AP World History Final (EVENS FOR AMY) Flashcards

Terms Definitions
"the land between the rivers"
the word Mesopotamia means
Sumer
The first complex society developed in the southern Mesopotamian land of
ziggurat
A Mesopotamian stepped pyramid was known as a
Hittites
the Babylonians eventually fell in 1595 BCE to the
Assyrians
The later Mesopotamian people who around 1000 BCE built a large empire based on a powerful army with iron weapons and who made extensive use of terror were the
Babylon
The most famous hanging gardens of the ancient world were located in
Bronze
Mesopotamian metalworkers discovered that if they allowed copper and tin they could produce
Sumerians
The first people in the world to use wheeled vehicles were the
cuneiform
the Mesopotamian style of writing was known as
hebrews
Ethical monotheism was in the tradition of the
Phoenicians
the first simplified alphabet, containing only 22 letters, was created by the
hittites
horse-drawn chariots were first invented by the
harappan
the earliest known civilization in India was the
indus
if the greek historian Herodotus had known of the Harappan society, he might have used the phrase "the gift of the ___ " to describe it.
India
Chickens were first domesticated in...
traded with Mesopotamia and Egypt
evidence indicates that in regards to trade Harappan India
reflected a strong concern for fertility
Harappan religion
Indo-Europeans
The Aryans were...
their horses
the biggest military advantage of the Indo-Europeans was
Vedas
Most of our information about the early Aryans comes from the
varna
The Aryans referred to social classes by the term
untouchables
the task of butchering animals or handling dead bodies usually fell to the...
a sub-caste
a jati is
Lawbook of Manu
the first century BCE work which dealt with moral behavior and social relationships was the
indra
What Aryan god was associated with war and rain?
soma
the hallucinogenic concoction that produced sensations of power and divine inspiration which was so important in the early Aryan religion was known as
commentaries and reflections on the Vedas
The Upanishads were
to escape the cycle of birth and rebirth and enter into permanent union with Brahman
In Hinduism the highest goal of the individual soul was
karma
this passage from the Upanishads explains what Hindu concept? "According as a man acts and walks in the path of life, so he becomes. He that does good becomes good; he that does evil becomes evil."
asceticism and meditation
the two principal means to the goal of moksha are
of its association with rain and agriculture
ritual bloodletting was crucial to Maya rituals because
maize
by 5000 BCE, the Mesoamericans had discovered the agricultural potential of ____, which ultimately became the staple food of the region
olmecs
the first society of Mesoamerica, which founded traditions followed by all later societies, were the
colossal human heads sculpted from basalt
the most characteristic artistic creation of the Olmecs were
the Olmecs themselves
the Olmec ceremonial centers of San Lorenzo and La Venta were destroyed by
Olmecs
all Mesoamerican societies used calendars derived ultimately from the
terraces
the ancient Maya built ____ designed to trap silt carried by the numerous rivers passing through the Mesoamerican lowlands.
zero
Mayan mathematicians invented the concept of ____, which is essential for positional notation and the manipulation of large numbers.
260
The Mayan calendar interwove a solar year of 365 days and a ceremonial calendar of ___ days.
twenty
the Mayan mathematical system was vigesimal, which means that it was based on units of...
Maya
which of the following societies developed a flexible and sophisticated system of writing?
the Mayan story of creation
The Popol Vuh was
four books
How much written material survives from the Maya?
Teotihuacan
The Pyramid of the Sun was located in...
produced deities with the features of humans and wild animals
the Chavin cult
Austronesians
It was the ___ who brought human settlements to the islands of the Pacific Ocean.
Madagascar
The Austronesian-speaking peoples became the first human settlers on the large island of ___ off the east African coast.
the first great Chinese historian
Sima Qian was
Analects
The collection of Confucian sayings and teachings is known as the
formed a thoroughly practical and secular approach to life
The philosophy of Kong Fuzi
xiao
The concept of filial piety, which was central to the family structure, was best expressed by the word
ren
when discussing qualities that were essential to a good character, Kong Fuzi used the term ___ which meant an attitude of kindness or a sense of humanity.
became the core texts of traditional Chinese education
Through the efforts of Confucius the literary works of the Zhou period
human nature was essentially good
At the heart of Mencius' philosophy was the belief that
Daoism
The philosophy that criticized social activism and instead proposed a life of reflection and introspection was
laozi
the traditional founder of Daoism is considered to be
dao
Chinese philosophers often spoke of the ___, which means "the way."
