AP Euro: The "Age of Anxiety": 1914-1950 & Democracies in the 1920s Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Friedrich Nietzsche
(1844-1900): one of the most important critics of the rationalism of the Enlightenment, in Thus Spake Zarathustra (1883-85) he blasted religion and famously claimed "God is Dead;" claimed Christianity embodied a "slave morality," which glorified weakness, envy, and mediocrity; individualism had been quashed by society; in Will to Power (1888) he wrote that only the creativity of a few supermen--übermenschen--could successfully reorder the world; though not widely read by his contemporaries, his writings seemed relevant in the atmosphere of post-World War I pessimism.
Henri Bergson
(1859-1941): in the 1890s, he convinced many young people that immediate experience and intuition were as important as rational and scientific thinking for understanding reality.
Georges Sorel, syndicalism
(1847-1922): believed socialism would come to power through a great, violent strike of all working people; ideas foreshadowed the Bolshevik Revolution; control by an elite few...a manifestation of anarchism
Sigmund Freud, "ID"
(1856-1939): Austrian psychologist; developer of Freudian psychology in late 1880s; traditional psychology assumed a single, unified conscious mind processed sensory experiences in a rational and logical way; Freudian psychology seemed to reflect the spirit of the early 20th century, with its emphasis on humans as greedy irrational creatures; became an international movement by 1910 and received popular attention after 1918, especially in Protestant countries of Northern Europe and the U.S.; Freud assertedc that because the human unconscious (ID) is driven by sexual, aggressive, and pleasure-seeking desires, humans are therefore not rational; ID vs Ego (rationalizing conscious mediates what a person can do) and Superego (ingrained moral values specify what a person should do); shattered the enlightenment view of rationalit and progress; Freud agreed with Nietzsche that mechanisms of rational thinking and traditional moral values can be too strong on the human psyche; they can repress sexual desires too effectively, crippling individuals and entire peoples with guilt and neurotic fears; many opponents and some enthusiasts interpreted Freud as saying that t he first requirement for mental health is an uninhibited sex life; after WWI, the popular interpretation of Freud reflected and encouraged growing sexual experimentation, particularly among middle-class women
Paul Valèry
(1871-1945): poet who spoke of the "cruelly injured mind" besieged by doubts and suffering from anxieties due to economic, political, and social disruptions of the 1920s
Ludwig Wittgenstein
(1889-1951): developer of logical empiricism; part of the Vienna Circle in the 1920s and 1930s
Logical empiricism (logical positivism)
took root in English-speaking univerisities; philosophy is only the logical clarification of thoughts; abstract concepts regarding God, freedom, morality, etc, are senseless since they can neither be tested by scientific experiments nor demonstrated by the logic of mathematics; only experience is worth analyzing
Oswald Spenger, Decline of the West
(1880-1936): wrote The Decline of the West (1918-22): every culture experiences a life cycle of growth and decline; Western civilization was in its old age, and death was approaching in the form of conquest by Asians
T.S. Eliot, "The Waste Land"
(1888-1965): wrote "The Waste Land" (1922): depicted a world of growing desolation; considered the most famous long poem of the 20th century; created his work within a perceived trational Christian framework; advocated literary allegiance to tradition
Erich Maria Remarque: All Quiet on the Western Front
1929; powerful war novel detailing the horrors of trench warfare during World War I
Franz Kafka
(1883-1924): portrayed helpless individuals destroyed by inexplicably hostile and surreal forces: The Trial (1925); The Castle (1926); The Metamorphosis (1915)
took root in Continental countries after World War II; in the wake of the horros of World War II and the advent of the atomic age, pessimism and hopelessness were expressed by existentialists; extentialists saw life as absurd, with no inherent meaning; viewed a world where the individual had to find his own meaning; most existentialists were atheists
