vocab 13-19 Flashcards

Thirty Years' War
Terms Definitions
Italian Renaissance
Occurred first in the 1300s to the mid 1600s. Considered the beginning of modern European History., time of transition from medieval to modern times characterized by intellectual and political expansion as well as the rebirth of culture
Jacob Burckhart
He claimed the Renaissance period was in distinct contrast to the Middle Ages.
Oligarchies
rule of merchant aristocracies, controlled much of Italy by 1300
Commenda system
Contract between merchant and merchant adventurer who agreed to take goods to distant location s and return with the proceeds for 1/3 of the profit
Condotierri
soldier for hire. Mercenary generals of private armies hired by cities for military purposes.
Republic of Florence
It was ruled by the Medici's and a city state of Italy
Medici family
rulers of Florence with Cosimo de' Medici and Lorenzo de' Medici
Cosimo de' Medici
allied with other powerful families of Florence and became unofficial ruler of the republic, Took power over the oligarchy, establishing a de facto dictatorship
Lorenzo de' Medici
significant patron of the arts, grandson of Cosimo, Italian statesman and scholar who supported many artists and humanists including Michelangelo and Leonardo and Botticelli (1449-1492), Ruler of Florence called "the Magnificent"
Duchy of Milan
Ruled by Sforza Family after 1450; Milan was a principal adversary of Venice and Florence until the Peace of Lodi created a relative 40- year period of peace among the Italian city states
Republic of Venice
Longest lasting of the Italian states because it did not succumb to foreign powers unit Napoleon. Also one of the world's great naval and trading powers during the 14th and 15th centuries
Papal States
popes served both as religious and political leaders; controlled a lot of central Italy
Naples Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Only Italian city state to official have a "king", Only Italian city state to official have a "king"
Charles VIII
French king, invaded Naples in 1494, invited by Sforza to invade Florence, fought over Italy with Ferdinand of Aragon in the first Italian war
Girolamo Savonarola
Became the unofficial leader of Florence between 1494-1498 who pledged to rid Florence of its decadence and corruption, oversaw a theocracy in Florence. When France was removed from Italy in 1498, Savonarola was imprisoned and then burned at the stake.
Machiavelli, the Prince
Stated that for rulers it was better to be feared than to be loved. Rulers had to be practical and cunning, in addition to being aggressive and ruthless
Cesare Borgia
Son of Pope Alexander VI, Influenced Machiavelli
Sack of Rome, 1517
"sacked" by armies of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, king also of Spain, and symbolized the end of the Renaissance in Italy
Charles V
HRE and king of Spain. His armies lead to the Sack of Rome in 1527, A Habsburg emperor who inherited Spain, the Netherlands, Southern Italy, Austria, and much of the Holy Roman Emperor from his grandfather Maximilian I. Summoned Martin Luther to Diet of Worms
Humanism
Literary and intellectual movement-Revival of Greek and Roman interest in philosophy, literature and art. Had a strong belief in individualism and the great potential of human beings.
Civil Humanism
Idea that education should prepare leaders who would be active in civic affairs
Lorenzo Valla
Elegance of the Latin Language. Gave challengers of the Church authority ammunition, even though he remained Catholic., An expert on the Latin language, he also exposed the Donation of Constantine (the Church claimed it was granted vast territories by the Roman emperor Constantine) as a fraud. Even though he was a devoted Catholic, his work helped those challenging the Churches authority. Founder of textual criticism.
Latin Vulgate
the authorized version of the Bible for the Catholic Church
Marsilio Ficino
Founded the Platonic Academy at the behest of Cosimo de' Medici in the 1460s. Translated Plato's works into Latin, giving modern Europeans access to these works for the fist time.
Pico Della Mirandola
Oration on the Dignity of Man. Stated that humans were created by God and therefore given tremendous potential for greatness, and even union with God if they desired it.
Baldassare Castiglione
The Book of The Courtier. Described the ideal of a Renaissance man who was well versed in the Greek and Roman classics, and accomplished warrior, could play music, dance, and had a modest but confident personal demeanor. It outlined the qualities of a true gentleman.
Virtu
quality of being a great man in whatever noble pursuit
Johann Gutenberg
movable printing press. Made it possible to spread the humanistic literature to the rest of Europe with great speed. Lead to the publishing of the Bible in Mainz, Germany.
Pope Alexander VI
most notorious of the immoral Renaissance popes who spent a fortune on art patronage
Perspective
the zoom!! 3-D effects on a 2-dimensional surface
Chiaroscuro
use of Dark and Light colors to created the illusion of Depth
Sandro Botticelli
painter of Birth of Venus. The painting is a good example of humanism as the subject is Venus, the Roman goddess of love
High Renaissance
centered in Rome and the Popes provided tremendous patronage to the arts. It featured classical balance, harmony, and restraint
Leonardo da Vinci
"Renaissance Man" who was a painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, writer, and scientist. His Mona Lisa is considered one of the great masterpieces in all of art history. Leonardo developed the sfumato, or a haze that softens the edges of objects in the painting.
Raphael
a painter who painted the School of Athens. It is a quintessential example of humanism because Greco-Roman architecture is prominent, Plato and Aristotle are in the center of the painting, and sculptures are painted in contrapposto stance
Michelangelo
Painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. His sculptures include David, which was a humanistic marble sculpture that glorified the human body, was in a contrapposto stance, and facial features were emotional. Also sculptor of the Pieta, or Mary holding Christ, and is considered the most perfect marble sculpture ever made. He also designed the dome atom St. Peter's Cathedral in the Vatican
Mannerism
Reaction against the Renaissance ideals of balance, symmetry, simplicity and realistic use of color. Mannerism rebelled against the High Renaissance, which took art to perfection. This lead to works often used unnatural colors while shapes were elongated or otherwise exaggerated
El Greco
The greatest of the Mannerists with his use of elongated figures and unnatural pigments, in Spain. Made Burial of Count Orgaz and the Toiedo
Northern Renaissance
The Renaissance spread to the north around 1450. In England, the Renaissance did not begin until the 16th century - 17th century.
