art - prehistoric & mesopotamian art Flashcards

Art
Terms Definitions
after 30,000 BC
Paleolithic period; suddenly there was art
after 9,000 BC
Mesolithic period; ice age ends
Altamira
Spanish caves with many bison, dots, and hands; roof in large cave covered w/ 25 animals
prehistoric sculpture
portable, stone, incised lines; later there were unportable cows at Ariege with heads attatched sepearately
solstice
time marked by cromlechs, specifically Stonehenge
Chatal Huvuk
Neolithic Turkish city in 6000 BC with bull iconography
Tigris
chaotic Eastern river of Mesopotamia (tigers=violent!)
Euphrates
calm and predictable Western river of Mesolpotamia
Zigurat
Sumerian temple build w/ corners towards 4 cardinal directions; not for burial, had a temple on top
Sumerian tombs
stone & brick, arches & vaults; sacrifices made for kings
Uruk Female head
3000 BC Sumerian black and white facial sculpture; calm and serene
Sumerian votifs
cylindrical sculptures of muscular people that were left in temples to represent specific people; 3000 BC
eyes
first valued by Sumerians as the "windows to the soul"
Standard of Ur
lapiz lazuli and white shells; one side shows peace, the other side shows war; Sumerian, 2600 BC
Bull-headed Lyre
found in king's grave at Ur, Sumerian, 2600 BC
Cylindrical seal
lapiz lazuli bead carved with signature, to be rolled in clay; Sumerian, 2600 BC
Akkadians
first to unify Sumerian cities; used art to show power and history
Victory Stele of Naram-Sim
pink sandstone relief sculture showing the Akkadian king standing on the bodies of his enemies; 2200 BC
Head of an Akkadian Ruler for Ninevah
large copper idealized head with attached ears, inlaid eyes (eyes & ears both gone now); patterned beard and braid; 2200 BC
Lagash statues of governor
return of Sumer; pious governor represented many times in giurite, long lasting stone, with wool cap and no beard, 2100 BC
Lions Gate
Turkish aschlar construction in 1400 BC; warning that shows power
Babylonians
group of dessert people South of Sumer
Hamarabi's Code
1780 BC; severe legal code of a Babylonian ruler in black stone stele
Statue of Queen Napir-Asu
created during brief rule of Sumer by the Elamites; missing head, relaxed pose, VERY heavy bronze woman
Assyrians
"terrifying mob" from North who had chariots and conquered Sumer
Citadel of Sargon II
city of buttressed walls with king at center; 700 BC, Assyrians
Ashunashipal hunting lions
bias relief of Assyrian king calmly facing muscular lions in a ritual; 600 BC
Lamassu gate
bird-bull-human gatekeepers, with 6 legs total; 700 BC, Assyrians
Ishtar Gate
glazed blue brick entries to Assyrian city, Babylon, in 575 BC
Persians
all world is light vs dark, build raised buildings; rulers include Darius and Xerxes
Palace of Darius and Xerxes
post and lentel audiance haul with many collumns, about 40 feet of the ground; shallow steps allowed horses, and people with narrow clothing
331 BC
Greeks defeat Persians, destroy their palaces
Palace of Sharpur
250 BC, Iraq: open building with pointed arch ceiling and blind arcades
blind arcade
filled arches and double collumns with space between them filled it
knave
large room with a vaulted ceiling
Head of a Sasanian King
idealized silver head made through chasing and repousse
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