John-Paul Sartre
(1905-1980); wrote that life had no meaning and that humans simply exist; he was strongly attracted to communism
Albert Camus
(1913-1960): individuals had to find meaning to life by taking action against those things with which they disagree; ones actions are derived from personal choices that are independent from religion or political ideology
George Orwell, 1984
(1903-1950): wrote 1984 (1949): "Big Brother" (the dictator) and his totalitarian state use a new kind of language, sophisticated technology, and psychological terror to strip a weak individual of his last shred of human dignity
"New Physics"
much popularized after WWI, challenged long-held ideas and led to uncertainty; impact on common mind: new universe seemed strange and troubling; universe was now "relative," dependent on the observer's frame of reference; universe was uncertain and undetermined, without stable building blocks; physics no longer provided easy, optimistic answers, or any answers for that matter
Max Planck
(1858-1947): developed basis for quantum physics in 1900; postulated amtter and energy might be different forms of the same thing; shook foundations of 19th century physics that viewed atoms as the stable, basic building blocks of nature, with a different kind of unbreakable atom for each element
Albert Einstein, theory of relativity
(1879-1955): 1905, Theory of relativity of time and space challenged traditional ideas of Newtonian physics (E=MC^2); united apparently infinite universe with incredibly small, fast-moving subatomic world; matter and e3nergy are interchangeable and that even a particle of matter contains enormous levels of potential energy
Ernest Rutherford
(1871-1937): in 191, he demonstrated the atom could be split
Werner Heisenberg
(1901-1976): in 1927 he developed his "principle of uncertainty"--as it is impossible to know the position and speed of an individual eletron, it is therefore impossible to predict its behavior; Heisenberg's principle: the dynamics of an experiment alters the state of the subject
Bauhaus movement, Walter Gropius
(1883-1969) broke sharply with the past in his design of the Fagus shoe factory at Alfeld, Germany (1911); clean, light, elegant building of glass and iron; represented a jump into the middle of the 20th century
Pablo Picasso, Guernica
(1881-1973): most important artist of the 20th century; devloped cubism along with Georges Braque; cubism concentrated on a complex geometry of zigzagging lines and sharply angled, overlapping planes; often tried to portray all perspectives simultaneously; Guernica (1937) is considered his masterpiece; huge mural portraying the bombing of a Spanish city by the German Luftwaffe in 1937
Wassily Kandinsky
(1866-1944): expressionist; sought to evoke emotion through non-figural painting
"Dada" was a nonsensical word that mirrored a post-WWI world that no longer made sense; attacked all accepted standards of art and behavior delighting in outrageous conduct; e.g., Mona Lisa painted with a mustache (Marcel Duchamp)
Salvador Dali most famous; incorporated dreams and symbols
Salvador Dali
(1904-1989) most important surrealist (influenced by Freud's emphasis on dreams); after 1924, painted a fantastic world of wild dreams and complex symbols, where watches melted and giant metronomes beat time in impossible alien landscapes; his most famous painting is "Persistence of Memory," 1931
Igor Stravinsky
(1882-1971): most important composer of the 20th century; "Rite of Spring" (1906) experimented with new tonalities (many of the dissonant) and aggressive primitive rhythms
Arnold Schönberg
(1874-1951): pioneered "12-tone" technique (atonality); this style of music was somewhat akin to Wassily Kandinsky's non-figural painting in his extreme abstract expressionist style
Weimar Republic
S.P.D. took control on November 9, 1918; Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated the same evening; fear of communist revolutions throughout the country prompted Philip Scheidemann to proclaim a republic, but without official consent from any other parties
Social Democratic Party (S.P.D.)
