AP EURO CK Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Black Death
Plague that came in 1384. Major killer in 14th century
Flanders
Many workers' rebellions occurred here
jacqueries
French name for peasant insurrections & workers' rebellions. First one occurred in 1358.
Wat Tyler's Rebellion
1381 uprising in England. Peasant Rebellion
Feudal Class
landowners who had to offer rural workers more favorable terms (lifetime tenures in return for fixed payment)
golden age
medieval parliament axed and temporarily had lots of money in 14 and 15 centuries
Hundred Years' War
1337 between England and France. All battles in France.
Aquitaine
Place in France that belonged to the English crown
Joan of Arc
Leader for France, won many victories. English burned at stake in Rouen for witchcraft and heresy
Richard II
disposed in 1399, beginning disorder of 15th century
War of the Roses
1450 to 1485: upper-class turmoil in England. Symbols - red=Lancaster and white=York
Church of the High Middle Ages
weakened by being successful. corrupt because it was unwilling to be reformed at all
Edward I (England)
1290's assessed taxes on church stuff with Philip the Fair
Philip the Fair (France)
1290's assessed taxes on church stuff with Edward I
Pope Boniface VIII
prohibited taxation of clergy by the civil war
Unam Sanctam
Pope Boniface issued this in 1302. Famous papal bull: outside the Roman church there was no salvation, "every human creature is subject to the Roman pontiff"
Babylonian Captivity
French influence over College of Cardinals. Brought in a pope who would be subservient to Philip. From there on (through the century) popes = tools of France; in Avignon.
Great Schism
Roman & Avignonian Pope. Avignon - French. Roman - anti French. Lasted for 40 years.
Annates
every bishop or abbot must transmit first year's income to Rome
Dance of Death
in cemeteries. People angered with Catholicism & plague
Black Mass
Parodying religion in a mad desire to appease the devil
Order of Flagellants
members go 2 by 2 through streets, beating each other with chains and whips
William Langland
Writer of "Piers Plowman" in the 1360's. COntrasted the sufferings of the honest poor with the hypocrisy and corruption in high places. DOUBED THE CHURCH.
Lollards
Englishman who doubted church leaders
John Wyclif
Oxford Teacher in 1380. Devouts shouldn't need Church to obtain salvation, only need to read the bible.
John Huss
Spread same ideas as John Wycliff in Bohemia.
Hussites
Followers of John Huss. Religious party & Slavic/Czech party against German Supremacy
Council of Constance
End Schism, extirpate heresy, reform CHurch
Martin V
affirmed Church & dissolved Council of Constance. 30 more years of battle of wills
simony
to buy or sell a church office. Crime in canon law. Can't be eradicated.
nepotism
bishop, etc. give own relatives higher church positions. Can't be eradicated.
Indulgences
If properly confessed, a person may be spared purgatory. in 1300, Boniface encouraged these. They were obtained through a monetary donation
Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges
1438. Gallican (French) church affirmed supremacy of Councils over Popes, declared its administrative independence from the Holy See, would not pay rome, and forbade Papal intervention in naming French prelates
Council of Basel
died in 1449. Jubilee in 1450 to celebrate papal triumph.
Medici Family
Began with Giovanni as a merchant/banker. Ultimately, Dukes of Tuscany, Queens of France
Leonardo Bruni
humanist, 1433; the whole glory of man lies in human activity
Benvenuto Cellini
Artist who wrote autobiography. Exhibited virtu
Lorenzo de' Medici the Magnificent
villa built for him in 1480.
Humanism (Litterae Humanories)
Literary movement in Italy. Raised interest in human letters.
Christine de Pisan
Early 15h century writer. SHE spread humanist ideas and demonstrated that women could participate in intellectual debates.
Giovanni Bellini
Portrait of Condottiere: Renaissance Individualism
Cult of Antiquity
Kindred spirits in ancient cultures seen by humanists
Italian/Dante/Devine Comedy
Florentine or Tuscan Prose
Vernacular
Florentine: common spoken tongue. English and French followed.
Francesco Petrarca/Petrarch
Florentine exile: first man of letters. denounced is law & clergy training for their "scholasticism"
Cicero
Wrote about common sense and commitment to political liberty. Petrarch loved him
St. Augustine
held otherworldly vision of the City of God; Petrarch admired him
Boccaccio
Petrarch's contemporary, a Florentine, wrote (Italian) Decameron - tales to entertain and educate about human behavior
Decameron
Tales to educate and entertain about human behavior and character
Coluccio Salutati
Humanist who became chancellor of Florence in 1375. Served state with pen, glorified Florentine identity/liberty (Romepre Ceasar)
Visconti Family
despots in Milan. Milan threatened Florence because of expansive ambitions.
