American Pageant 13th edition: The Jacksonian Era (Chapters 13, 14, 15, 17) Flashcards

Terms Definitions
election of 1824
Adams, Jackson, Crawford, Clay, Calhoun. Calhoun drops out because Jackson promised him vice presidency. Jackson had plurality not majority. Crawford had a stroke and Clay dropped out leaving Adams and Jackson. Adams won.
New Democracy
new fashion of governement; common white man's government - all white men could vote; belief in power to the people
King Caucus
until 1820, presidential candidates were nominated by caucuses of the two parties in Congress, but in 1824, this idea was overthrown.
Andrew Jackson
7th president. Won the election of 1828. Old Hickory. Dirty Politician. Not about intellect but more about emotions. More power to the executive branch.
William Crawford
was Sec. of Treasury under James Monroe Presidency; and a canidate for Presidency in 1824 he represented the south in this election. Had a stroke that cost him the vote.
John Quincy Adams
Elected president in the election of 1824. He was a chip off the old glacier. Very cold but very moral. Harsh, judgemental, and smart. Wanted fair treatment of Indians.
Cherokees
an Indian nation that developed their own written language,converted to Christianity, developed their own system of government, and considered agriculture their career.
"corrupt bargain"
When Clay threw all of his support to Adams, Adams promised Clay the Secretary of State position.>almost guaranteed the presidency in the following election.
Pamama Congress of 1826
a convention that met to promote unity in the americas. simon bolivar didn't like the us because we had slaves so he made it to where we couldn't attend. Adams didn't want to go anyway. Congress sent men despites Adam's wishes to make him look stupid but only 4 showed up and they were late. LOSERS!!
Tarriff of Abominations
the tarriff of 1828 that was issued to protect the industry of America. it was very controversal because it was very harmful to the Southern industry. South Carolina nullified it.
South Carolina Exposition
a document written by Calhoun (in secret) that protested the tarriff of 1828.
John C. Calhoun
political philosopher from south carolina. Advocate for states rights, limited gvt and nullification. 1st vp that was a US citizen, 7th vp under adams and jackson. served as a house of rep secretary of war and state.
National Republicans
supporters of a strong central government who favored road building and supported the Bank of the United States to shape the nation's economy; many were farmers or merchants
Democratic Republicans
political party which favored states rights and weaker national government- followers of Jackson (more like today's democrats)
Rachel Jackson
Wife of Andrew Jackson who was accussed of living with Jackson before they married and was still "married" when she married Jackson. >her divorce was not final.
"Revolution of 1828"
Jackson's election showed shift of political power to "the common man" (1828)
"King Andrew the First"
Jackson's nickname because he went veto-crazy and acted as somewhat of a tyrant.
spoils system
trading jobs for political favors.
rotation in office
Jackson believed "Any white man of average intelligence can do any job."; all men should get a chance to hold office at least to see what it's like; Jackson rotated men to keep them on their toes (so they didnt get too much power)
Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren, a Democratic-Republican Senator from New York, rallied the factory workers of the North in support of Jackson. He became Jackson's V.P. after Calhoun resigned. The president after Jackson. 8th President.
Kitchen Cabinet
a group of unofficial advisers to Andrew Jackson who met with him in the WHite House kitchen since he disagreed with his actual cabinet.
Peggy Eaton
Social scandal (1829-1831) - John Eaton, Secretary of War, stayed with the Timberlakes when in Washington, and there were rumors of his affair with Peggy Timberlake even before her husband died in 1828. Many cabinet members snubbed the socially unacceptable Mrs. Eaton. Jackson sided with the Eatons, and the affair helped to dissolve the cabinet - especially those members associated with John C. Calhoun (V.P.), who was against the Eatons and had other problems with Jackson.
Maysville Road Veto
1830 - The Maysville Road Bill proposed building a road in Kentucky (Clay's state) at federal expense. Jackson vetoed it because he didn't like Clay, and Martin Van Buren pointed out that New York and Pennsylvania paid for their transportation improvements with state money. Applied strict interpretation of the Constitution by saying that the federal government could not pay for internal improvements.
nullification
individual states have the right to disobey federal laws if they find them unconstitutional.
