Romanticism & Nationalism ID's Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Immanuel Kant
(1787), romantic writer who wrote "A Critique of Pure Reason", arguing that rationalism had been over emphasized and feeling, experience, and imagination were also an important part of seeking the truth
Romanticism
(1780-1850), started as a reaction to the cold rationalism of the enlightenment, stressed emotions imagination and spontaneity, very individualistic—artists lived lives of emotional intensity (suicides, duels, madness), saw art as dynamic and alive, called "transindentalism" in the US, science also began to focus on process during this period
Lord Byron
romantic English writer/ poet who "wrote what he practiced"
Edgar Allen Poe
American writer of gothic literature, wrote poems and stories, generally about the darkness of human souls, always looking for "the single effect" in his writing- writing to effect senses on an emotional level
William Wordsworth
English poet, romantic
Walter Scott
Scottish romantic novelist who helped to bring back chivalry and wrote about the medieval era- Ivanhoe & Rob Roy (popular in the US South)
Beethoven
German romantic composer of symphonies, wrote the 5th symphony
Eugene Delacroix
romantic painter- painted the famous "liberty leading the people", used art to inspire people to revolt against tyranny, illegitimate son of Talleyrand
Louis Pasteur
(1870), French scientist who invented the germ theory- finally allowed understanding of causes of death and diseases
Joseph Lister
English scientist who applied Louis Pasteur's germ theory to hospitals, greatly improved public health
Charles Darwin
(1859), wrote 'The Origin of Species", idea that humans underwent evolution through long process of "natural selection", hugely controversial at the time
Realism
(late 19th century), reaction to romanticism as artists grew concerned with social issues and used their art to push for reforms, some also wanted to reveal a more realistic side of life
Charles Dickens
English realist writer, wrote Oliver Twist, A Christmas Carol, and David Copperfield, wanted to use his art to push for reforms and show the strife and exploitation of the working class
Victor Hugo
French realist writer, wrote Les Miserables and the Hunchback of Notre Dame, like Dickens, wanted to show plight of working class
Henrik Ibsen
Norwegian realist playwright who wrote Dolls House and Hedda Gabler, first male playwright to write about women
Gustave Courbet
realist painter who painted "The Stone Breakers"
Frankenstein
(1818), gothic horror novel written by English Mary Shelley, horror novel exposing the dangers of science and technology
Charles Lyell
(1830), scientist during the romantic period, wrote the 'Principles of Geology", dealt with what had shaped the earth and how it had been shaped
William Tell
(1829), opera written by Italian Giacchino Rossinni, Rossinni was a romantic composer, William Tell is seen as a hero of Switzerland, was arrested and told him to shoot an arrow off of his father's head, was successful and Swiss won their Independence later
Dmitri Mendeleev
scientist during the romantic period, created the periodic table and found the first few elements
Michael Faraday
English scientist, during the romantic period, found the law of electrolysis
Caspar Friedrich
German romantic painter, paintings focused on the power and might of nature
Gustave Flaubert
French realist author who wanted to show the realistic side of life with his masterpiece, Madame Bovary
Revolutions of 1848
new social and political ideas liberalism, nationalism, socialism, and conservatism) combined with economic problems to erupt in a series of revolts across Europe, a revolt in France led to similar actions across Europe (France, Austria, Prussia) in the following pattern-
Louis XVIII
(1814-1824), protected the gains of the revolution such as personal freedoms and representative assembly—not democratic (only 100,000 of 30 million could vote, succeeded by Charles X
Constitution of 1814
restored rule on the behalf of the Middle Class-no great changes, much like the rule of Louis XVIII
July Rev. of 1830
liberal bankers and businessmen overthrew Charles X, they teamed with the workers (socialism) and students of Paris (romanticism) and fought behind barricades and won, this revolution ended the Bourbon rule that started with Henry of Navar (1589-1830), put Louis Philippe on the throne which began the Orleans line (1830-1848)
Louis Philippe
(1830-1848), King put on the throne to replace Charles X after the revolution of 1830, began the Orleans line, replaced in February in 1848
French revolution of 1848
in February of 1848 rising food prices and discontent with Louis Philippe led to a revolt, following the pattern, the middle class formed a coalition with the working class and students and as the barricades went up; the government came down, they set up the second French republic with universal male suffrage but a class war ensued between the middle class and the students with the working class
June Days
June Days began with this class warfare with the death of the coalition of February that had lasted 4 months, the army supported the middle class and crushed the revolt, more than 10,000 were killed or injured, new constitution called for a strong executive branch that assuaged the middle class' desire for stability, the popular appeal of a famous name led voters to select Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (1808-1873), 1st president of the 2nd French republic
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
