AP US History Term Sheet X Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Roaring Twenties
This is the phrase used to describe the 1920s, principally in North America but also in London, Paris and Berlin, that emphasizes the period's social, artistic, and cultural dynamism. 'Normalcy' returned to politics in the wake of World War I, jazz music blossomed, the flapper redefined modern womanhood, Art Deco peaked, etc. The era was further distinguished by several inventions and discoveries of far-reaching importance, unprecedented industrial growth and accelerated consumer demand and aspirations, and significant changes in lifestyle.
Jazz Age
This was the period after the end of World War I, through the Roaring Twenties, ending with the onset of the Great Depression. Traditional values of the previous period declined while the American stock market soared. The age takes its name from jazz music, which saw a tremendous surge in popularity. Among the prominent concerns and trends of the period are the public embrace of technological developments typically seen as progress — cars, air travel and the telephone - as well as new modernist trends in social behavior, the arts, and culture. Central developments included Art Deco design and architecture.
Herbert Hoover
He was the U.S. food administrator during World War I, known for his proficient handing of relief efforts; he later served as secretary of commerce (1921 - 1928) and president (1929 - 1933).
Ohio Gang
This was the name for the group of politicians and industry leaders who came to be associated with Warren G. Harding, the twenty-ninth President of the United States of America.
Warren Harding
He was the 29th President of the United States, serving from 1921 until his death from a heart attack or stroke in 1923. A Republican from Ohio, Harding was an influential newspaper publisher. He served in the Ohio Senate (1899-1903) and later as Lieutenant Governor of Ohio (1903-1905) and as a U.S. Senator (1915-1921). During his presidential campaign, in the aftermath of World War I, he promised a return to "normalcy."
"Return to Normalcy"
This is what Warren Harding advertised during his presidential campaign in the aftermath of World War I—it meant an end to wars in Europe and an end to reforms taking place in the United States.
Andrew Mellon
He was an American banker, industrialist, philanthropist, art collector and Secretary of the Treasury from March 4, 1921 until February 12, 1932.
A. Mitchell Palmer
He was the Attorney General of the United States from 1919 to 1921. He was nicknamed The Fighting Quaker and he directed the controversial Palmer Raids, which were series of controversial raids by the United States Department of Justice and Immigration and Naturalization Service from 1919 to 1921 on suspected radical leftist citizens and immigrants in the United States.
Teapot Dome Scandal
This was an unprecedented bribery scandal and investigation during the White House administration of United States President Warren G. Harding. In 1921, by executive order of President Harding, control of naval oil reserves at Teapot Dome in Wyoming and at Elk Hills and Buena Vista in California, were transferred from the Navy Department to the Department of the Interior. In 1922, Albert B. Fall, U.S. Secretary of the Interior, leased, without competitive bidding, the Teapot Dome fields to Harry F. Sinclair, an oil operator, and the field at Elk Hills, California, to Edward L. Doheny. Fall was convicted of bribery by the Senate. Basically, Harding's Secertary of the Interior, Albert B. Fall, secretly allowed private interest to lease lands containing U.S. Navy oil reserves at Teapot Dome, Wyoming, and Elk Hills, California
National Origins Act of 1924
This was a law passed by Congress establishing quotas for immigrants to the United states—it limited immigration from southern and eastern Europe, permitted larger members of immigrants from northern and western Europe, and prohibited immigration from Asia.
Volstead Act
This reinforced the prohibition of alcohol in the United States in 1919, defining the term of "intoxicating liquors" to implement the amendment. It was originally vetoed by Woodrow Wilson, but Congress overrode the veto.
Dawes Plan
This was the arrangement for collecting World War I reparations from Germany; it scheduled annual payments and stabilized German currency.
Flappers
This term referred to a "new breed" of young women who wore short skirts, bobbed their hair, listened to jazz, and flaunted their disdain for what was then considered acceptable behavior. Flappers were seen as brash for wearing excessive makeup, drinking, treating sex in a casual manner, smoking, driving automobiles and otherwise flouting social and sexual norms.
Speakeasies
These were places that illegally sold liquor and sometimes offered entertainment during the time of prohibition.
Scopes Trial
This was an American legal case that tested the Butler Act which made it unlawful "to teach any theory that denies the story of the Divine Creation of man as taught in the Bible, and to teach instead that man has descended from a lower order of animals" in any Tennessee state-funded school and university. The trial drew intense national publicity, with moderns pitted against traditionalists over the teaching of evolution in the schools and a Fundamentalist interpretation of the Bible. The trial proved a critical turning point in the American creation-evolution controversy.
Frederick W. Taylor
He was an American mechanical engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency. He is regarded as the father of scientific management, and was one of the first management consultants. He was one of the intellectual leaders of the Efficiency Movement and his ideas, broadly conceived, were highly influential in the Progressive Era.