Christian humanism
Part of the northern Renaissance which had an emphasis on early Church writings that provided answers on how to improve society and reform the Church. It drew on Hebrew and Greek texts of the Bible and writings of the Church Fathers. The writings led to criticism of the Church, ultimately the Reformation
Erasmus
Most celebrated of all northern humanists. Made new translations of the Greek and Latin versions of the New Testament to create "pure" editions. He wrote In Praise of Folly, the best-sell second to the Bible. Criticized immorality and hypocrisy of Church leaders and the clergy, the book inspired renewed calls for reform and influence Martin Luther. Erasmus laid the egg that Luther hatched
Thomas More: a civic Humanist
Wrote Utopia, which mixes civic humanism with religious ideals to describe a perfect utopian society. Outlined that people have to be willing to sacrifice their individual rights for the common good
Jaques Lefevre d'Etables
Produced 5 versions of the Psalms that challenged a single authoritative version of the bible; later condemned for heresy
Francesco Ximenes de Cisneros
Grand inquisitor of the Spanish Inquisition. A Spanish humanist who reformed the Spanish clergy and church so that many of the Church abuses that were highlighted during the Reformation did not necessarily apply to Spain.
Francois Rebelais
wrote Gargantua and Pantagruel, a folk epic and comic masterpiece that satirized French society. Attacked clerical education and monastic orders; championed secular learning
Michel de Montaigne
Developed the essay form. Skepticism, doubt that rue knowledge could be obtained.
Miguel de Cervantes
wrote Don Quixote, a critical of excessive religious idealism chivalric romance.
Flemish style
a Northern Renaissance Art, More detail throughout painting, use of oil paints, more emotional that the Italian style, and works often preoccupied with death
Jan van Eyck
Flemish painter who was a founder of the Flemish school of painting and who pioneered modern techniques of oil painting "Arnolfini and his Wife"
Bosch
a Netherlands artist who's art often focused on death and the pains of Hell
Fugger Family
bankers-A family in Germany who had a great deal of money due to international banking, and they used there pull to patronize art of the Northern Renaissance.
Christine de Pisan
Began a new debate over the proper role of women in society. Europe's first feminist, and well educated in France
Isabella d' Este
First Lady of the Renaissance. Set an example that women should break away from expected roles, and stared a school for young women
Artemesia Gentilleschi
Perhaps the first female artist to gain recognition in the post-Renaissance era. First woman to paint historical and religious scenes
Simony
sale of church offices. On of the corruptions in the Catholic Church
Pluralism
an official holding ore than one office at a time. On of the corruptions in the Catholic Church
Absenteeism
an official not participation in benefices but receiving payment and privileges. On of the corruptions in the Catholic Church
Sale of indulgences
people paying money to the Church to pay off time in purgatory for themselves or a loved one. On of the corruptions in the Catholic Church
Nepotism
family members in the appointment of Church offices; Pope Paul III made two of his grandsons cardinals. On of the corruptions in the Catholic Church
Clerical ignorance
many priest were virtually illiterate. On of the corruptions in the Catholic Church
Erasmus, In Praise of Folly
criticized the corruption in the church and the hypocrisy of the clergy
Martin Luther
Augustinian monk; taught at the University of Wittenberg in Saxony. Believed in faith alone, scripture solely, consubstantiation, priests can marry, pope not infallible, and only baptism and Communion. Wrote his 95 Thesis which criticized the selling of indulgences and questioned the scriptural authority of the pope to grant indulgences.
Johann Tetzel
authorized by the pope to sell indulgences. His phrase, as soon as a coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs.
Philip Melanchton
Writer of the Confessions of Augsburg
Confessions of Augsburg
A statement/document that set forth basic principles of Lutheran Faith-An attempted compromise statement of religious faith to unite Lutheran and Catholic princes of the HRE, but rejected by Catholic Princes,
Diet of Worms
Meeting where Luther defended his doctrines before the emperor Charles V. Luther declared his final refusal "Here I stand, I can do no other" to recant those doctrines- Charles V issued an imperial Edict condemning those doctrines
Priesthood of all believers
Luther did not believe in a hierarchical structure, but a communion of believers.
Johann Eck
a great Catholic theologian who took part in a debate with Luther
95 Thesis
Criticized the selling of indulgences and questioned the scriptural authority of the pope to grant indulgences. The printing press facilitated the spread of Luther's work with astonishing speed.
Peace of Augsburg 1555
Princes in Germany could choose either Protestantism or Catholicism. "Whose the region, his the religion."
Hapsburg-Valois Wars
5 Wars between 1521 and 1555 between France and the Hapsburgs France tried to keep Germany divided, which played an important role in retarding unification of the German states. Charles V was victorious over the league in 1547, but Lutheranism had spread across central Europe
League of Schmalkalden
in Northern Germany formed by newly Protestant (Lutheran) princes to defend themselves against Charles V's drive to re-Catholicize Germany
Charles V
Sought to stop Protestantism and preserve the hegemony of Catholicism. He allied with the pope in trying to stamp out heresy- the Holy Roman Emperor that called for the Diet of Worms-supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation
Swabian uprising, Twelve Articles
Part of the Peasants' War. The Twelve Articles demanded for the peasants an end to serfdom and tithes, and other practices of feudalism that oppressed the peasantry. Inspired by Luther's view on the peasant movement, but Luther was disgusted with the Peasants' War.
Unitarians
people who rejected the Trinity
Quakers
Thousands came to America where they founded and controlled Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Delaware
Mennonites
founded by Dutch leader Menno Simmons became descendants of Anabaptists and emphasized pacifism.
Tragedy at Munster 1534
Combined armies of Protestant and Catholic forces captured the city and executed Anabaptist leaders
John of Leyden
led a radical group of Anabaptists to take control of the northwestern German city of Munster. He had 16 wives.
Anabaptists
Radical protestant sect- hated by all-did not believe in childhood baptism since only adults could make the decision to commit to Christ. Voluntary association of believers with not connection or allegiance to any state
Geneva
Became home to protestant exiles from England, Scotland, and France, who later returned to their countries with Calvinist ideas. Calvin established a theocracy in Geneva by 1540
Elect/visible saints
Church members who have had their conversion experience. Should become model Christians
Predestination
Since God is all knowing, he already knows who is going to heaven and who is destined for Hell
Institutes of the Christian Religions
the foundational work for Calvinism. Instituted predestination, good works in not sufficient for salvation and no free will, good works are a sign if you were selected.
John Calvin
Frenchman; studied to be a priest and later became a lawyer. Instituted Predestination.
Colloquy at Marburg
Zwingli officially split with Luther over issue of Eucharist
Ulrich Zwingli
Bible was sole authority, but in contrast to Luther, he saw the Eucharist as only symbolic, Zurich
Henry VIII
Defense of Seven Sacraments, criticized Luther's views. Henry sought an annulment from his wife, Catherine of Aragon, because she could not conceive a son. Henry broke away from the Catholic Church and formed the Church of England
William Tyndale
Translated the English Bible n 1526, and executed because English Bibles made their way to England.
Puritans
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.