Brruni
succeeded Salutati. Wrote history of Florence. New division of historical periods. Life: commitment & participation. Established need for authentic sources. "To make effectual use of what we know, we must add the power of expression"
Poggio
also succeeded Salutati
Lorenzo Valla
founder of textual criticism. Analyzed language of Donation of Constantine and discovered it was forged
Pico della Mirandola
Looked for truth not in Christian scripture. in 1486, he said he could summarize all human knowledge in 900 Theses
900 Theses
Mirandola says he could summarize all of human knowledge through these. Drawn from Chadic, Arabic, Hebrew, Grecian, Egyptian, Latin, Sages
Vittorino
said: Not everyone could be gifted or important but we all have "social duty" and are responsible for our "personal influence"
Castiglione
Wrote book of the Courtier in 1528: Book of Etiquette. be poised, converse, be athletic, dance, know Latin & Greek
Condottieri
hired men who fight for various city-states because citizens will not fight
Italian Cunning
Italian Politics who
Niccolo Machiavelli
Secular! The Prince (1513). most lasting work of the renaissance. Wants Florence (or all of Italy) to behave like Early Romans. Virility in politics. fight in armies. Uphold dignity. KNOW HISTORY. Exercise power, build strong states. Do bad things all at once.
Tomas Aquinas & Marsigilo of Pauda
Medieval political writing: God's Will
New Monarchs
City-States that were successful had loyalty from citizens. Weak central governments in europe. These make lawes, please prince. Guaranteed order. Resumed King's labors of High Middle Ages.
Sack of Rome
1527- Spanish and German Mercenaries go to rome: orgy of rape, loot, murder, etc. Ends Renaissance.
Erasmus of Rotterdam
Holland: humanist writer. Purified and intricate Latin style, loved classics, not scholastic philosophers. feared unenlightened excitability of the common people. Clergy needs reform. (1466-1536)
Francois Rabelails & John Calvin
French Humanists
Chirstian Humanists
Hebrew & Greek Bible, Church Fathers. Humanists saw universities as centers of pedantic, monkish learning. (specialization was a bad thing)
Wittenberg
Founded in Germany in 1502.
Fugger
Family controlled more capital than any others in Europe
Mainz, Rhineland, Germany
1450, first European book with movalbe type
Regiomontanus
Johann Muller: Foundation for mathematical conception of the universe. Best known scientist at time
Nicholas of Cusa
Rhinlander- churchman whose mustical philosophy entered into the later development of math and science
Copernicus
Earth moved about thes un
Behaim & schoner
world maps with the most advanced geographical knowledge
Paracelsus (Hohenheim)
revolutionized medicine at University of Basel
Dr. Faustus (Faust)
rumored to have sold his soul to the devil for knowledge and power. Symbol: inordinate ambitions of modern people
Christopher Marlow
dramatized Faust story in 1593
meister Eckhart
(1327) Famous mystic who could commune directly with God
Thomasa Kempis
(1471) imitation of Christ. Famous mystic who could commune directly with God
Gerard Groote
lay preacher. attracted followers with sermons about spiritual regeneration. in 1374 he founded religious sisterhood, then establishments for religiously minded men. SISTERS AND BROTHERS OF COMMON LIFE. (lived together w/ no vows)
Modern Devotion
Taught in common life, spread into the Netherlands
Tudors
1485-1603. new Monarchy in England. First = Henry VII to 1509 who gained throne by force in War of the Roses
Livery and Maintenance
Henry VII banned this. Now great lords could not maintain private armies.
Star Chamber
room decorated with stars where royal council met to resolve property disputes and infractions
Hans Holbein the younger
1523, painted Erasmus at start of Lutheran Reformation
Louis XI
France new Monarch 1461-1483. Gained power to tax without parliament's consent.
Pragmatic Sanction
1438 - Gallican church won independence to manage affairs.
Rescind of Pragmatic Sanction
1516 - King Francis I and Pope Leo X in Concordat of Bologna took away PS
Aragon and Castile
Spanish Kingdoms combined. Ferdinand (A) and Isabella (C) in 1469 joined the two kingdoms together
Inquisition
Church Court (Spain). Equal authorities and access.
Reconquista
1492, in Granada, Heterogeneous character of Spanish Dominion.
