AP Euro Chapter 12 Age of Religious Wars Review Flashcards

Elizabeth I of England
Terms Definitions
Philip II
King of Spain and a devout Catholic. Under his reign, Spain became a world power. Spain reached the peak of its influence as he directed explorations around the globe, prompting Spanish colonization.
Don Carlos
The son of Philip II of Spain. Mad and treacherous, he died under suspicious circumstances. Some contemporaries suggest Philip had him executed.
Cardinal Granvelle
Created a plan for ecclesiastic reorganization of the Netherlands. It was to tighten control of the Catholic hierarchy over the country and to accelerate its consolidation as a Spanish ward.
A national covenant in the Netherlands. It was designed to resist the degrees of Trent and the Inquisition.
Tenth penny
A tax imposed by Spain on the Netherlands. It was a 10% sales tax that met plenty of resistance.
Spanish Fury
The greatest atrocity of the war between Spain and the Netherlands. Spanish mercenaries ran amok in Antwerp, leaving 7,000 people dead.
Lady Jane Grey
Before Edward VI died, he made this woman the next in line to take the throne in England, depriving Mary I of her rightful rule. Days after her crowing, she was removed and beheaded. Mary I became queen.
Mary I
A devout Catholic queen. She married Philip II of Spain, upsetting English
Marian Exiles
Protestants who fled England during the reign of Mary I. They settled in Germany and Switzerland and worshiped in their own congregations, wrote contracts justifying armed resistance and waited for a time when a Protestant counteroffensive could be launched in their homelands.
Elizabeth I
She helped England recover from the bellicose reign of Mary I, her successor. She firmly established Protestantism, encouraged English enterprise and commerce, and took a strong stand against Spain.
Sir William Cecil
The shrewd adviser of Elizabeth I. Together, they guided a religious settlement through Parliament that prevented England from being torn asunder by religious differences.
Act of Supremacy
This act repealed all the anti-Protestant legislation of Mary Tudor and asserted Elizabeth's right as "supreme governor" over both spiritual and temporal affairs.
Act of Uniformity
This act mandated a revised version of the second "Book of Common Prayer" for every English parish.
John Knox
A Scottish religious reformer and founder of Presbyterianism in Scotland. Wrote "First Blast ofthe Trumpet Against the Terrible Regiment of Women" tp provoke a revolt against Mary Tudor. IT was published in the year of Elizabeth's coronation; Elizabeth thought it was against her and she never truly forgave him.
Mary Queen of Scots
The daughter of King James V of Scotland and Mary of Guise. She was a devout Catholic. A public scandal forced her abdication from the throne and she went to England. Elizabeth I ordered her execution for her part to kill her.
Sir Francis Drake
English navigator and explorer. He shelled the port city of Cadiz, inflicting damage on Spanish ships. He also raided the coast of Portugal, postponing Spain's planned invasion of England.
Treaty of Nonsuch
An agreement between England and the Netherlands. England gave money and troops to Netherland in exchange for land. Philip saw this as a declaration of war by England, prompting the Spanish Armada.
James VI/I
The son of Mary Stuart. She was forced to surrender the throne to him. He became Elizabeth's successor as the king of England.
Babington Plot
Anthony Babington sought Spanish support for an attempt on Elizabeth I's life. Mary Queen of Scots was involved in this plot and as punishment, was executed.
Pre-Conditions for war
Lack of German unity, religious division, and Calvinists.
Four periods of war
Bohemian, Danish, Swedish, and Swedish-French
Defenestration of Prague
The Protestant nobility in Prague responded to Ferdinand's decision to revoke the religious freedoms of Bohemian Protestants by throwing his regents out the window.
Edict of Restitution
Ferdinand of Bohemia ordered the return of all Catholic property seized by Protestants since 1552. Nullified by the Treaty of Wesphalia.
Peace of Prague
German Protestant states, led by Saxony, reached a compromise with Ferdinand with this treaty.
Treaty of Westphalia
This treaty brought all hostilities within the Holy Roman Empire to an end. Rescinded Ferdinand's Edict of Restitution.
Treaty of the Pyrenees
A humiliating treaty forced on Spain, making France Europe's dominant power.
Don John
Under his command, a Holy League of Spain, Venice, and the Pope formed to check Turkish belligerence in the Mediterranean. He later took control of Spanish land forces and was defeated. Had to sign the humiliating Perpetual Edict and which removed Spanish troops from the Netherlands.