Dutch Reformed Church
United Provinces of the Netherlands. The rise of Calvinism here set the stage for a revolt against the Inquisition of King Philip II of Spain
Huguenots
French Calvinists-brutally suppressed in France, that were often persecuted until the Edict of Nantes
Presbyterianism
the dominant religion in Scotland in the 1560s, the practices of the Presbyterian Church: based in Calvinism- brought by John Knox
Michael Servetus
a Unitarian humanist from Spain, was burned at the stake in 1553 for his denial of the Trinity
Pilgrimage of Grace
England-An uprising in the North of England in 1536 posed a serious threat to the English crown. Both gentry and peasants were angry over the dissolution of monasteries, and feared that their spiritual needs would no longer be met. Henry VIII was able to suppress this as a result of his political power.
Act of Supremacy
made the English king officially the head of the Church of England (Anglican)
Church of England, Anglican Church
formed by Henry VIII when he broke away from the Catholic Church
Thomas Cranmer
replaced Wolsey and convinced Henry in 1533 that he could divorce Catherine by breaking away from Rome
Thomas Wolsey
the English Archbishop working on behalf of Henry, but ultimately failed to get papal approval for his annulment
Edward VI
(1547-1553) King Henry VIII's only son. Since he wasn't capable of governing his country the Protestant church was soon brought in through his advisors Cromwell and Cranmer.10 years old when he became king, made England move towards Protestantism during his reign by adopting Calvinistic ideas.
Mary Tudor, Bloody Marry
tried to re-impose Catholicism. 300 people executed including bishops and Archbishop Cranmer under her rule
Marian Exiles
Protestants that fled England fearing persecution under Bloody Marry
Elizabeth I, the Virgin Queen
Oversaw the development of Protestantism in England, was a Politique who was a politician who navigated a middle ground between Anglicanism and Protestantism.
Elizabethan Settlement
Elizabeth and Parliament required conformity to the Church of England but people were, in effect, allowed to worship Protestantism and Catholicism privately
Thirty-Nine Articles
defined the creed of Anglican Church, followed Protestant doctrine but vague enough to accommodate most of the English, except Puritans
Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots
Catholics wanted to replace Elizabeth with Mary, but Elizabeth executed Mary in 1582
Angela Merici
founded the Ursuline Order of Nuns in the 1530s to proved education and religious training
Teresa de Avila
Spanish leader of the reform movement for monasteries and convents. Believed an individual could have a direct relationship with God through prayer and contemplation
Catholic (Counter) Reformation
a response to the gains of Protestantism and the response to critics within the church that abuses needed to be reformed
Pope Paul III
Most important pope in reforming the Church and challenging Protestantism. He sought to improve church disciple through existing doctrine, rather than making new ones.
Council of Trent
reaffirmed Catholic doctrine after reformation. Cleaned up church abuses- instilled new discipline on Catholic church-validated all 7 sacraments, established Index of Forbidden Books
Index of Prohibited Books
A list of books Catholics were fobidden to read due to their anti-Catholisism content.-Books that supported Protestantism or that were overly critical of the Church were banned. Possession could be severe
Jesuits (Society of Jesus)
had 3 goals, reform the church through education, spread the Gospel to pagan peoples, fight Protestantism
Ignatious Loyola
founder of Jesuits, made Spiritual Exercises, a guide book that was used to train Jesuits
Baroque Art
Art that originated in Rome and is associated with the Catholic Reformation- characterized by emotional intensity, strong self-confidence, spirit- meant to inspire the masses
Bernini
a baroque architect and sculptor. Made the Colonnade for piazza in from of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome and was his greatest architectural work, and the Canopy over the high altar of St. Peter's Cathedral, and the altarpiece The Ecstasy of St. Teresa, that shows a lot of emotion
Peter Paul Reubens
Flemish Painter, that dealt with Christian subjects, and made need paintings.
Hapsburg-Valois Wars
(1519-1559) Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis ended them (1559)-France kept the HRE from gaining unity in Germany, while inadvertently helping Lutheranism to spread-Spain defeated France for control of Sicily, Naples, and Milan- remember Charles V king of HRE and Spain
Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis
1559-ended Hapsburg-Valois Wars
Philip II
(1556-1598) son of Charles V-fanatically sought to reimpose Catholicism in Europe-Golden Age of Spain-Escorial
Escorial
new royal palace built in shape of grill to commemorate the martyrdom of St. Lawrence-symbolized Philip's power and commitment to Catholic crusade
Battle of Lepanto
(1571) Spain defeated the Turkish navy off the coast of Greece-ended Ottoman threat in Mediterranean
William of Orange
Ruler of the Netherlands who led a revolt for independence against Hapsburg Philip II of Spain.led 17 Northern provinces
United Provinces of the Netherlands
formed in 1581-Dutch Republic-received aid from Elizabeth I-major blow to Philip's goal of maintaining Catholicism throughout his empire
Spanish Netherlands
10 southern provinces remained under Spanish control (Belgium)
Mary Tudor
Queen of Eng-bloody Mary- Philip's wife tried to reimpose Catholicism in England-Elizabeth reversed her course in Elizabethan Settlement
Elizabeth I
Politique- reversed Mary's course of Catholicism in Elizabethan Settlement-helped Protestant Netherlands gain independence from Spain
Spanish Armada
1588-Spain's attempt to invade England-Spain's navy lay in ruins: storm, England's better navy-rise of England as world naval power
French Civil Wars
9 wars in last half of 16th century-power struggle between 3 noble families for Crown after death of Henry II
Catherine de Medici
dominated 3 sons (kings) fought hard to maintain Catholic control in France
St. Bartholomew Day Massacre
exemplified the hatred between the Catholics and the Huguenots in France- marriage of Margaret Valois to Protestant Huguenot Henry of Navarre intended to reconcile Catholics and Huguenots-Henry of Guise had leader of Huguenot party murdered night before wedding-Catherine ordered massacre of Calvinists in response
War of the Three Henry's
civil wars between Valois, Guise, and Bourbons
Henry IV
first Bourbon king-most important kings in French history-rise to power ended French Civil Wars-gradual course to absolutism-politique-converted to Catholicism to gain loyalty of Paris-Edict of Nantes prepared the way for French absolutism in the seventeenth century by helping restore internal peace in France.