(1808-1873), 1st president of the 2nd French republic, elected because of his popular last name
Austria-Hungary
(1848), several ethnic groups under the empire wanted independence, Hungary combines a liberal revolt and a nationalism Magyar movement, Klemens von Metternich was forced to flee and Russia sent 140,000 troops to restore Hapsburg rule, Austria gave Hungary semiautonomous rule, all of the revolutions in Austria failed and the Hapsburgs under Franz Joseph returned to control
Franz Joseph
(1848-1919), Hapsburg emperor who ruled during the revolts of the Hungarians, and Italians, all of these revolutions failed and he returned to control
Gains of 1848
1848 had a million revolts, they brought an end to the middle class revolts that had begun at the Bastille in 1789 (70 years), universal male suffrage was established in France, serfdom was abolished in Austria and the German states, representative assemblies began in Prussia and other German states however everything was still dominated by nobles, Prussia and Sardinia were both more determined to unify their nations, after 1850; the middle class became more concerned with protecting political power and property and were no longer revolutionary, working class began to use unions and politics to achieve their goals
"Eastern Question"
Between Constantinople and Greece, Messy area; lots of Muslims, Christians, and Greek Orthodox; , Europeans wonder what's going to happen in this region- The Eastern Question
Serbian Independence
Serbia won self-government, 1817, but still in Ottoman Empire, part of the eastern question, Both Serbia and Greece were being helped by Russia, Russia shared Slavic language and Christian Orthodoxy with two territories
Greek Independence
Greece won independence from Turks in 1830, Both Serbia and Greece were being helped by Russia, and Russia shared Slavic language and Christian Orthodoxy with two territories
Crimean War
Crimean War, 1853-1856: Russia vs. Great Britain & France, Russian ports: Baltic/Arctic Sea, Russia become aggressive in Black Sea area for control, Broke up cooperation of Great Powers, Leading to WWI
Florence Nightingale
Medical innovator; "lady with the lamp", Made nursing a professional outlet for middle-class women, Helped sanitary conditions in hospitals, Started the Red Cross
Sick Man of Europe
By late 1800s, Ottoman Empire: "The Sick Man of Europe", This is an empire that is hanging on by its fingernails, Falling behind Europe rapidly, Frequent ethnic revolts; Europe chipping at edges, Only thing that keeps them afloat is Europe keeping them upright
Sardinia-Piedmont
Italian unification led by Sardinia-Piedmont, King Victor Emmanuel II- Sympathetic to people who want to unify Italy, Count Camillo Cavour, Prime Minister of Saridnia-Piedmont 1852-1861, Political genius; tricked France into helping defeat Austria, Talks Napoleon III into a defensive alliance, Declare war against Austria, Added land in northern Italy
Red Shirts
Giuseppe Garibaldi—1861, army of "Red Shirts" conquered Sicily & Naples, Conquers Sicily and Naples "Kingdom of the Two Sicilies", Then stepped down in an altruistic, patriotic gesture
Italian Unification
By 1870, all Italy unified—1st time since Roman days, Italy industrialized and developed economically by the early 1900s, Came out of this as a very powerful country
Camillo Cavour
Prime Minister of Saridnia-Piedmont 1852-1861, Political genius; tricked France into helping defeat Austria, Talks Napoleon III into a defensive alliance, Declare war against Austria, Added land in northern Italy
Giuseppe Garibaldi
leader of 1861, army of "Red Shirts" conquered Sicily & Naples, Conquers Sicily and Naples "Kingdom of the Two Sicilies", then stepped down in an altruistic, patriotic gesture
German Unification
Napoleonic War sparked desire to unify all people of German language & culture, Metternich blocked early efforts, Otto von Bismarck, Chancellor, 1862-1890, under Wilhelm I, 3 wars unified all Germany in one nation by 1871, The 2nd Reich (Republic), Hitler will have the 3rd
Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck, Chancellor, 1862-1890, under Wilhelm I, 3 wars unified all Germany in one nation by 1871, The 2nd Reich (Republic)
Austro-Prussian War
(1866), between the Austrian Empire and its German allies on one side and the Kingdom of Prussia with its German allies and Italy on the other, that resulted in Prussian dominance over the German states, major result of the war was a shift in power among the German states away from Austrian and towards Prussian hegemony, and impetus towards the unification of all of the northern German states in a Kleindeutschland that excluded Austria
2nd Reich
The 2nd Reich (Republic), a result of the three wars that brought germany into one nation by 1871
Franco-Prussian War
Franco-Prussian War, 1870, A lot of people don't trust Prussia; but afraid of France, Sign defensive alliance; pick a fight with France, Defeat France; countries are swept up in Patriotism, Took Alsace-Lorraine from France, A cause for WWI, Treaty of Paris signed in Hall of Mirrors; to humiliate France
German Social Reforms
A strong, industrialized nation, 2nd most behind America, Emperor, Chancellor, military, & industrialists retained most power, Military values dominated over liberalism, Bismarck, though, had to give in to growing demands by the middle class & workers, Not total absolutism, Workers have formed unions; people can vote; middle and lower class has power, Pioneered social programs such as health care and pensions
Reform Act of 1832
(England) increased electorate to 12% and eliminated rotten boroughs
Reform Acts of 1867 and 1882
