gay, killed thousands of Japanese, ended World War II in the Pacific Front
Hiroshira and Nagasaki
Atomic bombs (developed in Manhattan Project) dropped on these Japanese cities (Aug. 6 & 9, 1945), ended WWII in Pacific on Aug. 14, 1945
GI Bill of Rights
1944 law providing financial aid to World War II veterans entering college, starting a business, buying a home, preference in government jobs.
Truman Doctrine
President Truman's position after World War II that US would aid any nation threatened by the Communists, part of US containment policy against Soviet Union and communism
George C. Marshall
US Army general who helped develop US plans to win World War II, created "Marshall Plan" to rebuild Europe after World War II, organized Civilian Conservation Corps
Marshall Plan
US economic aid program that rebuilt Western Europe after World War II; proposed by Secretary of State George Marshall; part of US containment policy against communism
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949); a mutual defense pact among Western European nations and United States; further enforced containment of communism
Korean War
Conflict arising in 1950 from post-WW II division of Korea at latitude 38 degrees north, between North (Communist) and South Korea; President Truman sends in US troops (police action) to help South Korea; General Douglas MacArthur head of United Nations forces; Korean War ends in stalemate armistice in 1953
McCarthyism
Named after US Senator Joseph McCarthy; part of fear of communism scare after World War II in the 1950's; practice of unproven accusations of disloyalty; Sen. McCarthy's downfall - accusing Army of harboring Communists and being seen on TV as a bully
Joseph McCarthy
US Senator from Wisconsin 1950, conservative, believed communists were trying to take over US from the inside, called many famous people to testify before Congress to prove their loyalty and reveal names of suspected spies, responsible for McCarthyism
Sputnik I
Launched by the Soviet Union in 1957, the world's first space satellite; showed that US was behind in education, big push to improve science and math education, "Space Race" began
International trade
Trade between countries from all over the world, trade usually benefited both countries involved, but sometimes benefited the dominant country more.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
US Supreme Court decision (1954) overturning "separate but equal" idea of racial segregation (separation/discrimination), led to integration of US public schools.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Minister and civil rights leader of 1950s-60s, famous for "I Have a Dream" speech, assassinated in Memphis, on Apr. 4, 1968, non-violent protest style copied from Gandhi in India
Civil rights movement
Activities by African Americans in 1950s and 1960s to make the Reconstruction Amendments actually work for them in the South, key events -. Brown v. Board of Education, Freedom Riders, March on Washington, Montgomery Bus Boycott, non-violent resistance, sit-ins, civil rights movement led by Martin Luther King, Jr.
Political equality
The concept that all persons in a country have the same political power, the Reconstruction Amendments and the Suffrage Amendment tried to achieve this in the United States for African Americans and for women, but not until the Civil Rights Movement in the 1950's and 1960's did political equality truly happen in the U.S.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
President Johnson's first important piece of legislation; prohibited an employer from denying someone a job because of race, sex, or religion, gave the federal government the power to desegregate public places
24th Amendment
Eliminated fees (poll taxes) required for voter registration in most states (1964)
26th Amendment
Lowered the minimum voting age from 21 to 18 for voting in all elections (1971)
Vietnam Conflict
Conflict between 1946 - 1975 in which Vietnamese overthrew French rule, followed by conquest of South Vietnam by North Vietnam; US comes in on S. Vietnam's side against Communist N. Vietnam, final settlement signed on Jan. 27, 1973, United States LOST
Watergate
Office and apartment complex in Washington, DC, headquarters of Democratic National Committee, break-in ordered by White House officials; President Nixon (Republican) resigns from office over scandal to avoid impeachment and removal hearings.
Resignation of President Nixon
Richard M. Nixon resigned as president (Aug. 1974), rather than face impeachment (removal from office), after the discovery of his involvement in the Watergate burglary of the Democratic Party headquarters.
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