Politique
a ruler who chooses political stability over religious issues; ex. Elizabeth I,achieved a middleground between Anglicans and Protestants ex 2 Henry IV of Fr. became Catholic but granted religious toleration of Huguenots (Edict of Nantes)
Edict of Nantes
Henry IV (former Henry of Navarre)-granted religious toleration of Huguenots-granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and liberty of public worship in 150 fortified towns in France (a state within a state?). Repealed by Louis XIV
Thirty Years' War
within the HRE -most important war of 17th century-failure of Peace of Augsburg-actually achieves nothing, Last of the religious wars- becomes international war between the Protestants and Catholics - Ends with Peace of Westphalia
Bohemian phase
begins with Defenestration of Prague-Protestant forces defeated and Protestantism eliminated in Bohemia
Defenestration of Prague
When HRE placed restrictions on Protestantism in Bohemia-2 HRE officials thrown out window and fell 70 feet into manure
Danish phase
represented height of Catholic power during war- The second phase of the Thirty Years' War in which the Catholic imperial army led by Albert of Wallenstein won a series of major victories against the Protestants.
Albrecht von Wallenstein
(1583-1634) mercenary general who was paid by emperor to fight for HRE-won important battles
Edict of Restitution
(1629) Emperor declared all church territories that had been secularized since 1552 to be automatically restored to Catholic Church
Swedish Phase
The third phase of the Thirty Years' War marked by Sweden's entrance into the war under King Gustavus Adolphus; during this phase, the Protestants began to defeat the Catholics on many fronts.
Gustavus Adolphus
King of Sweden-led army that pushed Catholic forces back to Bohemia, joins Thirty Years' War in 1629, king of Sweden, Protestant leader, stands up for fellow Protestants, military genius, supported by Richelieu (Fr. Cardinal- remember that politics more important than religion if Catholic Cardinal supports the Lutherans), killed in 1632 battle
French phase
International Phase, The fourth and final phase of the Thirty Years' War marked by France's entrance into the war on the side of the Protestants; (wanted to make sure that HRE could not consolidate the German lands into one country) this gave the Protestants the support needed to defeat the Catholics.
Cardinal Richelieu
allied with Protestant forces to defeat HRE-his policies reflect Catholic France's paramount diplomatic concerns as political not religious
Treaty of Westphalia- know everything
Ended 30 Years War; ended Catholic Reformation in Germany-renewal of Peace of Augsburg, but allowed for Calvinism-guaranteed Germany would remain divided for centuries-dissolution of HRE-France, Sweden, Brandenburg received territories and gained international stature-2 Hapsburg branches weakened, ending religious wars; the sovereignty of over 300 German princes recognized, limiting power of Holy roman Emperor; independence in United Provinces of the Netherlands recognized; France received Alsace, Sweden received large cash indemnity and control over German territories along Baltic Sea; Papacy denied right to participate in German religious affairs; Augsburg agreement remained permanent; Calvinism became legally permissible creed.
English Civil War
revolution as a result of whether the sovereignty would remain with the king or with the Parliament. Eventually, the kingship was abolished when Charles 1 is beheaded
James I
his reign a struggle between king and Parliament regarding taxation and civil liberties-believed in divine right of kings- son Charles I beheaded in civil war
Charles I
successor of James I-believed in divine right of kings-dissolved Parliament twice- beheaded in Eng civil war
significance- Parliament gains more power than monarch
Divine right of kings
the idea that kings receive their power from God and are responsible only to God
Cavaliers
supported king in English Civil War (1642-1647), these were the troops loyal to Charles I. Their opponents were the Roundheads,
Roundheads
Puritan supporters of Parliment, opposed the king in English Civil War, short funny hair cuts, fighting the English Civil War from 1642-1649
Oliver Cromwell
fiercely Puritan Independent and military leader of Roundheads-led New Model Army to victory
New Model Army
The disciplined fighting force of Protestants led by Oliver Cromwell in the English civil war.
Pride's Purge
elements of New Model Army removed all non-Puritans and Presbyterians from Parliament
Rump Parliament
:1/5 of original Parliament members left over after Pride's Purge
Levellers
radical religious revolutionaries-sought social and political reforms, a more egalitarian (equal) society.
Diggers
denied Parliament's authority and rejected private ownership of land
Quakers
believed in inner light-divine spark that existed in each person-rejected church authority-Pacifists-allowed women to play role in preaching
Interregnum
rule without king (1649-1660) time when Oliver Cromwell ruled England as Puritan Dictator
The Protectorate
Oliver Cromwell became Lord Protector-dictatorship-denied religious freedom to Anglicans and Catholics-allowed Jews to return to England-invaded Ireland-conquered Scotland-no fun-regulate lives of English
Concordat of Bologna
(1516) king of France now had power to appoint bishops to French Church-major blow to papal influence in France
Taille
tax on land and property
War of the Roses
(1455-1477) House of York vs. House of Lancaster-civil war to gain crown-York victoriousTudor dynasty
Henry VII
reduced influence of nobility through Star Chamber
Star Chamber
nobles tried without jury, could not confront witnesses, and tortured
Ferdinand and Isabella
Ferdinand of Aragon married Isabella of Castille and unified Spain together
Reconquista
1492-goal to remove last of Moors and Jews and Christianize Spain-significant decline in Middle class
Hermandades
alliances of cities to oppose nobles-helped bring cities in line with royal authority
Spanish Inquisition
Isabella's idea-monarchy enforced authority of Catholic church
Tomas de Torquemada
Dominican monk-oversaw Inquisition
Conversos
Jews who had converted to Christianity but were now suspected of backsliding into Judaism
Maximilian I
gained much territory in eastern France with marriage to Mary of Burgundy-sparked dynastic struggle between Valois and Hapsburgs
Charles V
most powerful ruler in 16th century-controlled Austrian Hapsburg lands while ruled Spanish Empire-armies sacked Rome in 1527
Commercial Revolution
roots in Middle Ages-pop. growth-price revolution-increase in economic power-rise in capitalism
Hanseatic League
eventually controlled trade in much of northern Europe well into 16th century-mercantile association of towns and cities
Joint-stock companies
investors pooled resources for a common purpose-early examples of capitalism
Mercantilism
developed in 17th century-goal is a self-sufficient economy-more exports than imports-limited resources-states should intervene to get largest part of limited resources-get more gold (bullionism)
Price Revolution
increase in prices in 16th century-inflation-increased demand for goods-influx of gold and silver
God, glory, and gold
primary motives of age of exploration and conquest
Portugal
sought all water trade route to Asia to tap spice trade-sought to find mystical Prester John for alliance against Muslims
Prince Henry the Navigator
(1394-1460) Prince of Portugal who established an observatory and school of navigationand directed voyages that spurred the growth of Portugal's colonial empire.