Tariff of 1832
The Tariff of 1832 was a protectionist tariff in the United States. It was passed as a reduced tariff to remedy the conflict created by the tariff of 1828, but it was still deemed unsatisfactory by southerners and other groups hurt by high tariff rates. Southern opposition to this tariff and its predecessor, the Tariff of Abominations, caused the Nullification Crisis involving South Carolina. The tariff was later lowered down to 35 percent, a reduction of 10 percent, to pacify these objections.
Compromise Tariff of 1833
provided for a gradual lowering of duties and the Force Bill which authorized the president to use arms to collect customs duties in S. Carolina. sig. Jackson would do wat he had to keep SC in U.S.
Henry Clay
a representative from Kentucky who was a strong nationalist and creator of the Missouri Compromise. Jackson's enemy.
Force Bill
Bill that says Congress is authorized to use the military against belligerent states. Is nullified by South Carolina.
Second B.U.S.
The bank that was set up to stabalize the economy after the First B.U.S. failed.
wildcat banks
banks in west who foreclosed on countless farms, causing westerners to hate national bank.
Nicholas Biddle
Nicholas Biddle became the bank's president. He made the bank's loan policy stricter and testified that, although the bank had enormous power, it didn't destroy small banks. The bank went out of business in 1836 amid controversy over whether the National Bank was constitutional and should be rechartered.
election of 1832
Andrew Jackson vs Henry Clay +Floyd and William Wirt; jackson wins by lots 1st x 3rd and 4th party runs
removal of deposits
Jackson removed all of the federal money from Bank of the US - killed bank
Specie Circular
In 1836 Jackson issued a proclamation which provided that after Aug. 15 only specie was to be accepted in payment for public lands. He hoped that the Specie Circular would reverse the damaging effects of the Deposit Act of 1836.
Black Hawk War
In the early 1830's, white settlers in western Illinois and eastern Iowa placed great pressure on the Native American people there to move west of the Mississippi River. Native American tribes visited Chief Black Hawk of the Sauk tribe. Black Hawk lead a rebellion against the United States. The war started in Illinois and spread to the Wisconsin Territory. It ended in August 1832 when Illinois militia slaughtered more than 200 Sauk and Fox people.
Seminole War
conflict that began in florida in 1817 between the seminole indians and the us army when the seminoles resisted removal
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
Stephen Austin
Austin, Texas was named after him; he was the man the brought the first Americans into Texas because he was granted permission by the Mexicans. They had to be Roman Catholic and learn spanish.
Sam Houston
United States politician and military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from Mexico and to make it a part of the United States (1793-1863). Former governor of Tenessee. President of the Lone Star Republic.
Santa Anna
general/dictator of Mexico, lead the Mexican War, defeated the Texans at The Alamo and was Captured at San Jacinto
the Alamo
Santa Anna's army succeeded in late 1836. His force of 4000 men laid siege to San Antonio, whose 200 Texan defenders retreated into an abandoned mission, the Alamo. After repeated attacks, the remaining 187 Texans including Davy Crockett were wiped out and a few weeks later Mexican troops massacred some 350 Teas prisoners.
Panic of 1837
a series of financial failures(due to Jackon and the specie circular) that led to an economic depression
Whigs
a party that was created and united under hatred/disagreement with the Democrats/
election of 1836
Democrats- Van Buren...Whigs- 3 different candidates
San Jacinto
the decisive battle of the Texas Revolution. Led by General Sam Houston fought on April 21, 1836, in present-day Harris County, Texas, suprised the Mexicans on their day of rest. Captured Santa Anna.
pet banks
State banks where Andrew Jackson placed deposits removed from the federal National Bank.
Election of 1840
William Henry Harrison (Whigs) "hard cider and log cabins" campaign Vs. Martin Van Buren (Democrats)
William Henry Harrison
9th President of the United States who ran against Van Burnen in the election of 1840. He was elected then caught pnemonia and died a couple days after giving his inaugural speech.