(also England), extended the right to vote to all males
Rotten Burroughs
(England), a parliamentary borough that had a very small electorate and could thus be used by a patron to gain undue and unrepresentative influence within parliament, feature of unreformed and corrupt house of commons before the great reform act of 1832
Chartist Movement
(1830s-1840s), the masses (hoi polloi) demanded universal male suffrage and the secret ballot
Queen Victoria
(1837-1901), British monarch gave her name to an era of British dominance- the Victorian Era, values of protestant work ethic and sensual modesty permeated the nation, by 1900 2 new political parties outlawed slavery (1833), and passed laws preventing the exploitation of workers, the labour party was mostly working class and the conservative party was mostly the wealthy businesspeople
Labour Party
new political party under the Victorian Era which represented the working class
Conservative Party
new political party under the Victorian Era which represented the wealthy upper and middle classes
Napoleon III
(1848-1871), remained popular despite repression, economic success promoted industry and France built the Suez Canal and railroads, he was tricked into declaring war on Prussia, the Franco-Prussian war was a disaster for France (1870-1871) and Napoleon was booted—starting the 3rd republic
3rd Empire
started after the booting on Napoleon III, republican government of France after Napoleon's defeat in the Franco-Prussian war
Suez Canal
(1869), canal built by France that shortened the distance of voyages by connecting the red sea and the Mediterranean Sea, it allowed water transportation between Europe and Asia without navigating around Africa
Alfred Dreyfus
(1894-1906), Alfred Dreyfus was a French-Jewish army general accused of treason when French army secrets were found in the hands of the Germans because on anti-Semitic attitudes in the government, he was sent to the Devil's Island prison in South America and was not pardoned even when the real treasonous individual was found, in response Emile Zola wrote J'accuse and Dreyfus was later exonerated and restored to military office
"J'Accuse"
packet written by Emile Zola accusing the army government of anti-Semitism as a response to the Dreyfus affair
Theodore Herzl
wrote a pamphlet called "The Jewish State" making the case for a Jewish homeland and for government discrimination against Jews, started the Zionist movement, causes small numbers of Jews to move to Israel/Palestine, by early 1900s some gains in the Napoleonic code and Jewish people were a little better off
Zionism
movement started by Theodore Herzl demanding that the Jewish people get their own homeland in Israel/Palestine
Dual Monarchy
By 1850s, liberals and nationals in Hungary wanted reforms and self rule for ethnic groups, after the Austro-Prussian war Hungary won self rule in a dual monarchy—the Austro-Hungarian empire, weakly held together in/until 1900
Alexander II
(1855-1881), Russian emperor, emancipated serfs in 1861, and the serfs had small freedoms and a bit better treatment, some moved to cities and factories and the tiny Middle Class also pushed for reforms, a socialist movement began
Serge Witte
Russian finance minister under two Tsars who pushed industrialization, he was responsible for the building of factories and the trans-Siberian railroad in the 1890s all the way from St. Petersburg to Vladivostok
Trans-Siberian RR
(1890s), built by Serge Witte- finance minister under two Tsars, stretched all the way across Russia from St. Petersburg to Vladivostok
Louisiana Purchase
(1803), part of US's inexorable expansion to the West, purchased Louisiana territory from Napoleon and Talleyrand, as settlers moved west, they pushed Native Americans aside and also destroyed buffalo herds
Mexican War
(1848), war between the United States and Mexico, the United States won and gained the Southwest states and California
War Bet/ the States
(1861-1865), bloodiest war fought in the US at that point, 600,000 died but the union prevailed and preserved, Abraham Lincoln ended slavery, new amendments were passed to protect rights, Southern states found ways to segregate blacks with sharecropping and Jim Crow laws
Abraham Lincoln
(1861-1865), president of the Union during the Civil War, declared the war in order to keep the United States together, only abolished slavery after it became clear that he had to in order to keep the union together, assassinated at Ford's theater in 1865,
Sharecropping
an agricultural system in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land for a portion of the profits from the harvest, much like debt peonage system in Latin America, prevalent in the southern United States after the abolition of slavery
Jim Crow Laws
laws passed in the southern United States after the outlawing of slavery, Jim Crow laws were passed to obstruct the rights of blacks and to keep them from voting, some of them include requiring the grandfather of one to vote before they could vote (sticking the African Americans in a cycle in which they would never be allowed to vote)
Native Americans
as the settlers moved west (especially after the Louisiana purchase), Native Americans were pushed aside into gradually worse land and the buffalo herds; their source of livelihood; were destroyed as well, this marked the complete domination of the natives by the settlers, trail of tears
Westward Migration
migration of settlers across the western unites states after the Louisiana Purchase, pushed Native American tribes out of the way OR referring to migration of the Native American tribes on the trail of tears etc.