Bartholomew Dias
(1450-1500) rounded southern tip of Africa in 1488
Vasco de Gama
(1469-1525) completed all water expedition to India in 1498-brought back Indian goods-blow to Italian monopoly of trade with Asia
Amerigo Vespucci
(1454-1512) explored Brazil-first European to realized that he had discovered continent in New World-America named after him
Brazil
Portugal's major colony in New World-large numbers of slaves-coffee, cotton, sugar
Christopher Columbus
(1451-1506) reached Bahamas believed to be Indies- 4 expeditions charted most of major islands in Caribbean and Honduras-ushered in era of European exploration and domination of New World
Bartholomew de las Casas
(1474-1566) Spanish priest and former conquistador whose -proposed black slavery instead of Native Americans, who wrote about the atrocities committed by Spanish settlers to Indians in the New World.
Treaty of Tordesillas
(1494) New World divided between Spain and Portugal-Portugal given exclusive rights to slave trade-Spain west, Portugal east
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
(1475-1517) discovered Pacific Ocean after crossing Isthmus of Panama in 1513
Ferdinand Magellan
(1480-1521) ship first to circumnavigate globe-charted enormous size of Pacific Ocean
Conquistadores
Spanish who created empires by conquering Indians
Hernando Cortes
(1485-1547) conquered Aztecs in Mesoamerica
Francisco Pizarro
(1478-1541) conquered Incan Empire along Andes mountains in Peru
Encomienda system
Exploitive system in Spanish America- gave settlers the right to tax local Native Americans or to make them work. In exchange, these settlers were supposed to protect the Native American people and convert them to Christianity- Indian slavery
Mestizos
Spaniards married Amerindian women creating children of mixed white and Native American descent
Creoles
Spaniards born in New World to Spanish parents
Old Imperialism
characterized by establishing posts and forts on coastal regions but not penetrating inland to conquer entire regions or subjugate their populations
Alphonso d 'Albuquerque
(1453-1515) laid foundation for Portuguese imperialism in 16th and 17th centuries-established strategy of making coastal regions a base to control Indian Ocean
Francis Xavier
led Jesuit missionaries to Asia where by 1550 thousands of natives had been converted to Christianity in India, Indonesia, and Japan
Dutch East India Company
founded in 1602-became major force behind Dutch imperialism
Asiento
The African Slave Trade. First introduced by Portugal in Brazil to farm sugar plantations-
Colombian Exchange
Biosocial in nature- the transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the Americas and Europe
Smallpox
biggest killer of Amerindians
Syphilis
most significant disease transmitted to Europeans by Amerindians-affected thousands of people
Potato
from South America became important staple crop in Europe
Absolutism
derived from traditional assumption of power and belief in divine right
Thomas Hobbes
Leviathan-pessimistic view of human beings in state of nature, favored absolute monarch w/o divine right
Bishop Jacques Bossuet
principle advocate of divine right of kings during reign of Louis XIV-believed divine right meant that king was placed on throne by God, and therefore owed his authority to no man or group
First Estate
clergy 1% of pop.
Second Estate
nobility 3-4% of pop.
Third Estate
everyone else-bourgeoisie (middle class) artisans, urban workers, and peasants
Henry IV
Henry of Navarre-laid foundation for France becoming strongest European power in 17th century-first king of bourbon dynasty-weakened nobility-Duke of Sully-assassinated in 1610 edict of Nantes
Nobility of the sword
not allowed to influence royal council-old nobility
Nobility of the robe
new nobles who purchased their titles from the monarchy, became high officials in govt. and remained loyal to king
Duke of Sully
finance minister-reforms enhanced power of monarchy-mercantilism-reduced royal debt-reformed tax system-oversaw improved transportation
Mercantilism
increased role of state in economy in order to achieve a favorable balance of trade with other countries
Louis XIII
(1610-1643) as youth regency was beset by corruption and mismanagement-feudal nobles and princes increased their power-certain nobles convinced him to assume power and exile mother-Richelieu
Cardinal Richelieu
laid foundation for absolutism in France-politique-intendant system-mercantilism-taxation-subdued Huguenots
Intendant System
used to weaken nobility-replaced local officials with civil servants-32 districts with intendant in charge of justice, police, and finance over theirs
Peace of Alais
Huguenots lost fortified cities and Protestant armies
Louis XIV
sun king-quintessential absolute ruler in European history-personified idea that sovereignty of state resides in ruler-believer in divine right-undisputed major power-Fronde
L' état c'est moi
I am the state
Sun king
center of French power
Fronde
nobles revolted against Mazarin-Louis determined to control nobles
Cardinal Mazarin
controlled France while Louis XIV was child
Corvee
forced labor that required peasants to work for a month out of the year on roads and other public projects
Versailles Palace
grandest and most impressive palace in all of Europe-Baroque-helped with control over nobility
Edict of Fountainbleu
revoked Edict of Nantes-Huguenots lost right to practice Calvinism-fled
Jansenists
Catholics who held some Calvinist ideas-persecuted by Louis 14
Mercantilism
state control over a country's economy in order to achieve a favorable balance of trade with other countries
Bullionism
nation's policy of accumulating as much precious metal as possible while preventing its outward flow to other countries
Jean Baptiste Colbert
economic self-sufficiency-construction of roads and canals-monopolies-cracked down on guilds-reduced local tolls-French trading companies-merchant marine
Balance of power
no one country would be allowed to dominate the continent since a coalition of other countries would rally against a threatening power
War of League of Augsburg
formed in 1686 in response to invasion of Spanish Netherlands by Louis XIV in 1683-HRE, Spain, Sweden, Bavaria, Saxony, Dutch Republic-William of Orange brought England against France-status quo prior to war
War of Spanish Succession
(1701-1713) Charles II gave all Spanish territories to grandson of Louis XIV-Grand alliance emerged in opposition to France: England, Dutch Republic, HRE, Brandenburg, Portugal, Savoy-fear of French influence over Spain or combination of 2 countries
Treaty of Utrecht
(1713) maintained balance of power in Europe-ended War of Spanish Succession and expansionism of Louis XIV-Spanish possessions partitioned-Britain gets slave trade, Gibraltar,-Belgium to Austria
Escorial Palace
Philip II built to demonstrate power
Price revolution
hurt domestic industries that were unable to export goods- inflation
Treaty of Pyrenees
marked end of Spain as great power-war between France and Spain continued for 11 years after 30 Yrs War
Baroque
reflected age of absolutism-began in Catholic Reformation countries to teach in a concrete and emotional way and demonstrate the glory and power of Catholic church
Bernini