S.P.D. took control of the government (German); largest political party in Germany prior to the war
a group of communists led by Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, took control of Berlin for a week in January 1919
Free Corps; right-wing paramilitary groups that formed after the war, became the vanguard of anti-communist repression; elements of the Freikorps crushed the communist uprising, killing its leaders
Treaty of Versailles
1919; to Germans of all political parties, this treaty represented a harsh, dictated peace, to be revised or repudiated as soon as possible; Germany paid huge reparations, took sole responsibility for war, ceded their land to France and gave up colonies (restored to original borders)
Article 231
placed sole blame of the war on Germany
John Maynard Keynes, Economic Consequences of the Peace, 1919
most significant economist of 20th century; criticized Versailles Treaty, declaring its punishing of Germany would damage the European economy; wrote Economic Consequences of the Peace: 1919
"stab in the back"; "diktat"
conservatives, including influential military elements, saw the signing of the Treaty of Versailles as a stab in the back or a dictated peace
Ruhr Crisis, 1923
France occupied Ruhr region of Germany in 1923; Weimar gov't ordered residents to passively resist the French and stop working; inflation skyrocketed in Germany; Stresemann called off resistance
as provided for in the Versailles Treaty, the Allies announced in 1921 that Germany had to pay almost $34 billion in reparations; Germany's economy was still weak and it could not pay all of the reparations
Raymond Poincaré
leader of France in 1923; he agreed with Stresemann of Germany
Gustave Stresemann
assumed leadership in 1923; called off passive resistance in Ruhr and agreed to pay reparations (but also sought consideration of Germany's ability to pay); supported by Social Democrats; he restored Germany to normal status in the European community with the Locarno Pact in 1925
Beer Hall Putsch, 1923
Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party failed to overthrow the state of Bavaria and Hitler was sentenced to one year in jail (where he wrote Mein Kampf.)
Dawes Plan
1924; League of Nations plan that restructured Germany's debt with U.S. loans to Germany to pay back Britain and France, who likewise paid back the U.S.; resulted in German economic recovery; Young Plan (1929) was a continuation that became moot during the Great Depression
Locarno Pact, "spirit of Locarno"
1925; Germany and other European nations agreed to settle all disagreements peacefully; peace
Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928
renounced war as "illegal" except for self-defense; signed by 62 nations but had no real enforcement mechanism
Representation of the People Act, 1928
women over 21 gained the right to vote; Representation of Peoples Act of 1918 had given women over 30 the right to vote
General Strike, 1926
support of miners who feared a dramatic drop in their low wages swept the country; the strike eventually failed; gov't outlawed such "sympathetic" labor strikes in 1927
Labour Party
rose as a chamipon of the working classes and of greater social equality and took power briefly in 1924 (9 months); led by Ramsay MacDonald; came to replace the Liberal Party as main opposition to conservatives; conservatives regained power by framing the Labour party as pro-communist when it officially recognized the Soviet Union
"Irish Question"
after the Easter Rebellion the Sinn Fein gained power, which started a civil war between the IRA and the Black and Tan (England); Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland were separated; Northern Ireland became part of the British Commonwealth; in 1922, Britain granted southern, Catholic Ireland full autonomy after failing to suppress a bitter guerilla war
Sinn Fein
extremist faction that gained prominence in Ireland during the civil war
Irish Republican Army (IRA)
IRA; fought against British forces in the civil war
Northern Ireland
October 1921; London created the Irish Free State, from which Ulster withdrew, as part of the British Commonwealth
Stock Market crash, 1929
1929; may have triggered U.S. depression that spread world wide
Great Depression
(1929-1933): Causes: Long-term problems within the U.S. economy: weak international economy, overproduction, unstable banking, certain weak industries, 1/2 of all Americans lived below poverty line; overproduction of agriculture in Europe (drove prices down thus hurting farmers); in 1931, Britain went off the gold standard; 20 other countries followed suit; 1930, U.S. instituted extremely high Hawley-Smoot Tariff, which resulted in retaliation by 23 other countries; New York bankers began recalling loans made to Germany and other European countries, thus exacerbating Europe's economic crisis...Impact on Europe: shattered the fragile optimism of political leaders in the late 1920s; decline of production occurred in every country (except Russia with its command economy); mass unemployment resulted: Germany hit hardest (43%); Britain 18%, U.S. 25%
New Deal
developed by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt; in U.S.; sought to reform capitalism with increased gov't intervention in the economy; influenced certain European countries
Keynesian economics
developed by John Maynard Keynes; used after 1938 to permanently prop up the economy through public works programs and subsidies
Popular Front
threat of fascism prompted coalition of republicans, socialists, communists, and radicals; lead by Leon Blúm
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