US Industrialization, Urbanization, Immigration
the late 1800s was a staggering period of economic growth, both industrial and agricultural output grew to # 1 in the world, problems included rapid growth, corrupt business, and exploited workers, there was also a flood of immigrants from Europe, in the 1840s and 50s most immigrants came from Ireland (potato famine) and Germany (revolutions/avoiding military), in the 1880s more eastern and southern European people came from Greece, Italy, and Russia, dark skinned Catholics and Jews were not often welcomed because the country was run by WASPs, the immigrants provided cheap labor for the nation's factories
Alaska
(1800s), during the 1800s, the US managed to stay out of European squabbles of Europe, they pursued the traditional policy of isolationism, and they did purchase Alaska from Russia
Quebec
Quebec nationalism exists still today and they want to separate from the rest of Canada, Quebec is still French speaking today- a bit set off from the rest of Canada
Canada, 19th Century
Canada has a similar story to the US 1). Pushed natives aside 2). Moved steadily westward 3). Industrialized 4). Waves of European immigrants in the late 1800s 5). Great Britain gave Canada the right to self government 7). By 1900- virtually independent but maintained close ties to England
James Cook
(1770), British navy captain who sailed all around and found Australia and New Zealand and claimed them for the British Empire
Australia
found by Captain James Cook in 1770, it was first used as a prison camp for Great Britain, in the 1800s- free settlers set up sheep ranches and wheat farms, British also proved to be banes on the existences of the stone aged Aborigines or Kooris, the British even hunted the indigenous people for sport at one time, in 1901 given self rule and kept the British monarch, to attract females- allowed women the right to vote and pioneered the secret ballot
Aborigines/Kooris
indigenous people of Australia, found and mistreated by the British settlers, they were even hunted for sport at one time
New Zealand
Captain Cook claimed for Britain in 1769 and missionaries followed in 1814 to convert native Maori peoples- settled farmers from Polynesia and resistance led to wars with the British, by 1870s about 50,000 Maoris left but new Zealand won independence in 1902, to attract women they were given the right to vote in 1893 and minimum wage and pensions were established
Maoris
indigenous people of New Zealand- settled farmers from Polynesia
Brit Policy toward Colonies
in South Africa, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand; Great Britain granted white settlers the right to govern themselves, because racial attitudes of the time; they believed that white skinned people of European stock were capable of ruling themselves but dark skinned people were not
2nd Industrial Rev.
(late 1800s),incredible increase in size of things, new products energy sources and business organizations emerged, by 1900- the US dominated followed by Germany then England then France then Belgium, new competing nations had copious national resources and avoided the trial and error process of the British, this revolution focused on steel instead of iron, chemicals, an electric dynamo and the assembly line
Bessemer Process
(1856), new process of steel purification that made steel a possible material for use, greatly improved on iron, greatly used in the train and railroad industry!
