Labor - AP US HISTORY Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Headright System
Started in Virginia, 1640, System of granting land to colonists who could pay for the passage of a certain number of indentured servants.
Indentured Servants
Individuals who contracted to serve a master for a period of four to seven years in return for payment of passage to America.
Yeoman Farmers
Independent farmers in the South, lived on family-sized farms in early 1800's
Community Barter System
System relied on by yeoman farmers, slaves loaned to neighbors, exchanged help and goods with one another.
Urban Apprenticeship System
Early 1800's system in which young men would live and train with a master craftsman for a number of years, eventually becoming a journeyman and later setting up their own shop.
Putting-out System
Early 1800's system of producing goods in private homes under supervision of a merchant who supplied raw materials, paid a certain sum per finished piece and sold completed item to a distant market. Moved control of production from individual artisan to merchant capitalists.
Lynne, MA
Area used the putting-out system to become a major center of the shoe industry.
Early American Industrialization
Was begun in Britain in the 18th century, the result of technological advances in the textile industry, required factories, brought great changes in American life.
Samuel Slater
Came to America in 1789, built famous cotton mill which was most advanced in the country at the time.
Francis Cabot Lowell
Young man from Boston, founder of Lowell MIlls built in 1823 and worked by young farm women, invented power loom.
Family Mills
Children made up 50% of workforce, built in small rural areas usually on streams near farm communities, more common.
American System
A technique of production pioneered in the United States in the 1840's that relied on precision manufacturing with the use of interchangeable parts, all matching a uniform standard. Revolutionized the manufacture of items.
Lowell Strikes
1834, 800 women participated in spontaneous turnout to protest a wage cut of 25%. Ultimately unsuccessful, one of the first labor strikes.
The Workingmen's Party
Founded in Philadelphia in 1827, first labor union, campaigned for ten-hour day and preservation of small artisan shops.
General Trades Union (GTU)
New York labor party, organized almost 40 strikes between 1833 and 1837.
National Trades Union (NTU)
Organized in Baltimore in 1834, criticized unjustifiable distribution of wealth into hands of a few individuals.
King Cotton
Vital crop beginning in the early 19th century and beyond, entirely dependent on southern slavery, important in Industrial Revolution with textile manufacturers, provided capital for new factories of the North.
Sharecropping
Labor system that evolved during and after Reconstruction whereby landowners furnished laborers with a house, farm animals, tools, advanced credit in exchange for a share of the laborers' crop. Former slaves often stayed with their previous masters through this method, still largely subordinate.
"Heartless" system
Decline of apprenticeship, became issue between North and South over slavery - heartless treatment of "wage slaves" (apprentices)
Mining Industry
Brought West into a vast global market for capital, commodities, labor; began as an individual enterprise, came under corporate control.
Western Federation of Miners
Founded in 1892, Coeur d'Alene region of Idaho, founded in aftermath of strike, fought hard for benefit of white workers.
Caminetti Act
1893 act giving the state (of California) the power to regulate its mines.
Bonanza Farming
Began in 1870's - farming as a business, not for subsistent living, California model for agribusiness, new technology, employed many Chinese - work on mines and railroads ceased, moved to California.
"gospel of work"
Affirmed the dignity of hard work, virtue of thrift, and importance of individual initiative during late 1800's.
Wage System
New system of production in late 1800's that went along with new machinery, required large number of people, people fled farms for factories. Much discrimination, often hazardous work conditions, constantly supervised.
Knights of Labor
Founded by Philadelphia garment cutters in 1869, largest labor organization in 19th century. Goal was bringing together wage earners, regardless of skill; variety of reform measures to offset power of industrialists.
Terence V. Powderly
Head of Knights of Labor.
Reform demands of Knights of Labor
Restriction of child labor, graduated income tax, land set aside for homesteading, abolition of contract labor, monetary reform.
Haymarket Riot
Chicago, May 4, 1886 - Protest against police violence, someone threw a bomb that killed a policeman, police responded firing wildly into the crowd, group of anarchists arrested and sentenced to death. Led to crushing of Knights of Labor, companies would no longer bargain with unions - wage system had triumphed.