Daodejing
The ___ is the most important text of Daoism
disengagement from the affairs of the world
The Daoist thinkers spoke of wuwei, which stood for
legalism
the school of philosophical thought which was in the end responsible for the unification of China was
Legalism
The Book of Lord Shang is one of the most influential works of
agriculture
According to the Legalist philosophies of the Qin, the foundations of a state's strength were armed forces and
Qin Shihuangdi
The Chinese emperor who was notorious for his hatred of Confucianism and for his burning of books was
Shihangdi
The tomb of ___ was "guarded" by fifteen thousand terra cotta soldiers
Liu Bang
The founder of the Han dynasty was
Wudi
The most powerful Han emperor, known for his administrative centralization and imperial expansion, was
Han Wudi
The Chinese emperor who started the imperial university was...
the Xiongnu
The greatest military threat to the Han were
admonitions for women
The ___ was a popular treatise that emphasized humility, obedience, subservience, and devotion to their husbands as the virtues most appropriate for women.
carried out reforms so revolutionary that he is known as the "socialist emperor"
Wang Mang
the war to capture Troy
The Homeric epic the Iliad deals with
Homer
The author of the Iliad was
usually consisted of independent, autonomous city-states
The political world of the ancient greeks
Linear B
The Mycenaeans adapted the Minoan written language to their own needs and developed a syllabic script called
Linear A
The Minoans wrote with a script known as ___, which is not yet deciphered.
the city-state
The Greeks used the word polis to refer to
helots
The Spartans were constantly afraid of the prospect of an uprising by serfs known as
all Athenian citizens
Athenian democracy was open to
Solon
The leader who forged a compromise between Athens' social classes by allowing
tyrant
The Greeks used the word ___ to refer to generals or politicians who, although often popular, gained power by irregular means.
Pericles
Under the leadership of ___ Athens became the most sophisticated of the poleis.
Peloponnesian War
The Golden Age of Greece came to an end after the
Athens
In the years after the Persian War the leader of the Delian League was
Alexandria
The center of the Hellenistic world was
Sparta
In which polis did women have the most freedom?
the most influential female Greek poet
Sappho was
human nature
Socrates believed that it was most important to try and understand
socrates
The words, "The unexamined life is not worth living," were spoken by
Plato
The concept of the World of Forms is associated with
philosopher kings
In The Republic, Plato proposed that the true rulers of society should be
believed that philosophers could rely on their senses
Aristotle
Aristotle
Later Christian Scholastic philosophers referred to ___ as "the master of those who know."
silk roads
The information that Zhang Qian brought back encouraged Han Wudi to destroy the Xiongnu and lay the foundations for the
Chang'an
The eastern most point of the Silk Roads was the Han capital of
mastering the monsoon system
A key element in establishing trade across the Indian Ocean was
Antioch
In the west the Silk Roads terminated in the Turkish port of
China
In the ancient world the main producer of silk was
foreign merchants
Buddhism was spread to China by
a Christian community which emphasized the human nature of Jesus
The Nestorians were
"the elect."
Devout Manichaeans, who abstained from marriage and sexual relations, and who devoted their lives to prayer and fasting were called...