Conquest of Granada
Religious excitement - expulsion of jews and Moors in 1492. Jews kicked out of England in 1290, France in 1306. National Conscience: Jews are outsiders
Moriscos
Christians of Moor Background
Marranos
Christians of Jewish Background
Princely States
Holy Roman Empire: duchies, margravites. Little hereditary dynastic monarch in itself.
Ecclesiastical states
Holy Roman Empire: bishoprics, abbacies, etc. Bishop, etc. = government leader.
Imperial Free Cities
Holy Roman Empire: about fifty of these existed and dominated commercial and financial life.
Electing Empire
Germany: 1356. seven electors (4 princely and 3 ecclesiastical) elected the emperor
Archduke of Austria
Hapsburg. 1452, chosen as emperor and kept in his family until 1806 (with one exception). Failed because of states rights.
Charles Hapsburg
Inherited Austria, Netherlands, part of Burgundy, Castile + Aragon, Spanish America, bits of Italy+Mediterranean. 1519 - became emperor.
Charles V of the Empire
Charles Hapsburg in 1519.
Battle of Mohacs
1516; Turks beat the Hungarians
Ferdinand
King in Hungary (Charles' brother). Lost a lot of Hungary to Sulayman I but expanded the Hapsburg power.
Sulayman I
Turkish Sultan that took much of Hungary from Ferdinand
Universal monarchy
People feared Hapsbergs were creating an imperial system without preserving independence.
Factors: Religious Reformation
Decline of church; rise in secular and humanist feeling; lay religions (sans clergy); rises in monarchs who wanted to control all of their kingdom (including the church); resistance of feudalism to these monarchs; lassitude of popes and fear of church councils; division of germany; Turks - Central Europe; zealous Spain; Charles V; fear of Hapsburgs
Factors of Protestant Reformation
Low class: angry at church and wealthy bishops in the oppressive ruling class. Middle: desire to manage religious affairs personally. Highest: rulers wanted total control over their people.
Thirty Years' War
ended in 1648. Religious fronteir laid in 1560 was finally accepted.
Martin Luther
ex monk who was the first to successfully defy the Church.
Justification by Faith
Luther, in 1517, published this document that said Faith ALONE could provide salvation.
Tetzel
Distributed indulgences in 1517. Led to Luther's outrage against Catholic Church
Council of Constance
condemned John Huss
Luther's Mass
included only Baptism and Communion.
Worms in the Rhineland
Luther had to see emperor, banned by empire. Elector of Saxony took Luther in.
John of Leyden
Anabaptist tortured and killed publicly
Munster, Germany
Religious radicals everywhere in 1534.
Teutonic Order
Owned E. Prussia. Catholic organization.
Albert of Brandenburg
Head of Teutonic order in 1523, declared for Luther and made E. Prussia secular duchy
League of Schmalkald
Group of Lutheran princes & free cities where political interests were more important tha treligious ones. Against Universal Monarchy. Catholic France maintained religious divisions of Germany.
Peace of Augsburg
1555: ends war of France & Schmalkald vs. Emperor. Says each state can be Lutheran or Catholic. No individual freedom.
Ecclesiastical Reservation
From Peace of Augsburg, any Catholic bishop or churchman who turned Lutheran from 1552 forward should not carry territory. Disregarded later.
John Calvin
1509 (born). In 1536, he wrote Institutes of the Christian Religion which was aimed at the entire world.
Consubstantiation
Luther bleieved taht God was in bread and wine but was not transubstantiated. Calvin was against this entirely.
Predestination
relatively few had grace. elect/godly - salvation. God is part of you and you are saved. (CALVINISM)
Calvin's Geneva
Calvin's model Christian community
Michael servatus
Spanish refugee who denied trinity. Burned in Geneva.
John Knox
1550's, brought Calvinism to Scotland
Henry VIII
1509-1547. in 1520, wrote defense of the 7 sacraments and was named Defender of the Faith. Later reformed English church.
Clement VII
Pope that Henry VIII asked to annul marriage to Catherine. He said no
Act of Supremacy
1534, Parliament said king = protector and only supreme head of church + clergy in England
Sir Thomas More
Utopia - Statesman and Humanist executed because he didn't take oath to English church
Continental Reformers
Made maintaining English Catholic church hard
Edward VI
10 year old King in 1547 - Jane Seymour's son with Henry. Died in 1553
Queen (bloody) Mary
1553 heir to throne. Wnated to re-catholicise England but faile.d 1554 married Philip of Spain. Burned about 300 at the stake. WAVE OF HORROR. BLOODY MARY
Elizabeth
Anne Boleyn's daughter: protestant England
Recusants
English term for Roman Catholics and Calvinists in Church of England
The Thirty-Nine Articles
1563: defined creed of Anglican Church. Many were evasive, but Protestant
continental Protestants
Under Mary Tudor
Episcopy
Church governed through Bishiops
corregidors
Spain (people to embody King's will). Gives power and status, usually from upper middle class. these jobs are sold, and intended to create loyalty to the king. No lords.