personified baroque architecture and sculpture-Colonnade for piazza in front of St. Peter's -The Ecstasy of St. Teresa
Versailles Palace
built during the reign of Louis XIV is the quintessential baroque structure
Winter palace
Peter the Great in Russia built in St. Peterburg largely on influence of Versailles
Carvaggio
Italian painter-1st important painter of Baroque era-depicted highly emotional scenes
Peter Paul Reubens
Flemish painter-worked much for Hapsburg court in Brussels-color and sensuality-Christian subjects-sensual nudes
Diego Velazquez
perhaps greatest court painter of era-numerous portraits of Spanish court and surroundings
Artemisia Gentileschi
famous for vivid depictions of dramatic sense and her Judith paintings
Rembrandt van Rijn
painter-perhaps greatest of all Baroque artists although he doesn't fit neatly into any category
Jan Vermeer
paintings of ordinary people in simple scenes
Nicolas Poussin
painter-paintings rationally organized to achieve harmony and balances-classical scenes-landscapes
Jean Racine
dramatist-plays funded by Louis XIV-classical style of plays-intense emotional works
Jean-Baptists Moliere
dramatist-his plays often focused on social struggles-made fun of aristocracy, upper bourgeoisie and high church officials
J.S. Bach
greatest of baroque composers-often wrote dense and polyphonic structures-variety of genres, both choral and instrumental
Constitutionalism
govt. power is limited by law-delicate balance between power of govt. and right and liberties of individuals
Gentry
wealthy landowners in countryside who dominated politics in House of Commons
House of Commons
England's lower house in Parliament
Stuarts
ruled England for most of 17th century-absolutist tendencies-restrained by growth of Parliament
James I
James VI of Scotland next in line to assume throne-after Elizabeth I-believed in divine right-twice dissolved Parliament
Charles I
son of James I-claimed divine right-sought to rule w/o parliament and control Church of England-needed money from Parliament
Petition of Right
Parliament attempted to encourage the king to grant basic legal rights in return for granting tax increases: only Parliament had right to levy taxes; no one should be imprisoned or detained w/o due process of law; habeas corpus; no forced quartering of soldiers in homes of private citizens; martial law could not be declared in peacetime
Ship money
counties required to pay to outfit ships, misused by charles 1 to get money see powerpoint
Short parliament
(1640) Scottish military revolt in 1640 occurred when Charles attempted to impose the English Prayer Book on Scottish Presbyterian Church-needed new taxes-Parliament reconvened-refusal of Petition of Right-disbanded after a month
Long parliament
(1640-1648) desperate for money after Scottish invasion of northern England-Charles finally agreed to demands by Parliament: Parliament could not be dissolved w/o its own consent; had to meet a min. of once every 3 years; ship money abolished; leaders of persecution of Puritans to be tried and executed; Star Chamber abolished; common law courts supreme to king's courts; refused funds to raise army to defeat Irish revolt-Puritans came to represent majority in Parliament
Archbishop Laud
leader of persecution of Puritans-tried and executed
English Civil War
Charles tried to arrest several Puritans in parliament-crowd came to Parliament's defense
Cavaliers
supported king-clergy and supporters of Anglican church-majority of old gentry-north and west-Irish Catholics
Roundheads
opposed king-Puritans-allied with Scotland-supported by Presbyterian dominated London-businessmen-nobles in south and east-navy and merchant marine
Oliver Cromwell
fiercely Puritan Independent and military leader of Roundheads, led model army to victory in 1649
Pride's Purge
elements of New Model Army removed all non-Puritans and Presbyterians form Parliament leaving Rump parliament
Rump Parliament
1/5 of original Parliament remaining
Levellers
radical religious revolutionaries-sought social and political reforms
Diggers
denied parliament's authority and rejected private ownership of land
Quakers
believed in an inner light-divine spark existed within each person-rejected church authority-Pacifists-allowed women to play a role in preaching
Interregnum
rule without king (1649-1660) - time during the commonwealth/ protectorate
The Protectorate
dictatorship-Oliver Cromwell-dissolved Rump parliament-England divided into 12 districts-denied religious freedom to Anglicans and Catholics-allowed Jews to return to England
Charles II
Cavalier Parliament restored him-agreed to abide by Parliament's decisions-religious toleration
Clarendon Code
instituted in 1661 by monarchists and Anglicans-sought to drive all Puritans out of both political and religious life
Test Act
1673-excluded those unwilling to receive the sacrament of the Church of England form voting, holding office, preaching, teaching, attending universities, ore assembling for meetings
Habeas Corpus Act
enabled judges to demand that prisoners be in court during trials required just cause for continued imprisonment; speedy trials; forbade double jeopardy
James II
inherited throne at age 55 from brother Charles II-sought to return England to Catholicism
Glorious Revolution
final act in struggle for political sovereignty in England-James II forced to abdicate throne-Bill of Rights
William of Orange
Mary's husband (Mary was James' daughter) invited to assume throne-Dutch Stadholder
William and Mary
joint sovereigns invited by by Parliament during the Glorious Rev
Bill of Rights
constitutional monarchy-king could not be Roman Catholic; laws could be made only with consent of Parliament-standing army in peacetime not legal without Parliamentary approval-taxation illegal without Parliamentary approval-excessive bail and cruel punishments prohibited-right to trial by jury, due process of law, and reasonable bail-right to bear arms-free elections to Parliament-right of petition
John Locke
Second Treatise of Civil Govt. (1690) most notable defense of Glorious Revolution . man has the right to life liberty and property or they can revolt
Toleration Act
1689-granted right to worship for Protestant nonconformists (not cahtolics)
Act of Settlement
1701-if King William or sister-in-law, Anne died without children, Crown would pass to Hanover House in Germany and any Protestant heirs-Stuarts no longer in line of succession-Anne died in 1714, Hanoverian heir assumed the throne as George I
Act of Union
1707-united England and Scotland into Great Britain
Cabinet system
leading ministers who were members of House of Commons and had support of majority of members, made common policy and conducted the business of the country
Prime Minister
leader of govt.-member of majority
Robert Walpole
first Prime Minister in British history
Dutch Republic
United Provinces of the Netherlands-1st half of 17th century was golden age-govt. consisted of organized confederation of 7 provinces each w/ rep. govt.
Stadholder
governor of Dutch provinces
Dutch Reformed
majority of Calvinist faction in Dutch Republic
Arminian
Calvinism w/o predestination-other Calvinist faction in Dutch Republic
Amsterdam
banking and commercial center of Europe
Gustavus Adolphus
reorganized Swedish govt.