Henry Ford
He was the inventor and manufacturer who founded the Ford Motor Company in 1903 and pioneered mass production in the auto industry—his first "affordable" model was the Model T car.
Calvin Coolidge
He was the 30th President of the United States (1923-1929). A Republican lawyer from Vermont, Coolidge worked his way up the ladder of Massachusetts state politics, eventually becoming governor of that state. His actions during the Boston Police Strike of 1919 thrust him into the national spotlight. Soon after, he was elected as the 29th Vice President in 1920 and succeeded to the Presidency upon the sudden death of Warren G. Harding in 1923. Elected in his own right in 1924, he gained a reputation as a small-government conservative. Coolidge restored public confidence in the White House after the scandals of his predecessor's administration, and left office with considerable popularity.
Lost Generation
This was a term used to characterize a general motif of disillusionment of American literary notables who lived in Europe, most notably Paris, after the First World War. Figures identified with the "Lost Generation" included authors and artists such as Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ezra Pound, Sherwood Anderson, Waldo Peirce, John Dos Passos, John Steinbeck, and Cole Porter.
T.S. Eliot
He was an American poet, playwright, and literary critic, and arguably the most important English-language poet of the 20th century. His first notable publication, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock, begun in February 1910 and published in Chicago in June 1915, is regarded as a masterpiece of the modernist movement. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature and the Order of Merit in 1948.
F. Scott Fitzgerald
He was an American author of novels and short stories, whose works are evocative of the Jazz Age, a term he coined himself. He is widely regarded as one of the twentieth century's greatest writers. Fitzgerald is considered a member of the "Lost Generation" of the Twenties. He finished four novels, his most famous being, the celebrated classic, The Great Gatsby.
Theodore Dreiser
He was an American novelist and journalist. He pioneered the naturalist school and is known for portraying characters whose value lies not in their moral code, but in their persistence against all obstacles, and literary situations that more closely resemble studies of nature than tales of choice and agency. One of his major works was Sister Carrie.
Sinclair Lewis
He was a novelist who satirized middle-class America in works such as Babbit (1922) and became the first American to win the Nobel Prize for literature.
Ernest Hemingway
He was an American writer and journalist. During his lifetime he wrote and had published seven novels; six collections of short stories; and two works of non-fiction. Since his death, three novels, four collections of short stories, and three non-fiction autobiographical works have been published. Hemingway received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954 his novella The Old Man and the Sea.
Gertrude Stein
She was an American writer who spent most of her life in France, and who became a catalyst in the development of modern art and literature. Throughout her lifetime, Stein also cultivated significant relationships with well-known members of the avant garde artistic and literary world.
Harlem Renaissance
This was the literary and artistic movement in the 1920s, centered in Harlem (New York), in which black writers and artists described and celebrated African American life.
Marcus Garvey
He was a Jamaican Black Nationalist active in American in the 1920s. Many poor urban blacks turned to him. He was head of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and he urged black economic cooperation and founded a chain of UNIA grocery stores and other business
Sacco and Vanzetti
They were two Italian-born laborers and anarchists who were tried, convicted and executed via electrocution on August 23, 1927 in Massachusetts for the 1920 armed robbery and murder of a pay-clerk and a security guard in South Braintree, Massachusetts. The case incited controversy based on questions regarding culpability, the question of the innocence or guilt of Sacco and Vanzetti, and conformance, the question of whether the trials were fair to Sacco and Vanzetti.
Charles Lindbergh
He was an American aviator who made the first solo transatlantic flight in 1927 and became an international hero.
McNary-Haugen Bill
This was the farm relief bill that provided for government purchase of crop surpluses during years of large output; Coolidge vetoed it in 1927 and in 1928.
Hawley-Smoot Tariff
This raised U.S. tariffs on over 20,000 imported goods to record levels. The ensuing retaliatory tariffs by U.S. trading partners reduced American exports and imports by more than half and according to some views may have contributed to the severity of the Great Depression.
Washington Disarmament (Naval) Conference
This was an international conference that in 1921-1922 produced a series of agreements to limit naval armaments and prevent conflict in the Far East and the Pacific.
Kellogg-Briand Pact
This was the treaty signed in 1928 by fifteen nations, including Britain, France, Germany, the United States, and Japan, renouncing war as a means of solving international disputes.
Al Smith
He was a New York governor who unsuccessfully sought the Democratic nomination for president in 1924 and was the unsuccessful Democratic candidate for president in 1928; his Catholicism and desire to repeal Prohibition were political liabilities.
Hoover-Stimson Doctrine
This was a declaration by U.S. secretary of state Henry Stimson in 1932 that the United States would not recognize the Japanese-created state of Manchuko—a policy of nonrecognition—and that legally Manchuria was still Chinese territory.