Intendants
France (people to embody King's will). Gives power and status, usually from upper middle class. these jobs are sold, and intended to create loyalty to the king. No lords.
Catholic Counter Reformation
Catholic movement corresponding to the rise of Protestantism. Partially a genuine reform that likely would have occurred regardless of Protestants, but was aimed against Protestantism
conciliar movement
revived after 1500 (shut down in 1450).
Francis I
1515-1547. King of France who obtained control over Gallican church through papacy. Concordat of Bologna (1516) led him to love the poe and hate the emperor
Universal Monarchy
threat in Europe because Charles V ruled all areas encircling France
Council of Trent
1545: called for by Pope Paul III in 1537. Decided on necessary reforms. often not well attended and showed that international council was probably ineffective. Saw issues as how they related to home. Pope was supreme.
Justification (Council of Trent)
7 sacraments. Priesthood separated by sacrament of Holy Orders. procedures of confessional and absolution clarified. transubstantiation reaffirmed. Scripture - tradition. Rejects Faith Alone.
vulgate
st. Jerome translation of Bible into Latin: Only version for authoritative teaching in the Catholic Church. Also, church interpretation of scripture = accurate and only approved interpretation
sack of Rome
1527: depths of hatred toward Roman clergy
Reforming popes
post renaissance clergy. Paul III - first. moral and religious force but still primary authority
St. Vincent de Paul
Missionary among human wreckage of Paris. exemplifies charitable Catholic spirit vs. Protestants who did nothing.
Teresa of Avila
example of Catholic mysticism. famous descriptions of encounters with Christ
St. Ignatius of Loyola
1491-1556: soldier who had religious conversion in 1521 (before hearing of Luther). Became a crusader for the Holy See. Created Jesuits.
Society of Jesus
Jesuits. Monastic order focused on active participation exercises. "If church teaches black is white, it is black."
Peter Paul Rubens
Painted Catholic and political leaders
Index of Prohibited Books
Published by Pope and only with special permission could Catholics study those books.
Recusants
High Commission brought them in
Inquisition
1 group: spanish. 1480 to get out Jewish and Muslims in Spain. 2 group: Roman. 1542 under Holy Office. For detection of heresy. Romans used less torture than Spanish
Flanders galleys
1317 Venetians' commercial flotillas that went regularly between Adriatic and north seas
Vasco da Gama
1498 Portugese navigator who rounded Africa. Ended up in Arab commerce - Malabar coast. 1502 came again with fleet of less than 21 vessels. Portuguese-Arab war!
St. Francis Xavier
Jesuit who, by 1550, had baptized MANY Indians, Indonesians, and Japanese
Lisbon
by 1504, great place to get spices because it was cheaper
conquistadores
Cortes and crew who conquered Aztecs
Magellan
1520 discovered SW Passage, crossed Pacific, discovered the Philippines, fought through Portuguese across Indian Ocean back to Spain. First to circumnavigate globe.
Manila Galleons
Large silver bearing ships going from Acapulco to Mexico.
Priesthood of all Believers
Lutherism. Eventually was structured so that there were ministers, but there were no nuns, monestaries, etc.
Price Revolution (effects)
1. High demand for food because bigger population 2. raise in costs of production, raise in agricultural prices. 3. Greater volume of money
Reals or livres
coins taht were gradually increased in circulation and thus devalued
Commercial Revolution
Rise of capitalist economy from 14th to 19th century
capital
house, workbench, tools, and materials owned by workshop master. Low profit , risk, innovation.
Fuggers
German family as influential as medici's
Johann Fugger
1368 established fustian cloth business. then got involved with spices, etc. Lent money to high up figures; BANKER TO HAPSBURGS
Putting out/ Domestic
gender divided work that multiple people did... esp country dwellers
Spinster
unmarried women who spun thread
clothiers and drapers
had wage employees and dominated business
naval stores
things like timber, tar, etc. that were shipped
Jean Bourdichon
1457-1521. artist who depicted working family
Bank of Amsterdam
depositers happy because money was safe and earning interest. People started using bank. This led to low income loans. Founded in 1609. Accepted deposits of mixed money from everyone, but used gold/silver exchange rates and you could only withdraw Dutch Florins
Mercantilism
bullionist idea - force gold and silver flow in kingdom, transformed into setting poor people to work and selling thigns abroad
Statute of Artificers
1563 regulated admission to apprenticeship and leveled wages on a national scale. Elizabethan England.