Holy Roman Empire
Religious divisions due to the Reformation and religious wars in 16th and 17th centuries split Germany among Catholic, Lutheran and Calvinist prince. Gave way to new empires
Ottoman Empire
could not maintain possessions in Eastern Europe and the Balkans in the face of Austrian and Russian expansion. Gave way to new empires
Suleiman the Magnificent
was perhaps the most powerful ruler in the world during the 16th century. Nearly conquered Austria, captured Belgrade, nearly ½ of eastern Europe including all Balkan territories, most Hungary, and part of southern Russia
Janissary Corps
those Christian slaves who were not selected for the Ottoman bureaucracy served loyally instead in the Turkish army
Liberum veto
voting in Polish parliament had to be unanimous for changes to be made; thus, little could be done to systematically strengthen the kingdom
Serfdom
Lords in Eastern Europe revived serfdom to combat increasing economic challenges. Lords demanded that kings and princes issue laws restricting or eliminating peasants' right of moving freely
Robot
in certain regions, peasants were required to work 3-4 days without pay per week for their local lord
Hapsburg Empire (Austrian Empire)
Traditionally selected as Holy Roman Emperor. Ineffective Habsburg rule in the HRE forced monarchs to turn their attention inward and westward to consolidate their diverse holdings into a strong unified state.
Bohemia
Czech (Bohemian) nobility was wiped out during the Bohemian phase of 30 Year's War, Ferdinand II redistributed Czech lands to aristocratic soldiers form all over Europe, serf conditions declined
Austria proper
Old hereditary provinces were centralized by Ferdinand III. Ferdinand created a permanent standing army, unprecedented fro the Hapsburg empire
Leopold I
severely restricted Protestant worship, made the Siege of Vienna
Siege of Vienna 1683
Successfully repelled Turks from gates of Vienna in 1683
Pragmatic Sanction
Hapsburg possessions were never to be divided and henceforth to be passed intact to a single heir, meaning his daughter inherited the throne
Prussia, Hose of Hohenzollerns
Ruler of Brandenburg was one of the 7 electors of the HRE, but was not significantly involved in the 17th century. Marriages gave Hohenzollerns control of German principalities in central and western Germany, and prince had little power over nobility
Frederick William, the Great Elector
Calvinist, but allowed religious toleration to Catholics and Jews. Ongoing struggle between Sweden and Poland for control of Baltic after 1648 and wars of Louis XIV created atmosphere of permanent crisis. He oversaw Prussian militarism and created the most efficient army in Europe. Established Prussia as a Great Power.
Junkers
formed the backbone of the Prussian military officer corps, nobles and landowners dominated the Estates of Brandenburg and Prussia
King of Prussia
Frederick I, fought two wars against Louis SIV to preserve the European balance of power
Frederick William I, the Soldiers' King
liked tall people as soldiers. Infused militarism into all of Prussian society. Became known as Sparta of the North. Nearly doubled size of army, making it the best army in Europe. Established promotions based on merit, ad some commoners were able to rise to positions of power
Muscovy
began to emerge as the most significant principality that formed the nucleus of what later became Russia.
Boyars
Russian nobles that made it difficult for Muscovite rulers to strengthen the state
Ivan III, the Great
ended Mongol domination of Muscovy, Established himself as the hereditary ruler of Muscovy
Third Rome
this was in response to the fall of the Byzantine Empire and Ivan Great's desire to make Moscow the new center of the Orthodox Church
Ivan IV, the Terrible
took title of tsar. Began westernizing Muscovy by encouraging trade with England and the Netherlands. For 25 years, he fought unsuccessful wars against Poland-Lithuania. Reduces power of boyars.
Cossacks
many peasants fled the west to the newly-conquered Muscovite territories in the east and formed free groups and outlaw armies.
Time of Troubles
: followed Ivan IV's death in 1584. period of famine, power struggles and war, Sweden and Poland conquered Moscow
Michael Romanov
favored nobles in return for their support, expanded Russian empire to the Pacific Ocean in the Far East, fought several unsuccessful wars against Swede, Poland and the Ottoman Empire
Old Believers
of the Orthodox Church resisted influx of new religious sects from the west. In protest, 20,000 burned themselves to death in over 20 years
Peter the Great
nearly 7 feet tall. 75% of the national budget was spent on the military by the end of Peter's reign. Made all young male nobles leave home and serve 5 years of compulsory education. He imported to Russia substantial numbers of western technicians and draftsmen to aid tin the building of large factories
Strelski
Revolt of the Strelski put down by Peter in 1698 Moscow guards had overthrown previous leaders.
Great Northern War
Russia vs. Sweden. Russia had Poland, Denmark and Saxony as allies. Treaty of Nystad is where Russia gained Latvia and Estonia and thus gained its Window on the West in the Baltic Sea
Table of Ranks
set educational standards for civil servants, Peter sought to replace old Boyar nobility with new service-based nobility loyal to the tsar
St. Petersburg
Sought to create a city similar to Amsterdam and the Winter Palace with grandeur of Versailles. Became the capital of Russia. Merchants and artisans ordered to live in the city and help build it. Peasants conscripted for heavy labor in the city's construction, heavy death toll
Scientific Revolution
new age of science
Nicolaus Copernicus
On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres-heliocentricism
Heliocentric view
that earth revolved around sun and sun was center of universe
Tycho Brahe
built observatory and collected massive data on observations of universe
Johannes Kepler
assisted Brahe-mathematically proved Copernican thoeyr-3 laws of planetary motion: orbits of planets are elliptical; planets do not move at uniform speed while in orbit; time it takes for planet to orbit sun is directly based on distance from sun
Galileo
developed laws of motion-experimental method-acceleration experiment-law of inertia-developed telescope
Francis Bacon
formalized empirical method that had already been used by Brahe and Galileo
Inductive method
begin with inductive observation, then form a hypothesis, conduct experiments, and then organize the data
Scientific method
Bacon's inductive method and Descartes deductive reason formed backbone
Rene Descartes
Discourse on Method advocated use of deductive reasoning-employed deductive reasoning to prove existence-"cogito ergo sum" "I think; therefore, I am"-logic-science must start with clear and incontrovertible facts and subdivide each problem into as many parts as necessary-relationship between algebra and geometry-analytical geometry-Cartesian dualism
Cartesian dualism
divided all existence into the spiritual and material
Sir Isaac Newton
incorporated astronomy of Copernicus and Kepler with physics of Galileo into an overarching theory explaining order and design to the universe-Principle of universal gravitation
Principia
Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy-explains principle of universal gravitation
Quesnay
leader of physiocrats in France who opposed mercantilist policies-sought to reform the existing agrarian system by instituting laissez faire in agriculture
Vesalius
The Structure of the Human Body-renewed and modernized the study of anatomy
William Harvey
On the Movement of the Heart and Blood-explained how blood was pumped by the heart and circulated throughout the body
