Art vocabulary word Flashcards

Art
Terms Definitions
work of art
visual expression of an idea or experience, formed with skill, through the use of a medium
medium
a particular material
outsider artists or folk artists
people with little or no formal art education
creativity
the source of all art, creative thinking
line
an extension of a point
Geometric shape
Circle, triangle, and square tend to be precise and regular. Any shape enclosed by square or straight or perfectly circular lines. Usually contrasted with organic shapes.
Organic shape
An irregular, non-geometric shape. A shape that resembles any living matter. Most organic shapes are not drawn with a ruler or a compass.
Positive shape
A figure or foreground shape, as opposed to a negative ground or background shape.
Ground
The background in two-dimensional works--the area around and between figure(s). Also, the surface onto which paint is applied, consisting of sizing plus primer.
Negative shape
A background or ground shape seen in relation to foreground or figure shape(s).
Mass
Three-dimensional form having physical bulk. Usually a characteristic of a sculpture or building . Also, the illusion of such a form on a two- dimensional surface.
Figure-ground reversal
A visual effect in which what was seen as a positive shape becomes a negative shape, and vice versa.
Linear perspective
A system for creating an illusion of depth or three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional surface. Usually used to refer to linear perspective, which is based on the fact that parallel lines or edges appear to converge and objects appear smaller as the distance between them and the viewer increases.
Horizon line
In linear perspective, the implied or actual line or edge place on a two-dimensional surface to represent the place in nature where the sky meets the horizontal land or water plane.
Atmospheric perspective
Atmospheric perspective ( aerial perspective) creates the illusion of distance by reducing color saturation, value contrast, and detail in order to imply the hazy effect of atmosphere between the viewer and distant objects. Parallel lines remain ; there is no convergence. A work is executed in one-point perspective has a single vanishing point. A work in two-point perspective has two of them.
Value
The lightness or darkness of tones or colors, White is the lightest value; black is darkest. The value halfway between these extremes is called middle gray. Sometimes called tone.
Chiaroscuro
Italian word meaning " Light dark." The gradations of light and dark values in two-dimensional imagery. Especially the illusion of rounded, three-dimensional form created though gradations of light and shade rather than line. Highly developed by Renaissance painters.
Color
Light waves of differing wavelengths or frequencies. Objects that appear to have color are merely reflecting the colors that are present in the light that illuminates them
Neutrals
Not associated with any single hue. Blacks, whites, grays, and dull gray-browns. A neutral can be made by mixing complementary hues.
Shade
A hue with black added
Color wheel
The color wheel uses the different hues of the three primary hues to create a basis for color
Primary hues
Those hues that cannot be produced by mixing other hues. Pigment primaries are red, yellow, blue; Light primaries are red, green, and blue. Theoretically, pigment primaries can be mixed together to form all the other hues in the spectrum.
Secondary hues
Pigment secondaries are the hues orange, violet, and green, which may be produced in slightly dulled form by mixing two primaries.
Intermediate hues
A hue between a primary and a secondary on the color wheel such as yellow-green, a mixture of yellow and green.
Warm colors
Colors relative visual temperature makes them seem warm. Warm colors or hues include re-violet, red, red-orange, orange, yellow-orange, and yellow.
Cool colors
Colors whose relative visual temperatures make them seem cool. Cool colors generally include green, blue-green, blue, blue-violet, and violet. Warmness or coolness is relative to adjacent hues.
Monochromatic colors
A color scheme limited to variations of one hue; a hue with its tints and/or shades.
Analogous colors
Closely related hues, especially those in which a common hue can be seen; hues that are neighbors on the color wheel , such as blue, blue-green, and green.
Complementary colors
Two hues directly opposite one another on a color wheel that, when mixed together in proper proportions, produce a neutral gray.
Representational art
Art in which it is the artist's intention to present again or represent a particular subject, especially pertaining to realistic portrayal of subject matter.
Figurative art
Representational art in which the human form( rather than the natural world) plays a principal role.
Trompe l'oeil
French for " fool the eye." A two-dimensional representation that is so naturalistic that it looks actual or real ( or three-dimensional).
Abstract art
Art that is based on natural appearances but departs significantly form them. Forms are modified or changed to varying degrees in order to emphasize certain qualities or content. Recognizable references to original appearances may be very slight. The term is also used to describe art that is nonrepresentational.
Nonrepresentational art
Art without reference to anything outside itself--without representation. Also called "nonobjective"--without recognizable objects.
Form
In the broadest sense, the total physical characteristics of an object or event. Usually describes the visual elements of a work of art that create meaning, for example: A huge, looming shape in a painting is a form that may create haunting or foreboding meaning. is what we see
Content
Meaning or message communicated by a work of art, including its emotional, intellectual, symbolic, thematic, and narrative connotations.
Iconography
The symbolic meanings of subjects and signs used to convey ideas important to particular cultures or religions, and the conventions governing the use of such forms. For example, in traditional Christian art, a key symbolizes St. Peter, to whom Christ gave the keys to the kingdom of heaven. An hourglass symbolizes the passage of time, etc.
Design
In arts three-dimensional ( such as sculpture or architecture), the process of arranging visual elements into a finished work. Also means the product of the process, as in, "The design of that chair is excellent."
Composition
The combining of parts or elements to form a whole; the structure, organization, or total form of a work of art.
Scale
The size or apparent size of an object seen in relation to other objects, people, or its environment. Also used to refer to the quality or monumentality found in some objects regardless of their size. In architectural drawing, the ratio of the measurements in the drawing to the measurements in the building. A building may be drawn in a scale of 1:300, for example.
Unity
The appearance of similarity, consistency, or oneness. Interrelational factors that cause various elements to appear as part of a single complete form.
Pattern
Repetitive ordering of design elements.
Balance
An arrangement of parts achieving a state of equilibrium between opposing forces or influences.
Symmetrical balance
A design ( or composition) with identical or nearly identical form on opposite sides of a dividing line or central axis.
Asymmetrical balance
The various elements of a work are balanced but not symmetrical. This is achieved by balancing visual weights and forces of the parts. are not the same
Emphasis
A method an artist uses to draw attention to an area. May be done with central placement, large size, bright color, or high contrast.
Focal point
The principal area of emphasis in a work of art. The place to which the artist directs the most attention through composition. May or may not be the same as the vanishing point in a work. if the area is a specfic spot of figure
Subordination
Technique by which an artist ranks certain areas of a work as of lesser importance. Areas are generally subordinated through placement, color, or size.
Directional forces
Pathways that the artist embeds in a work for the viewer's eye to follow. May be done with actual or implied lines, or lines of sight among the figures depicted in a work.
variety
Diverse elements in the composition of a work of art. Most works strive a balance between unity and variety.
tint
A hue with white added
subjects
In representational art, what the artist choosees to depict.It may be a landscape etc.
volume
space enclosed or filled by a three dimensional object or figure. implied space filled by a painted or drawn object or figure.
biomorphic shape
a shape in a work of art that resembles a living organism or an organic
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