English poor law of 1601
lasted through 1834. Forced labor and relieved absolute destitution
internal tariffs
provincial and municipal tariffs. only England eliminated them
East India Companies
England in 1600 had state these state supported monopolies with special rights.
Youmanry
small freeholders class between landed gentry and rural poor (had some small amount of land to farm)
grand seigneurs
France's uppermost landownersL lord of one or more mannors. believed they should have the right to regulate religion in their states
Bourgeoisie
middle class. income from land and laboring the poor.
Grammar schools
1580-1640 secondary schools in England
colleges
Franch grammar schools and early university education
Ursuline sisters
Catholic girl's school founded in Italy in 1535 and then 350 more were created by 1700
hidalgo
lesser noble spanish boy who go teducated
Eton and Harrow
England: exclusive publich school
Junkers
German lords who wanted to go to Eton and harrow but were output because of Baltic shipping
robot (Bohemia)
unpaid labor. peasants owed 3-4 days of robot.
hereditary subjection
serfdom in Germany. Compulsory labor. Subjects need permission from lords for lots.
Feudal
groups with rights within the state, towns and provinces, craft guilds, courts and nobles. Rebelled against higher central authority, culminating Wars of Religion
bonnes villes
French king's "good towns" - each had stubbornly defended corporate rigths
French Provinces
overall ruled by the king but each was somewhat autonomous: own laws, identities, courts, tariffs, taxes, and parliament
Huguenots
French Calvinists. Large and immodest in demands
bourgois oligarchy
town government made up of Calvinists. banned catholicism.
King Henry II
didn't like Calvinism. Killed in tournament in 1559. Left three sons 15 and under.
Catherine de Medici
Italian. Tried to govern France for sons by using her taste for political intrigue. But she was bad and france fell apart. factions (including Catholics and Huguenots) tried to control youthful monarchs
16th century civil wars
fought in absense of governmetn
Admiral de Coligny and Henry of Bourbon (King of Navaree)
Leaders of Huguenots
Guise Family
led Catholics, esp. Duke of Guise and Cardinal of Lorraine. They wanted to eliminate heresy and govern France
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
thousands of Huguenots murdered after midnight under Catherine de Medici. Coligny was one of them. Henry escaped by temporarily changing religion to Catholicism. Led to extended Civil War - slaughtering. hired German mercenary soldiers.
Politiues
perfunctory Catholics and moderate protestants who concluded that no doctrine or religion could justify an everlasting war. 2 churches would be okay if there was civl order. Secular. Henry of Bourbon was this.
Jean Bodin
1530-15996. Political thinkers who developed the concept of soverignty: in every society there must be one power strong enough to give law to all others. Ideally consensually. Royal Absolutism -> soverign state
Henry of Navarre
took power and reigned as Henry VI. 1st of Bourbon dynasty. Catholics didn't like him.
Edict of Nantes
1598. guaranteed taht every seigneur had the right to hold Protestant services in his own home. Also, 100 Protestant towns w/ their own command, etc. were allowed
Bailliage
French shire. protestants used these to worship
Chicken in the Pot
Henry VI's ideal for civil war reconstruction. wanted to restore governmetn, collect taxes, pay officials, discipline army, and supervise justice administration. mercantilism = roads and bridges.
Marie de Medici
1610, post Henry VI's assassination, took over. Nobility & Catholic clergy = little bit crazy. Forced summoning of Estates General. In 1615 all conflicts released. government was by and through the king
Cardinal Richelieu
thoguth like a politique. Helped marie & Louis XIII control grand affairs. Tried to encourage mercantilist edicts. did not have private warfare or fortified castles (except King's)
Duke of Rohan
1627 led Hugunot Rebellion in La Rochelle
Peace of Alais
1629 Richelieu solution to Duke of Rohan's rebellion
Peace of Ausburg
1555: in each state, government can prescribe religion of subjects
Palatinate
state acrosse the middle rhine that became Calvinist. elector Palatine was 1 of 7 chosers of HRE. In 1608 Elector encouraged protestant union to defend gains. Henry VI supported it
12 Years' Truce
between Spain and Dutch - 1609 to 1621. Spanish were preparing to fight Dutch again, which made France again
Defenestration of Prague
Matthias of bohemia did this to two emissaries of Hapsburg HRE. He tried to send troops to restore authority but Bohemia kicked him out
Winter King
Frederick V. Calvinist Elector Palatine - New king in Bohemia.