Good Neighbor Policy
This was an American policy toward Latin America that stressed the economic ties and nonintervention, begun under Hoover but associated with Roosevelt.
London Naval Conference
This consisted of three major international naval conferences in London, the first in 1908-09, the second in 1930 and the third in 1935. The latter two, together with the Washington Naval Conference in 1921-22 and the Geneva Conferences (1927 and 1932), resulted in agreements between the major powers on navy vessel numbers, armaments and the rules of engagement in the inter-war period.
Sigmund Freud
He was an Austrian who played a leading role in developing the field of psychoanalysis, known for his theory that the sex drive underlies much individual behavior.
United Negro Improvement Association
This was an international self-help organization founded by Marcus Garvey. It launched a chain of black owned grocery stores and pressed for the creation of other black businesses. Garvey insisted that his supporters return to Africa and begin a new society. The decline of UNIA and the Garvey movement occurred after Garvey was charged with business fraud and deported back to Jamaica.
Nine Power Pact
This was the agreement signed in 1922 by Britain, France, Italy, Japan, the United States, China, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Belgium to recognize China and affirm the Open Door policy.
George Herman Ruth
Babe Ruth was an American Major League baseball player from 1914-1935. Ruth originally broke into the major leagues with the Boston Red Sox as a starting pitcher, but after he was sold to the New York Yankees in 1919, he converted to a full-time right fielder and subsequently became one of the league's most prolific hitters. Ruth was a mainstay in the Yankees' lineup that won seven pennants and four World Series titles during his tenure with the team. After a short stint with the Boston Braves in 1935, Ruth retired. In 1936, Ruth became one of the first five players elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame.
Al Capone
He was an Italian-born gangster who ruthlessly ruled the Chicago underworld until he was imprisoned for tax evasion in 1931.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
The 32nd President of the United States, he was a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century, leading the United States during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war. The only American president elected to more than two terms, he was often referred to by his initials, FDR. Roosevelt won his first of four presidential elections in 1932, while the United States was in the depths of the Great Depression. FDR's combination of optimism and economic activism is often credited with keeping the country's economic crisis from developing into a political crisis. He led the United States through most of World War II, and died in office of a cerebral hemorrhage, shortly before the war ended.
Bull Market
This is associated with increasing investor confidence, and increased investing in anticipation of future price increases capital gains. A bullish trend in the stock market often begins before the general economy shows clear signs of recovery.
Margin Call
When the margin posted in the margin account is below the minimum margin requirement, the broker or exchange issues a margin call. The investor now either has to increase the margin that they have deposited, or they can close out their position. They can do this by selling the securities, options or futures if they are long and by buying them back if they are short. If they don't do any of this the broker can sell his securities to meet the margin call.
Black Tuesday
This was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States, taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its fallout. It occurred on October 29, 1929, and approximately the stock market fell 13% in one day and kept falling, leading into the Great Depression.
Great Depression
This was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. It was the longest, most widespread, and deepest depression of the 20th century. The depression originated in the United States, starting with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929 (known as Black Tuesday), but quickly spread to almost every country in the world. Personal income, tax revenue, profits and prices dropped, and international trade plunged by a half to two-thirds. Unemployment in the United States rose to 25%.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
This was the organization established at Hoover's request in 1932 to promote economic recovery; it provided emergency financing for banks, life insurance companies, railroads, and farm mortgage associations.
Glass-Steagall Act
This was the law passed by congress in 1932 that expanded credit through the Federal Reserve System in order to counteract foreign withdrawals and domestic hoarding of money.
Bonus Army
These were unemployed World War I veterans who marched to Washington in 1932 to demand early payment of a promised bonus—Congress refused, and the army evicted protestors who remained.
Harry Hopkins
He was one of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's closest advisers. He was one of the architects of the New Deal, especially the relief programs of the Works Progress Administration (WPA), which he directed and built into the largest employer in the country. In World War II he was Roosevelt's chief diplomatic advisor and troubleshooter and was a key policy maker in the $50 billion Lend Lease program that sent aid to the allies.
Hoovervilles
These were crudely built camps set up by the homeless on the fringes of a town or city during the Depression; the largest Hooverville was outside Oklahoma City and covered over 100 square miles.
Huey P. Long
He was a Louisiana governor, the U.S. senator, who ran a powerful political machine and whose advocacy of redistribution of income was gaining him a national political following at the time of his assassination in 1935.
New Deal
This was the term applied to Roosevelt's policies to attack the problems of the Depression, which included relief for poor and unemployed, efforts to stimulate economic recovery, and social security—the term was coined by Roosevelt's adviser Raymond Moley.