John Tyler
elected Vice President and became the 10th President of the United States when Harrison died (1790-1862)
Daniel Webster
a senator from Massachusettes and the most powerful speaker of his time who was involved in the Webster-Hayne debate
annexation of Texas
Texas decides to secede from Mexico and attempts to declare its independence which eventually leads to our adoption of the land as a state although it was feared that it would cause conflict with mexico leading to war. Southern states in support of this as Texas brought slaves with it meaning it would increase agricultural profits. The North fearded the Slavery therefore they were against it.
Oregon Country
what land was claimed by england spain russia and the united states in the early 1800s.
Oregon Trail
One of the main overland migrationm routes on which pioneers traveled across the North American continent in wagons in order to settle new parts of teh United States of America during the 19th cent. {Missouri to Oregon}
49th parallel
Dividing line at the 49th parallel - north became Canada, South became Washington and Oregon.
election of 1844
candidates were henry clay for the whigs and james polk for the democratss/polk won because he favored expansion he also demanded that oregon and texas be added to the US
James K. Polk
became pres in 1845. wanted to settle oregon boundary dispute with britain. wanted to aquire California. wanted to incorperate Texas into union. (11th President)
Liberty Party
A former political party in the United States; formed in 1839 to oppose the practice of slavery; merged with the Free Soil Party in 1848
Nueces River
Mexico's claimed boundary of Texas
Rio Grande
America'sclaimed boundary of Texas
Slidell's Mission
Slidell wanted Mexico to recognize the Rio Grande as th eborder of Texas and make peace with the US.
Zachary Taylor
"Old Rough and Ready" general, wins Battle of Monterey, lures Mexican army to attack
John C. Fremont
heard about the Mexican war while stationed in California so he went to the local government and took over California in the name of America.
Winfeild Scott
took over the port of vera cruise in Mexico
Nicholas Trist
sent into Mexico and then called back, didn't listen and stayed so his political career wouldn't end. Talked to Santa Anna and settled the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo
1848. Mexico recognized American claims to area north of Rio Grande. Mexico ceded Calif and New Mex to the US for 15 mil. US agreed to assume 3mil in debts mexico owed to Am citizens. Polk dissatisfied with treaty, wanted more territory
Eli Whitney
Inventor of interchangeable parts and the cotton gin
cotton gin
a machine that separates the seeds from raw cotton fibers. This sped up Southern developement and increased slavery in the South.
interchangeable parts
identical components that can be used in place of one another in manufactoring. Invented by Eli Whitney
Elias Howe
invented the sewing machine in 1846
Isaac Singer
made improvements on Howe's sewing machine, as it was soon being used in the manufacture of ready-to-wear.
Boston Associates
They were a group of Boston families who joined to form one of the earliest and most powerful joint-capital ventures. They eventually came to dominate the textile industry, the railroad, insurance, and banking business' in all of Massachusetts. With Pride the Boston Associates considered their textile mill in Lowell, Massachusetts a showplace factory. The labor there was mostly New England farm girls who were supervised on and off the job and worked from "dark to dark."(
Lowell factory girls
the workers in the Lowell factory. They took up room and board in dorms at the factory
John Deere
United States industrialist who manufactured the steele plow suitable for working the prairie soil (1804-1886)
Cyrus McCormick
United States inventor and manufacturer of a mechanical harvester (1809-1884)
Robert Fulton
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)
Erie Canal
an artificial waterway connecting the Hudson river at Albany with Lake Erie at Buffalo
clipper ships
Fast sailing ship of the mid-1800's, first one was the rainbow, had mast and huge sails
Pony Express
express mail carried by relays of riders on horseback Especially between Missouri and California
nativism
Preference for native born Americans and a hatred of immigrants
William Miller
A self-educated farmer from New York. Convinced from his studies that Christ will return in 1843, from his studies of the Scriptures.