Emperor Ferdinand
Matthias's successor. Worked with popes to send Spanish troops from milan and forces of Catholic Bavaria. Confiscated just under half o fbohemian Noble estates. Made those into catholic church land endowments and gifts to new landed aristocracy.
White mountain
1620, ferdinand's Spanish (Milan) & Bavarian troopsoverwhelmed Bohemians. elected King Frederic V fled and was named the Winter King.
The Hanging Tree
Jacques Callot's depiction of thirty year's war violence
Albert of Wallenstein
Commissioned by Emperor ferdinand to vs. Duke of Holstein (King of Denmark). Assembled professional fighters and ran tortuous and concealed personal army.
Edict of Restitution
1629: emperor declared taht all churhc territories secularized since 1552 were Catholic
Gustavus Adolphys
King of Sweeden. Created most modern army ever. Firm discipline, high courage, Mobile cannon. Killed in 1632 at Lutzon. Oxtensteria led after he died.
Bernard of Saxe
Weimar. hired by Richelieu to maintain an army of Germans in French service.
The Peace of Westphalia
1648. Begain in 1644 in Musnter and Osnsbruck. Checkmate to Counter Reformation in Germany. Affirmed: Peace of Ausburg, Calvinism as valid state-Religion, and Edict of Restitution. No laws, no taxes raised, no soldiers recruited, no war/peace declared by emperor without consent of imperial estates.
Louis XIV
King from 1643-1715 (actually responsible in 1661). Working head of French Government. Wanted Universal monarchy. AKA Louis the Graeat, The Grand Monarque, The Sun King
"the sick man of Europe"
Turkey's name for Spain
Charles II
Ill, mentally& physically inbred. Couldn't have kids. Spanish Throne 1665-1700.
William III
Prince of Orange. Did the most to use balance of power to stop Louis XIV
The Hague
ambassadors of kings go here (by water, canal)
Low German
What Dutch poets and dramatists were transforming into a literary language
Hugo Grotius
wrote Law of War and Peace, which pioneered international law
Baruch Spinoza
refugee: Portuguese Jew. Philosophy: nature of reality, human conduct, church and state.
Christian Huyghens
1629-1695: greatest Dutch scientist. Worked in physics and mathematics. Improved telescope, made clocks move with pendulums, discovered Saturn's rings, alunched wave theory of light
Balthasar Bekker
1691: "World Bewitched." Decisive blow against expiring superstition of witchcraft
Anna Maria van Schurman
1607-1678: wrote The Learned Maid or Whether a Maid May Be Called a Scholar: argument for education of women (1638)
Frans Hals
bluff portraits of common people
Jan Varmeer
Magic and quiet dignity over men and esp. women of burgher: scenes: typical domestic.
Rembrandt
Mystery of human consciousness: masters of the cloth guild. Six men in courtroom about to speak from canvas. Personal vanity must yield to collective undertaking.
Baroque
period of time/style. fascination with lighting, interior spaces, colors, natural humans.
Arminius
Moderate Dutch Calvinists followed him. toned down Predestination. Theologian of Leyden. Tolerated from 1632 forward.
Nagasaki
1641: Japan kicked out all of Europeans except Dutch, who were confined to an island by nagasaki
Dutch West India Co
1621 used to exploit riches of Spanish and Portuguese America
Navigation act of 1651
England passed this. Aimed against Dutch carrying trade. Goods imported into England and its dependencies must be on English ships or on ships of exporting country
Triple Alliance
Dutch, English, Swedish: shut down Louis XIV temporarily
Treaty of Nimwegen
peace in 1678 between Louis XIV and William. Louis took Franche-Comte
Puritans
extreme Calvinists in England who asserted rights of Parliament against mounting claims of royalty
Plantation of Ulster
movement to N. Irleand with government attention
John Milton
wrote epic poems (Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained) in the seventeenth century
Thomas Campion and Henry PUrcell
Musicians in the 17th century (english)
Christopher Wren
architecture of 17th century England
Stuart Kings
conflicting ambitions in England
James VI of Scotland, I of England (Stuart King)
Philosopher of Royal Absolutism (The True Law of Free Monarchy). Free from Parliament, churchmen, or past. Kings drew authority from God.
Devine Right of Kings
James believed this: kings drew authority from God
Charles I
1625, succeeded James. Supported Church hierarchy. Tried to create gov without parliament. Antagonized English landlords, supported Church of England and attempted to modernize the navy without approved funds.