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
Union formed in 1886 that organized skilled workers along craft lines and emphasized a few workplace issues rather than a broad social program; accepted wage system unlike Knights of Labor.
Samuel Gompers
President of AFL, disregarded unskilled workers, racial minorities, immigrants - impossible to organize, unworthy. Believed family wage should be earned by men, women stay home.
Southern Farmers' Alliance
Largest of several organizations that formed in post-Reconstruction South to advance the interests of beleaguered small farmers.
Great Uprising of 1877
First nationwide strike and work stoppage in American history, unsuccessful, striking against railroad companies to protest wage cuts and the use of federal troops against strikers. Police called in to arrest or execute strike leaders, more than 100 died.
"protective association"
1892, organizations formed by mine owners in response to the formation of labor unions; conflict of labor and capital had escalated to the brink of civil war.
Coeur d'Alene Strike
1892, one of the bitterest conflicts of the decade, in response to mining wage cuts, owners locked out unionists and brought in strikebreakers, strikers loaded train car with explosives and blew up mine, herded into pens until persecuted.
Homestead, Pennsylvania
1892, Amalgamated Iron, Steel, and Tin Workers, most powerful union of the AFL; Carnegie decided to lower wages and break up union because scared of power, union was brought down and laborers returned to even lower wages and longer hours.
Pullman Strike
Pullman Illinois, 1894, company town manufacturing railroad cars, autocratic control over daily affairs. Company cut wages, rent and food remained unchanged, workers decided to strike - led by Eugene V. Debs; at first strike had little violence but then President Cleveland sent in troops to disband it, 13 people dead and 50 wounded.
Company Towns
Early 1900s, industrial workers and their families live together in one community where a large corporation is dominant, workers have little to no influence over economic laws and politics.
Colorado Fuel and Iron Company
Owned by John D. Rockefeller Jr, employed about half of Colorado's coal miners, dominated the lives of the miners and their families, early 1900's.
Ludlow Massacre
September 1913, strike led in Colorado coalfields by United Mine Workers, wanted improved safety, higher wages, recognition of the union. Moved into tent colonies, state went bankrupt, troops burned Ludlow tent village, ten day armed rebellion in 1914 until U.S Army intervened.
The AFL in the early 1900's
Federation still excluded minorities, had difficult time hanging on to what they accomplished, still strongest and most stable organization of workers.
"open shop" campaign
Launched by the National Association of Manufacturers, campaign to eradicate unions, 1903. Open shop is term for a workplace that does not allow unions.
Loewe vs. Lawler, 1908
Danbury Hatters' Case, federal court ruled that secondary boycotts (aimed at other companies doing business with their employer) were illegal under the Sherman Antitrust Act, declared conspiracy in restraint of trade.
Wobblies
Popular name for the members of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW).
Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
A labor union founded in 1905 by leaders of the Western Federation of Miners, the socialist party, and various radical groups, excluded no one, endorsed violent strategy, denounced AFL, primarily influential in the West, led by William D. "Big Bill" Haywood.
World War I Era
Organized labor grew during this time, workers more in demand, enjoyed higher wages and better standard of living.
National War Labor Board (NWLB)
Samuel Gompers appointed president in 1918 by President Wilson, acted as supreme court for labor, supported right of workers to organize unions, acceptance of 8-hour workday.
Espionage Act
1917 law whose vague prohibition against obstructing the nation's war effort was used to crush dissent and criticism during World War I, caused arrest of many IWW members, marked beginning of powerful wave of political repression.
Women in Industry Service (WIS)
Created by Labor Department during World War I, directed by Mary Van Kleeck, created general standards for the treatment of women workers. However, standards had no legal force.
Second Industrial Revolution
Electricity replaced stream, automatic machinery, operated mainly by unskilled workers, mass production. Went with prosperity of the 1920's.
Welfare Capitalism
Paternalistic system of labor relations emphasizing management responsibility for employee well-being. Became key part of corporate strategy in the 20's.
Oligopoly
Control of a market by a few large producer companies, became common by the later 1920's.
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