Chapter 28 Flashcards

main groups
Terms Definitions
Protists
An informal term for members of diverse, mostly unicellular groups of eukaryotes.
Mixotrophs
A group of protists that combine photosynthesis and heterotrophy (obtaining nutrients by absorbing organic molecules or ingesting larger food particles).
Secondary Endosymbiosis
When an organism is ingested in the food vacuole of heterotrophic eukaroytes and become endosybionts themselves. An evolutionary process underwent by red and green algae.
Excavata
One of the five main groups of protists. A recently proposed clade that has emerged from morphological studies of the cytoskeleton.
Diplomonads
A subgroup of Excavata, one of the five main groups of protists. Have modified mitochondria called mitosomes, which lack functional electron transport chains.
Parabasalids
A subgroup of Excavata, one of the five main groups of protists. Have reduced mitochondria called hydrogenosomes, that generate some energy anaerobically, releasing hydrogen gas as a by-product.
Euglenozoans
A subgroup of Excavata, one of the five main groups of protists. The clade includes predatory heterotrophs, photosynthetic autotrophs, and parasites. Remarkable for their spiral or crystalline rode of unknown function inside their flagella.
Kinetoplastids
Protists that have a single, large mitochondrion that contains and organized mass of DNA called a kinetoplast.
Euglenid
Has a pocket at one end of the cell from which one or two flagella emerge. Many species are mixotrophs.
Chromalveolata
One of the five main groups of protists. A large, diverse clade based on DNA sequence data and the idea that they originated more than a billion years ago, when a common ancestor engulfed a single celled, photosynthetic red alga.
Alveolates
A group defined by their membrane-bounded sacs (alveoli) just under their plasma membrane.
Dinoflagellates
Characterized by cells that are reinforced by cellulose plates. Two flagella located in perpendicular grooves in this armor make them spin as them move through water.
Apicomplexans
Nearly all are parasites of animals, and some cause serious human diseases. They spread through their host as tiny infectious cells called sporozoites.
Ciliates
A large, varied group named for their use of cilia to move and feed. They have two types of nuclei- tiny micronuclei and large macronuclei.
Stramenopiles
A group of marine algae that include some of the most important photosynthetic organisms on the planet. Notable for their numerous fine, hairlike flagellum.
Diatoms
Unicellular algae that have a unique glass-like wall made of hydrated silica embedded in an organic matrix.
Golden Algae
A type of algae whose characteristic color results from their yellow and brown carotenoids. The cells are typically biflagellated.
Brown Algae
The largest and most complex algae. All are multicellular, and most are marine. Their characteristic color is due to the carotenoids in their plastids.
Thallus
Refers to an algal body that is plantlike. However, it lacks true roots, stems, and leaves.
Holdfast
The rootlike portion of a thallus.
Stipe
The stemlike portion of a thallus.
Blades
The leaflike portion of a thallus.
Alternation of Generations
A type of complex life cycle that involves the alternation of multicellular haploid and diploid forms.
Heteromorphic
In alternation of generations, when the sporophytes and gametophytes are structurally different.
Isomorphic
In alternation of generations, when the sporophytes and gametophytes look similar to each other, though they differ in chromosome number.
Oomycetes
A group that includes water molds, white rusts, and downy mildews. Previously classified as fungi because of their morphology.
Rhizaria
One of the five main groups of protists. Mostly made up of amoebas.
Amoebas
Formerly defined as protists that could move and feed with pseudopodia, though now established as a non-monophyletic group that is dispersed across many eukaryotic taxa.
Pseudopodia
Extensions that may bulge from almost anywhere on the cell surface, used by amoebas to move and feed.
Foraminiferans
A group of protists named for their porous shells.
Forams
Another name for foraminiferans, a group of protists named for their porous shells.
Tests
The porous shells of foraminiferans.
Radiolarians
Protists known for their delicate, intricately symmetrical internal skeletons, generally made of silica. Their pseudopodia usually radiate from the central body and are reinforced by bundles of microtubles.
Archaeplastida
One of the five major groups of protists, descended from the ancient protists that engulfed a cyanobacterium.
Red Algae
Mulitcellular algae that derive their distinctive color to a photosynthetic accessory pigment called phycoerythrin, which masks the green of chlorophyll.
Green Algae
Algae with chloroplasts that have an ultrastructure and pigment composition much like the chloroplasts of land plants. Divided into two groups, chlorophytes and charophytes.
Unikonta
A recently proposed supergroup of eukarotes that includes animals, fungi, and protists. Contains two major clades.
Amoebozoans
One of the two clades that make up Unikonta. Includes many species of amoebas that have lobe or tube shaped pseudopodia.
Plasmodial Slime Molds
Brightly colored slime mold which form a mass called a plasmodium at one point in their life cycle.
Plasmodium
Mass formed by plasmodial slime molds at one point in their life cycle.
Cellular Slime Molds
Protists that forms a mass of cells that superficially resembles a plasmodial slime mold, although the cells remain separated by their individual plasma membranes.
Opisthokonts
An extremely diverse group of eukaryotes that includes animals, fungi, and several groups of protists.
Producers
Organisms that use energy from light or inorganic chemicals to convert carbon dioxide to organic compounds.
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