Archbiship Laud
sought to reinforce religious conformity
House of Lords
House of Parliament comprised of noblemen. Secularized.
House of Commons
House of parliament with aristocracy, merchants
Ship-money
Charles I tried to expand navy with money not approved by parliament. People were afraid that they'd start having to pay for things they didn't like.
The Long Parliament
parliament wouldn't provide funds to help with Scottish Rebellion, so Charles I kicked out all those members and called for a new election. all the same men were elected. It went 20 years without change, and Charles never called it They abolished Star Chamber & High Commision.
Solemn League and Covenant
Parliament accepted as price of support from Scots. Therefore, England, Scotland, and ireland must be uniformly presbytarian
Roundheads
Parliamentary forces with close haircuts (Puritans). Had New Model Army
Thomas Fairfax
led New Model Army
Oliver Cromwell
organized new regiment in NMA: Ironsides. said Charles must be put to death because he was trusted by ungodly people.
Ironsides
protestants under Cromwell with moral, discipline, and will to fight
Pride's Purge
Named for Colonel Pride. Long Parliament lsot 450 by 1649, and eventually had only 50 or 60 men -- Rump.
Rump
the 50 or 60 left in Parliament post Pride's Purge. Sentenced Charles to death in 1649 for treason.
Commonwealth
British Iles in 1649 under Cromwell. Religious toleration except for Unitarians, atheists, Roman Catholics, and obstinate Church of England supporters.
Protestants in Ulster
1641 massacre now avenged
Levellers
chief spokesman: John Lilburne. Natural rights and rights of Englishmen. Want nearly universal manhood suffrage, equality of representation, written constitution, Parliament under reformed body of voters
George Fox
Society of Friends/Quakers. All believers can have revelations of spiritual truth by rejecting social and religious hierarchies and encouraging women to preach.
Diggers
more ephemeral than quakers. occupied and cultivated common land
Fifth Monarchy Men
millenial group who believed end of world was at hand. Christ = fifth major monarchy of the world.
Major generals
drove Cromwell into place. Cromwell wrote Instrument of Governmetn because of him. They repressed naughty people and encouraged moral puritanism and political dictatorship. (in 1653 Cromwell became Lord Protector)
Squirearchy
Under Charles II during restoration, regime of landlord justices
Dissenters
refused to accept restored church of England. They were excluded from Gov. Corporations and conventicles/religious mtgs were prohibited
Act of Settlement
1662: Decentralized administration of the Poor Law. Each parish was responsible for its own paupers. Immobilized many englishmen.
Queen Christina fo Sweden
abdicated throne and became Catholic
Secret treaty of Dover
1670: Charles to join Louis XIV vs. Dutch for three million livres/year during war
Test Act (1673-1828)
All office holders must publicly take communion in Church of england
whigs
exclusionists (esp. catholic & french) who were suspicious of the king
Tories
King supporters
James II
King in 1685: antagonized everyone including Tories. Acted as if there were no test act: appointed many Catholics to lucrative positions and suspended operation of Test Act in individual cases
Mary
James's daughter: offered throne by Tories and whigs who had abandoned James II. She was married to William of Orange
Revolution of 1688
French Victory - counter revolution and royal absolutism in England
1689 Bill of Rights
Parliament: No law could be suspended by king, no taxes or militaries maintained without consent, no subject could be arrested or detained without legal process
Act of Settlement of 1701
No catholic could become King of England
Pretenders
descendants of James II exempt from ACt of Settlement
Toleration Act of 1689
Protestant Dissenters may practice religion but excluded from Political Life and Public Service
Boyne River
1688 Revolution - final overthrow of king
penal code
Irish subject to this, basically Irish Catholics can't do anything
Ascendancy
penal code was good for english because of Anglican interest
Glorious Revolution
1688 because vindicated principles of Parliamentary gov. rule of law, and right of rebellion against tyranny
Nicholas Poussin and Cloude Lorrain
notable school of painters
corneille and racine
tragedies on personal conflicts and social relations of human life
Moliere
comedies ridiculing bumbling doctors, new rich bourgeois & foppish aristocrats (Marquis - joke in french)
La Fontaine
Animal Fables
la Rochefoucald
candid judgement on human nature
Nicolas Baleau
literary theorist: emulate ancient writers with timeless themes
moderns
literary critics that argued modern lit & knowledge > antiquity
ancients
Boileau's writers who deferred rigidly on ancient authorites
Fundamental laws
French parlement held certain laws that king couldn't overstep
customs
regional systems of law in France
the Fronde
immediately after Peace of Westphalia. Against Cardinal Mazarin (governing for child Louis XIV)
Parlement of Paris
1648, led other parlements in the Fronde in insisting right to pronounce certain edicts unconstitutional
frondeurs
had no systematic program because nobles were against it. Parlement abandoned them but they wanted Cardinal Mazarin out
L'etat, c'est moi
Louis XIV: the state is myself
Bishop Bossuet
doctrine of absolutism. All power comes from God and all who hold power are responsible to God for the way they use it. This bishop = primary theorist of absolutism
activity of state
war under Louis XIV. all armed Frenchmen fight only for Louis. Peace and Order in France, Strengthened France vs. other coutnries.