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
father of microscopy-developed powerful microscopes-first to see and write about bacteria, years plants, living organisms in drop of water and circulation of blood corpuscles in capillaries
Royal Society
scientific society in England-most successful and prestigious
Enlightenment
emergence of a secular world view for the first time in human history
Natural science and reason
fundamental notion was that natural science and reason could explain all aspects of life
Deism
religious arm of Enlightenment-existence of God was rational explanation of universe and form-created universe and then stepped back and left it running like a clock
John Locke
Two Treatises of Civil Govt. philosophical defense for Glorious Revolution-purpose of govt: protect natural rights: life, liberty, property-Essay Concerning Human Understanding-state of nature-tabula rasa
State of nature
humans are basically good but lack protection
Tabula rasa
human mind was born as blank slate and registered input from senses passively
Pierre Bayle
Critical and Historical Dictionary-advocated complete toleration of ideas-skeptic-major criticism of Christianity and its attempt to impose orthodoxy
Philosophes
committed to fundamental reform in society-popularized Enlightenment, Voltaire, Montesquieu, Jean Jacques ROusseau, Diderot, Beccaria, Quesnay, Smith, Wollestonecraft, d/Holbach, David Hume, Jean de Condorcet, Immanuel Kant,
Voltaire
perhaps most influential of all Enlightenment philosophes-challenged traditional Catholic theology-influential social criticism inspired many to call for change, setting the stage for the French Revoltuion-most famous quote against religious intolerance "Ecracsez l' infame" "Crush the infamous thing"
Montesquieu
member of French nobility, hated absolutism of Louis XIV-Spirit of Laws
Spirit of Laws
called for separation of power in govt. into 3 branches-goal to prevent tyranny and promote liberty-principle of checks and balances would ensure that no single branch of govt. became too powerful as the other two branches could check excess power
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Social Contract-believed that too much of an emphasis on property, and not enough consideration of people, was a root cause of social injustice-general will: a consensus of the majority, should control a nation-believed that man was in a simpler state of nature was good-a noble savage was corrupted by the materialism of civilization
Emile
believed in progressive education; learning by doing; self-expression encouraged
Denis Diderot
Encyclopedia-perhaps greatest and most representative work of philosophes-political and social critiques-popularized views of philosophes-teach people critically and objectively
Marquis di Beccaria
On Crimes and Punishment-sought to humanize criminal law based on Enlightenment concepts of reason and equality before the law-views influenced Enlightened despots
Adam Smith
Wealth of Nations-considered Bible of capitalism-believed economy is governed by natural laws of supply and demand
Salon movement
women played major role-many of brightest minds of Enlightenment assembled to discuss major issues-took part in discussions
Mary Wollestonecraft
promoted political and educational equality for women
Baron Paul d'Holbach
System of Nature-argued humans were like machines, completely determined by outside forces
David Hume
argued against faith in both natural law and faith-claimed human ideas were merely result of sensory experiences-undermined emphasis on reason
Jean de Condorcet
Progress of the Human Mind-utopian ideas also undermined legitimacy of Enlightenment ideas-identified 9 stages of human progress and predicted 10th stage would bring perfection
Rousseau
attacked rationalism and civilization as destroying rather than liberating the individual
Immanuel Kant
greatest German philosopher of Enlightenment-separated science and morality into separate branches of knowledge-science could describe nature, it could not provide a guide for morality
Classical Liberation
political outgrowth of Enlightenment-belief in lassez faire capitalism-belief in progress, human dignity and human happiness-religious toleration, freedom of speech and press, just punishments for crimes, equal treatment before law
German pietism
argued need for spiritual conversion and religious experience
Methodism
taught need for spiritual regeneration and a moral life that would demonstrate one's having been born again
John Wesley
founder of Methodism
Jansenism
Catholic sect in France w/ calvinist idea's - persecuted by L14 -argued against idea of an uninvolved or impersonal God
Enlightened Despotism
philosophes inspired and supported reforms of Enlightened despots-believed absolute rulers should promote good of people-religious toleration, streamlined legal codes, increased access to education, reduction or elimination of torture and death penalty
Frederick the Great
one of greatest rulers in German history-son of Frederick William I-strong military education
War of Austrian Succession
Frederick invaded and annexed Silesia, part of the Austrian Hapsburg empire-Frederick violated Pragmatic Sanction whereby the Great Powers recognized that Charles VII's daughter, Maria Theresa, would inherit entire Hapsburg empire-Prussia defeated Austria
Seven Years War
Maria Theresa sought to regain Silesia from Prussia and gained Russia and France as allies-wanted to conquer Prussia and divide territories
Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
France and Austria, traditional enemies, now allied against Prussia-Britain, traditional ally of Russia, supported Prussia-bloodiest war since 30 Yrs War
Treaty of Paris
most important peace treaty of 18th century and most important since Treaty of Westphalia-Prussia permanently retained Silesia-France lost all colonies in N. A. to Britain-Britain gained more territory in India
First servant of the state
Frederick the great claimed to be this
Junkers
Prussian nobility-backbone of Prussia's military and state,
Catherine the Great
one of greatest rulers in European history-became queen after husband assassinated-lover of French culture-imported western culture-educational reforms-restricted torture-allowed limited religious toleration-strengthened govt.
Pugachev Rebellion
Eugene Pugachev, a Cossack soldier, led a huge serf uprising-demanded end to serfdom, taxes and army service; landlords and officials murdered all over southwestern Russia; eventually captured and executed
3 partitions
Annexed Polish territory with Prussia, Russia and Austria-1772, 1793, 1795
Liberum veto
unanimous agreement for govt. to act in Poland led to the exploding diet
Maria Theresa
not Enlightened-assume Hapsburg Empire from father, Charles VII-improve condition of people through absolute rule-centralized control of empire-brought Catholic church under control-promoted economic development
Pragmatic Sanction
1713-issued by Leopold and agreed to by Great Powers that Hapsburg Empire would remain intact under daughter's rule
Joseph II
ruled with mother, Maria Theresa, as co-regent-greatest of Enlightened Despots-emphasis on reforms-abolished serfdom-freedom of religion and civic rights to Protestants and Jews-allowed freedom of press-reformed judicial system-abolished torture-expanded state schools-established hospitals, insane asylums, poorhouses, and orphanages-parks and gardens-German official language
Francis Drake
Notorious pirate who committed acts of piracy against Spanish ships, was knighted by the Queen Elizabeth I. 2nd to circumnavigate the earth.
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