Steel, Chemicals, Electric Power
steel was made possible by the Bessemer Process-used in the railroad industry; the second industrial revolution also focused on the dawn of the chemical age- used in paints but led to pollution, the electric dynamo  hydroelectric power became the new source
Corporations
in the second industrial revolution in the late 1800s, factories grew in size and expense, corporations sold stock to investors as a way to generate money to start companies/build factories (limited liability), and ruthless monopolies replaced family owned businesses
Monopolies
became prevalent in the 2nd industrial revolution, replaced family owned businesses, and a monopoly is where one company controls an entire market and then can control the prices
Georges Haussmann
(1850s), German urban planner who planned out the new city of Paris
Urban Planning
needed new city designs because cities needed better sanitation and hygiene, Haussmann was among the urban planners that made areas healthier, safer, and more attractive, public transportation also made suburbs more popular
Public Transportation
public transportation became prevalent after urban planners designed new cities all across Europe, made suburbs popular
Prot. Work Ethic
in the 1800s the values of the Protestant work Ethic became dominant, working class grew stronger and the middle class grew stronger in size and influence under these values
Growing Middle Class
in the second industrial revolution the Middle Class grew in size and influence, this happened in the late 1800s, people had more leisure time
Working Class
the working class grew stronger in the late 1800s, they used unions and votes, and this improved wages; hours; safety and standards of living
Unions, late 19th C
in the late 19th century, unions were formed which greatly improved the lives of the workers, workers had more free time and the quality of life was greatly improved, unions were able to improve the wages and working conditions and hours
Leisure Activities
as work became more humane people worked less hours and had disposable income, they filled their free time with various amusements, sports changed form participation to spectator activities, and these became big business
Women's Suffrage
woman were politically active even before they began voting, a few such as Emmaline Pankhurst (England) protested for their right to vote
Temperance
women protested and worked for temperance, temperance is the avoidance of alcohol, drugs etc. ex- prohibition
Mass Education
another one of the causes that women protested for, it emerged in the US and was used to promote nationalism
Emmaline Pankhurst
famous English Suffragette, helped protest for women to get the right to vote
Eli Whitney
in the 2nd industrial revolution he invented, not only the cotton gin, but also the interchangeable parts which allowed machines to be fixed without replacing the entire piece of machinery (American)
Robert Fulton
2nd industrial revolution- American engineer and inventor credited with the steamboat
George Stephenson
2nd industrial revolution- English engineer credited with building the first public railway line and using steam engines
Telegraph
(1825), long distance transport of letters without written messages using patterns of dots and dashes- invented by Samuel Morse in 1825
Interchangeable Parts
invention in the 2nd industrial revolution invented by Eli Whitney, allowed machines to be fixed by fixing only the part that was not working instead of having to buy a whole new one
Thomas Edison
American inventor who developed the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and the electric light bulb- changed energy light sources for people and applied the findings of Benjamin Franklin and electricity so that they were practical
Assembly Lines
new invention in the second industrial revolution by Henry Ford, allowed cars to be assembled quickly and cheaply because the cars would move down an assembly line and there would be one worker doing one thing and passing the car on
Henry Ford
inventor of the assembly line and of Ford motorcars, made cars cheap and popular
Alexander G. Bell
English inventor of the telephone
Gugliemo Marconi
Italian inventor credited with the invention of the radio
Airplane
invented by the American Wright brothers
Social Darwinism
in 1859 Charles Darwin wrote and published "The Origin of Species" and promoted the idea of natural selection, many used Darwin's theories to justify rapacious business practices and the exploitation of the working class, they also used it to push against reforms because they went against the natural way
Herbert Spencer
Englishman who coined the term "survival of the fittest" to sum up Darwin's theory of natural selection
Photography
(1839), invention of photography liberated painters so they were no longer tied to reality or obligated to create realistic paintings, they now used light and color to create "impressions" and allowed the eye to mix colors- impressionist movement
Impressionism
invention of photography liberated painters so they were no longer tied to reality or obligated to create realistic paintings; they now used light and color to create "impressions" and allowed the eye to mix colors- impressionist movement
Post-Impressionism
(late 19th century), new distinctive style, Sunday afternoon in the park by Georges Seurat is a famous painting form this movement, pointillism is part of this movement, Vincent Van Gogh is also one of the most famous of this movement
The "Irish Question"
question of the English on whether or not to give the Irish independence/ self rule, earlier the British had invaded Ireland and taken over the catholic island, protestant landlords owned the entire country virtually which caused resentment and repeated rebellions
The Great Hunger
(need years), recurring blight hit the potato crop, of the 6 million Irish people, 1 ½ million died and another million fled to the US and Canada
Edgar Degas
post-impressionist artists who painted a series on ballerinas and did several sculptures of ballerinas, basically, he loved the ballerinas
Claude Monet
neo-impressionist painter, painted "Waterlillies and Japanese Bridge"
Vincent Van Gogh
post-impressionist artist known for his extensive body of work, perhaps the most famous neo impressionist, famous paintings include 'The Potato Eaters", "Sunflowers", "Self Portrait with Bandaged Ear", and his most popular "Starry Night"
Georges Seurat
post-impressionist artists who painted "An Afternoon in the Park", used pointillism
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