Hyacinthe Rigaud
Painted the Sun King. Esp Royal to express strength of Frace
Versailles
Louis XIV built himself a new city here - monument to worldly splendor. Everything (Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner) secheduled and rigid. Limits political mischief
colbert
minister under Louis XIV. Mercantilism (goal) - france is self sufficient economically. Expand exports, increase gov. Wealth
Five Great Farms
tariff union - free trade area
Colbert's Commercial Code
new model of business practice and regulation instead of local customary law. Tax exemption , subsidies, monopolies
Old Regime
system from 2 centuries of bourbon Rule
Revolution of 1789
principal of equality of rights replaces regime of privilege
janissaries
main striking force of Turkish army. (Christians raised Muslim. No marriage)
Grand vizer
overall administration of imperial policies
Count Stanislas Potocki
18th century polish nobleman (independent grandeur)
terrible Turk
oppresive Turkish Rule. Christians tolerated but al their views are held with contempt by Turks. Arbitrary and Brutal. Sultans in 17 cent. are corrupt
Tartar Khans of South Russia
Proteges who paid tribute
Koprulu family
capable grand vizers retained power, contrary to Turkish customs, for 50 years
Turk Bells
German empire's special order (alarm) about Tartar horsemen on the move
hereditary provinces
oldest of austria's direct possessions (upper and lower Austria)
Duke Charles of Lorraine
commanded AntiTurkish force, trying to protect inheritance from annexation
John Sobieski
King of Poland, higher command of AntiTurkish Force. last great military effort of Republic of Poland
Battle of Zenta
Prince Eugene of Savoy (French, pro Austrian) 169 won this battle with modern ideas
Peace of Karlowitz
1699, Turks yielded most of Hungary, Transylvania, and Croatia to Hapsburgs. Ottoman Empire - Romania and Balkans
Treaty of Rastadt - 1714
annexation of old Spanish Netherlands and with Milan _ Naples. Hapsburgs had to settle for this in War of Spanish Succession.
Peace of Belgrade
1739. Frontier on which Austiran side remaind unchanged until 20th century.
The Austrian Monarchy
Belgilum and Italy; Danube, Vienna, Hungary, Bohemia. International and Nonnational. Dysfunctional.
Pragmatic Sanction
1713. Charles VI's insurance of undivided succession. All crowns that Austrian Monarchy followed were to be inherited by one person. Maria Theresa gets them all.
Charles XII
King during final Swedish Campaign for imperial expansion. (1697-1718). won great victories but never made peace, then Russia crushed them.
Prussian militarism
military needs and values permeate all spheres of life
Brandenburg
founded in Middle Ages, border state, Mark of Holy Roman Empire
Elector of Brandenburg
Elected HRE. Post 1415, all from Hohenzollern family
Drang nach osten
German drive to the east. eventually led to Prussia
Teutonic Knights
Military crusading order which conquered and christianized natives in thirteeth century
Baltic Barons
descendants of Teutonic Knights - landlords
Frederick William
gained Brandenburg, pomerania, and territory along Elbe; detached prussian land, detached western territory near the rhine. AKA The Great Elector. One of the first to shape modern prussia
army in being
Brandenburgs wanted to have but not use thier army
King Frederick I of Prussia
Stealthy Frederick in Spanish war of Succession (emperor wanted support, so he named Frederick King)
Warsaw
1657, Great Elector fought great battle with soldiers from all parts of dominion. First Prussian institution
the Junkers
aristocracy government absorbed into military service
Frederick William I
Prussian king 1713-1740. disdained culture. cut expenses by 3.
Russian Tsar Peter the Great
Sent FWI tall asians for special army. Did other really cool stuff too.
Canton system
New system by FWI of recruiting for the army: each regiment gets a particular district as source of soldiers.
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