Margaret of Parma
The half-sister of Philip of Spain became a regent in Philip's absence due to his trip back to Spain.
William of Orange
An exile in Germany, he emerged as the leader of a broad movement for the Netherlands' independence from Spain.
Duke of Alba
Philip of Spain dispatched this man to suppress the Dutch revolt.
Sea Beggars
An international group of anti-Spanish exiles and war criminals, they captured the port city of Brill.
Pacification of Ghent
A union between Catholic provinces and Protestant provinces against Spain. It declared internal regional sovereignty in matters of relgion.
French Protestants.
Battle of Pavia
In 1525, Francis I of France was captured by Charles V. This caused the first war of Protestant persecution in France.
Edict of Fontainebleau
In 1540, this edict subjected all Huguenots to the Inquisition.
Edict of Chateaubriand
Henry II passed this edict to further persecute Protestants.
Francis I
Kng during the Habsburg-Valois Wars. He was captured by Charles V at the battle of Pavia. Anti-Protestant.
Henry II
Husband of Catherine de Medici. King during the end of the Habsburg-Valois War. Catherine passed the Edict of Chateaubriand.
Francis II
Eldest son of Henry II, husband of Mary Queen of Scots. Huguenots tried to kidnap him in the Conspiracy of Amboise.
Catherine de Medici
Wife of Henry II. Powerful queen of France who ruthlessly played the Huguenots and Guises against each other to expand influence.
French Protestant family with much influence on the French wars of religion. Louis de Conde was their leader.
Huguenot family with much influence on the French wars of religion. They were led by Admiral Gaspard de Coligny.
Militant Catholic family of France. They were a major influence on the French wars of relgion.
Conspiracy of Amboise
A plot hatched by Protestant leaders to kidnap Francis II.
Theodore Beza
A Calvinists leader who strongly supporter defending against tyranny.
January Edict
This edict allowed Protestant in France to worship outside towns publicly and privately inside them.
Peace of Saint-Germain-en Laye
This ended the 3rd war of religion allowed Protestants full religious freedoms within their territories and the right to fortify their cities.
Caris de Conde
Huguenot leader of the Bourbons. Led Protestant forces during the religious wars. Killed in the second religious conflict.
A powerful Huguenot leander of the Montmorency-Chatillons. He took command once Conde was dead. He was killed as a part of a Catholic plot and this caused the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
This occurred when Catherine de Medici and the Guise family made an attempt on Coligny's life. When it failed, a nervous Catherine convinced Charles IX that a Huguenot coup was a foot. The execution of several thousand Huguenots was ordered.
Henry III
Politique king who passed the Peace of Beaulieu, allowing Huguenots complete civil and religious freedom. But France was not ready for this, and the Catholic League freed him to reject it. He teamed up with Henry of Navare, and the planned the successful assassinations of the Duke and cardinal of Guise. When the planned an invasion of Paris, he was killed.
A smart political ruler who puts the political survival of the state of religious unity.
Peace of Beaulieu
Passed by Henry III. Allowed Huguenots full religious and civil freedoms. Pressure from the Catholic League forced him to shorten it.
Henry of Navarre
Brilliant politique king of France who brought the religious wars to a close. He passed the Edict of Nantes, which helped bring tranquility to the state. He purified the Catholic League by making France a Catholic country that tolerated Huguenots, although he was Protestant.
Edict of Nantes
Passed by Henry IV. Allowed Huguenots public worship, right of assembly, admission to public offices and universities, and permission to maintain fortified towns. Exercised within their own towns and territories.
Union of Brussels
Catholic and Protestant provinces joined in an alliance that tolerated religious differences but had political unity. It was the Netherland's unified opposition to Spain.
Perpetual Edict
Don John of the Spanish forces had to sign this when the Union of Brussels defeated his forces. It provided for the full removal of Spanish troops from Dutch soil.
Union of Arras
A union of southern provinces that made peace with Spain.
Union of Utrecht
Northern provinces created this in response to the union of Arras.
The Union of Utrecht rejected Philip II as their ruler. They turned to Catherine's youngest son. Tried to take control of the provinces, but was returned to France.
Defeat of the Spanish Armada
Most epic naval turnaround in history. Spain's large ships could not land troops on English shores. Swifter English and Dutch ships outmaneuvered Spain.
Catholic League
Formed by ultra-Catholics in 1576 with the goal of exterminating heresy and putting a true Catholic champion (Henry, duke of Guise) on the French throne.
The Roman Catholic Church's attempt to combat the Reformation.
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