AP Biology, Chap. # 11: The Control of Gene Expression Flashcards

Terms Definitions
A protein that switches on a gene or group of genes
Adult stem cell
A cell present in adult tissues that generates replacements for nondividing differentiated cells
Alternative RNA splicing
A type of regulation at the RNA-processing level in which different mRNA molecules are produced from the same primary transcript, depending on which RNA segments are treated as exons and which as introns
A cancer-causing agent, either high-energy radiation or a chemical.
The specialization in the structure and function of cells that occurs during the development of an organism; result from selective activation and deactivation of the cells' genes
Embryonic stem cell (ES cell)
Cell in the early animal embryo that differentiates during development to give rise to all the different kinds of specialized cells in the body
A eukaryotic DNA sequence that helps stimulate the transcription of a gene at some distance from it. It functions by means of a transcription factor called an activator which binds to it and then to the rest of the transcription apparatus
Gene expression
The process whereby genetic information from the genotype to the phenotype
A small protein molecule associated with DNA and impportant in DNA packing in the eukaryotic chromosome
Homeotic gene
A master control gene that determines the identity of a body structure of a developing organism, presumably by controlling the developmental fate of groups of cells
Nuclear transplantation
A technique in which the nucleus of one cell in placed into another cell that already has a nucleus or in which the nucleus has been previously destroyed
A cancer-causing gene; usually contributes to malignancy by abnormally enhancing the amount or activity of a growth factor made by the cell
In prokaryotic DNA, a sequence of nucleotides near the start of an operon to whichan active repressor can attach. The binding of a repressor prevents RNA polymerase from attaching to the promoter and transcribing the genes of the operon
A unit of genetic regulation common in prokaryotes; a cluster of genes with related functions, along with the promoter and operator that control their transcription.
A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA located at the start of a gene that is the binding site for RNA polymerase and the place where transcription begins.
A normal gene that can be converted to a cancer-causing gene
The regrowth of body parts from pieces of an organism
Regulatory gene
A gene that codes for a protein, such as a repressor, that controls the transcription of another gene or group of genes
A protein that blocks the transcription of a gene or operon.
Reproductive cloning
Using a somatic cell from a multicellular organism to make one or more genetically identical individuals
Signal transduction pathway
In cell biology, a series of molecular changes that converts a signal on a target cell's surface to a specific responce inside the cell
A eukaryotic DNA sequence that functions to inhibit the start of gene transcription; may act analogously to enchancer by binding a repressor
Therapeutic cloning
The cloning of human cells by nuclear transplantation for therapeutic purposes, such as the generation of embryonic stem cells
Transcription factor
In the eukaryotic cell, a protein that functions in initiating or regulating transcription. Transcription factors bind to DNA or to other proteins that bind to DNA
Tumor-suppressor gene
A gene whose product inhibits cell division, thereby preventing uncontrolled cell growth
X chromosome inactication
In female mammals, the inactivation of one X chromosome in each somatic cell.
RNA interference (RNAi)
A biotechnology technique used to silence the expression of specific genes. Synthetic RNA molecules with sequences that correspond to particular genes trigger the breakdown of the gene's mRNA
DNA microarry
A glass slide with thousands of different kinds of single-stranded DNA fragments fixed to it in a tightly spaced array, or grid
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