First Hundred Days
These were the first 100 days of Roosevelt's administration. Roosevelt entered office with enormous political capital. Americans of all political persuasions were demanding immediate action, and Roosevelt responded with a remarkable series of new programs in the "first hundred days" of the administration, in which he met with Congress for 100 days. During those 100 days of lawmaking, Congress granted every request Roosevelt asked, and passed a few programs (such as the FDIC to insure bank accounts) that he opposed
Father Coughlin
He was a Roman Catholic priest whose influential radio addresses in the 1930s at first emphasized social justice but eventually became anti-Semitic and profascist.
Francis Townsend
He was an American physician who was best known for his revolving old-age pension proposal during the Great Depression. Known as the "Townsend Plan," this proposal influenced the establishment of the Roosevelt administration's Social Security system.
John Steinbeck
He was an American writer. He wrote the Pulitzer Prize-winning novel The Grapes of Wrath (1939) and the novella Of Mice and Men (1937). He wrote a total of twenty-seven books, including sixteen novels, six non-fiction books and five collections of short stories. In 1962, Steinbeck received the Nobel Prize for Literature.
Fireside Chats
These were radio talks in which President Roosevelt promoted New Deal policies and reassured the nation; Roosevelt delivered 28 fireside chats.
Bank Holidays
This was the temporary shutdown of banks throughout the country by executive order of President Roosevelt in March 1933.
Public Works Administration
Headed by Harold Ickes, secretary of the interior, this sought to increase employment and to stimulate economic recovery by putting people to work. It spent more than $4.25 million on 34,000 public works projects.
Civilian Conservation Corps
This was an organization created by Congress in 1933 to hire young, unemployed men for conservation work, such as planting trees, digging irrigation ditches, and maintaining national parks. The majority of those recruited were white, but African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans also served in segregated camps, including more than 80,000 Native Americans who served on reservations.
Tennessee Valley Authority
This was an independent public corporation created by Congress in 1933 and authorized to construct dams and power plants in the Tennessee River valley region.
Federal Housing Administration
This was an agency created by the National Housing Act (1934) to insure loans made by banks and other institutions for new home construction, repairs, and improvements.
National Recovery Administration
This was an agency created by the NIRA to draft national industrial codes and supervise their implementation.
Works Progress Administration
This was an agency established in 1935 and headed by Harry Hopkins that hired the unemployed for construction, conservation, and arts programs.
Social Security Act
This was the law passed by Congress in 1935 to create systems of unemployment, old-age, and disability insurance and to provide for child welfare.
National Industrial Recovery Administration
This was created by the National Industrial Recovery Act in 1933 to supervise industry—the act also created the Public works Administration to create jobs.
National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act)
Passed by Congress in 1935, this defined unfair labor practices and protected unions against coercive measures such as blacklisting.
Fair Labor Standards Act
This was a law passed by Congress in 1938 that established a minimum wage and a maximum workweek and forbade labor by children under 16.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
This was an agency created by the Bank Act of 1933 to insure deposits up to a fixed sum in member banks of the Federal Reserve System and state banks that choose to participate.
Securities and Exchange Commission
This was an agency created by the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 to license stock exchanges and supervise their activities, including the setting of margin rates.
Frances Perkins
She was the U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, and the first woman appointed to the U.S. Cabinet. As a loyal supporter of her friend, Franklin D. Roosevelt, she helped pull the labor movement into the New Deal coalition. She and Interior Secretary Harold Ickes were the only original members of the Roosevelt cabinet who remained in offices for his entire presidency.
Judicial Reorganization Bill of 1937
This was a legislative initiative to add more justices to the Supreme Court proposed by U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt shortly after his victory in the 1936 presidential election. Although the bill aimed generally to overhaul and modernize all of the federal court system, its most important provision would have granted the President power to appoint an additional Justice to the U.S. Supreme Court for every sitting member over the age of 70½, up to a maximum of six.
Indian Reorganization Act
This was a law passed by Congress in 1934 that ended Indian allotment and returned to surplus land to tribal ownership; it also sought to encourage tribal self-government and to improve economic conditions on reservations.
Dust Bowl
This was the name given by a reporter in 1935 to the region devastated by drought and dust storms that began in 1932; the worst years (1936 - 1938) saw over sixty major storms per year, seventy-two in 1937.
Schechter Poultry v. U.S.
This was the Supreme Court decision (1935) declaring the NRA unconstitutional because it regulated companies not involved in interstate commerce.
John Maynard Keynes
He was a British economist whose ideas have been a central influence on modern macroeconomics, both in theory and practice. He advocated interventionist government policy, by which governments would use fiscal and monetary measures to mitigate the adverse effects of business cycles, economic recessions, and depressions.
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
This was a labor organization established in 1938 by a group of powerful unions that left the AFL to unionize workers by industry rather than by trade.
Alfred Landon
He was a Kansas governor who ran unsuccessfully for the president on the Republican ticket in 1936.
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