Joseph Smith
religious leader who founded the Mormon Church in 1830 (1805-1844)
Horace Mann
Education activist who worked towards better funding, longer school years, and higher pay for teachers
Mary Lyon
in 1837 founded the first college for women, Mount Holyoke Female Seminary
Susan B. Anthony
social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation
the Grimke sisters
Angelina and Sarah. Daughters of a South Carolina slave owner, they toured throughout the Northeast to campaign for the abolition of slavery
Dorthea Dix
Argued for separate asylums for the mentally ill
New Harmony
the experimental community in Indiana founded by Robert Owen in 1825; "Village of Cooperation"
Shakers
American religious sect devoted to the teachings of Ann Lee Stanley, prohibited marriage and sexual relationships. "shook" the sin out.
John Trumbull
John Trumbull was an American artist during the period of the American Revolutionary War famous for his historical paintings including his Declaration of Independence. Significance- His declaration of independence picture appears on the reverse of the $2 dollar bill.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
leading transcendental philosopher
Tom Thumb
the first American built steam locomotive
Samuel F.B. Morse
invented telegraph morse code can send messages to distent places
Irish Potato Famine
The potato crops in Ireland became diseased and the Irish starved. Set off the immigration to the U.S.
Second Great Awakening
The newest interest in religion that spread to N.England to the Appalation and to the South-meetings where woman and African Americans converted to Christianity-Charles Finney became leader of 2nd Great Awakening.
Adventists
thought that Jesus was coming back on oct 22 1844, now 7th day adventists
Mormons
church founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 with headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah. thought Smith was like Jesus and was sent to save the Indians.
Noah Webster
Wrote Readers for public schools. Also wrote the dictionary.
Lucretia Mott
leader in the abolitionist and women's rights movements
Lucy Stone
American suffragist who founded the American Women Suffrage Association.
Brook Farm
a transcendentalist commune; an attempt by Thoreau and others to leave society behind
Gilbert Stuart
(1755-1828) American painter, did several idealized portraits of Washington
Washington Irving
American writer remembered for the stories "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow," contained in The Sketch Book (1819-1820).
Henry David Thoreau
Romanticism--Transcendentalism: Walden; Civil Disobedience
Walt Whitman
United States poet who celebrated the greatness of America (1819-1892)
National Road
First national road building project funded by Congress. It made travel and transportation of goods much easier because it was one continuous road that was in good condition.
DeWitt Clinton
The leader of government officials who came up with the plan to link New York City with the Great Lakes region. (Erie Canal)
John Jacob Astor
A new Yorker, he founded the American Fur company
Cyrus Field
laid first transatlantic telegraph cable. Cut communication time from Europe to America and vice versa.
Unitarianism
Christian doctrine that stresses individual freedom of belief and rejects the Trinity
Latter-Day Saints
The present day mormon church
Brigham Young
Led the Mormons in Utah after Smith died.
William Mcguffey
was an American professor and college president who is best known for writing the McGuffey Readers, one of the nation's first and mostly widely used series of textbooks. It is estimated that at least 120 million copies of McGuffey Readers were sold between 1836 and 1960, placing its sales in a category with the Bible and Webster's Dictionary.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
founder with Susan B Anthony of NWSA
Margaret Fuller
wrote about the need for women's rights in the book Women in the Nineteenth Century
Horace Greeley
newspaper editor who strongly supported the newly-formed Republican party
Seneca Falls Convention
Women's rights convention that results in a declaration of sentiments but not much else
Oneida Community
founded by John Humphrey Noyes in 1848 in Oneida, New York. The community believed that Jesus Christ had already returned in the year 70, making it possible for them to bring about Christ's millennial kingdom themselves, and be free of sin and perfect in this world, not just Heaven (a belief called Perfectionism). Did the deed with old folk.
Charles Wilson Peale
(1741-1827). A Marylander who painted 60 portraits of Washington, who had around 14 of them.
Transcendentalism
any system of philosophy emphasizing the intuitive and spiritual above the empirical and material
Edgar Allen Poe
only author that did not experience success from writings, troubled, and endred personal tragedies. Dark Romantic
George Bancroft
"Father of American History" who helped found the Naval Academy at Annapolis in 1845 as secretary of the navy; published a superpatriotic history of the US to 1789 that grew out of vast research in Europe and America
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