Marcus Aurelius
In 180 CE smallpox claimed the life of the Roman emperor
St. Cyprian
___ recorded the suffering of Christians caused by epidemic diseases in his On Morality.
the Yellow Turban rebellion
In the year 184 CE peasant discontent in China led to an uprising known as
the spread of Chinese culture
The term sinicization refers to
the twenty-six Roman emperors between 235 and 284 CE
The "barracks emperors" were
Diocletian
The Roman empire was divided into two parts by
the four officials who ruled the Roman empire under Diocletian's plan
The tetrarchs were
Constantinople
After 340 CE the capital of the Roman world became
Romulus Augustulus
In 476 CE the Germanic leader Odovacer brought an end to the western half of the Roman empire when he overthrew
Byzantine Empire
After the collapse of the western half of the Roman empire, imperial authority survived for another thousand years in the
Milan
Christians were allowed to openly practice their religion when the emperor Constantine issued the Edict of
bishops
In the structure of the early Christian church the dioceses were presided over by the
decided that Jesus possessed both human and divine natures
In 325 CE the Council of Nicaea
hajj
The Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca is known as the
"submission"
The world Islam means
Muslim
The phrase "one who has submitted" is the meaning of the world
"house of Islam"
The phrase "dar al-Islam" means
is the holy book of Islam
The Quran
Sharia
The Islamic holy law was known as the
caliph
No religious leader could follow Muhammad so political authority rested in the position of ___.
Abu Bakr
After the death of Muhammad, political leadership fell to a caliph by the name of
the caliphate should follow the line of Ali
The Shia believed that
the Umayyad dynasty
After the assassination of Ali, power fell to
Abu al-Abbas
the founder of the Abbasid dynasty was
"people with religious knowledge."
The word ulama refers to
Mongols
the Abbasid dynasty finally came to an end in 1258 when they were overrun by the
cotton
Of all the new crops which spread throughout the Islamic world via trade, which one proved the most important?
paper manufacture
What new industry, transmitted to the Islamic world from China, was introduced during the Abbasid period?
four
The Quran, following the example of Muhammad, allowed men to have up to how many wives?
Arabic
The only definitive and reliable text of the Quran has to be in
madrasas
In an effort to recruit learned students Islamic leaders often financially supported institutions of higher learning called
in an emotional and mystical union with Allah
The Sufis believed
Omar Khayyam
The author of the Rubaiyat was
Gupta dynasty
An invasion in 451 CE by the White Huns brought an end of the
Harsha
The scholarly Buddhist emperor who reunited northern India in the seventh century was
Cambay
The most important trading port city in India from 500 to 1500 was
the Delhi sultanate
Northern India was dominated from the twelfth through the early sixteenth century by
Hindu
The kingdoms of southern India were mainly
only logical thinking could help human beings understand the ultimate reality of Brahman
Shankara was a ninth century thinker who believed that
one-fourth
By around 1500 Muslims had grown to around ___ of the total India population.
sought to erase the distinction between Hinduism and Islam
the Bhakti movement
Buddhism
The Khmer temple of Angkor Thom shows the influence of Hinduism while the later temple of Angkor Wat displays the influences of
Mongols
The largest empire of all time was created by the
does not receive enough rain to support large-scale agriculture
The environment of central Asia
tents used by the nomadic Turks
Yurts were
was an alcoholic drink fermented from mare's milk
The nomadic Turkish tribes made use of kumiss, which
Indirect rule through the leaders of allied tribes
The political power of the khans was based on
their cavalry forces
Turkish military might was based on
"Chieftain"
The term sultan means
Temujin
In 1206 the Mongols gave the title Chinggis Khan or "universal ruler" to
inrevenge for the Khwarazm shah murdering his envoys
Chinggis Khan sent troops into Persia in 1219
Yuan dynasty
In 1279 Khubilai Khan proclaimed the
Khubilai Khan
Marco Polo spent almost 20 years at the court of
promoting Buddhism and supporting Daoists, Christians, and Muslims
Khubilai Khan's religious policy featured
was the largest seaborne expedition before World War II
The Mongol naval campaign against Japan in 1281
Golden Horde
Russia was dominated from the thirteenth through fifteenth centuries by the
Yuan dynasty
Devastation wrought by the bubonic plague played a key role in the fourteenth century collapse of the
Tamerlane
The late fourteenth century Turkish ruler who weakened the Golden Horde, sacked Delhi, and launched campaigns in southwest Asia and Anatolia was
Osman
The founder of the Ottoman Turks was
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