AP Euro Second Semester Study Guide Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Capitalism
a movement favoring private ownership of the means of production, developed and became an essential part of the Industrial Revolution
agricultural revolution
innovations in agricultural methods together with increased investment in agriculture, which contributed to a much more productive system of farming; led to population growth, which in turn led to the Industrial Revolution
Richard Arkwright
the inventor of the water frame, which helped modernize the cotton industry
James Watt
inventor who perfected Thomas Newcomen's steam engine
Thomas Malthus
classical economist, associated with Manchester School, argued that the ever-expanding population would lead to a situation where food resources would be inadequate to meet the needs of the people, forcing the entire population to live at near-starvation levels
liberalism
dominant political outlook, attractive to business/professional class, wanted representative government just for the middle class, laissez-faire economics, believed in progress through education, science, and religious toleration, opposed church and aristocratic privileges
socialism
opposed laissez-faire economics, favored communal ownership of means of production and land, cooperation (mainly against capitalists) instead of competition; political party of the rising working class
Nationalism
basis of the demand for political sovereignty, claimed that every culture with its own separate language and heritage had the right to self-rule; popular in Italy, Ireland, Germany, and Hungary
Robert Owen
social reformer, union organizer, and cotton industrialist who promoted socialist ideas in a "model community" in Scotland; advocate of improving work conditions, hours of work, and provision of child-care facilities for workers
Charles Fourier
French "communal"- minded socialist whose ideas were not practical
G.W.F Hegel
German nationalist philosopher who developed the dialectical system which viewed history as a "Thesis + Antithesis = Synthesis" process; believed the state was the embodiment of reason and liberty
Leopold von Ranke
the leading German historian of the post-1815 period, promoted the "scientific" study of history and firmly believed in a separate path of development for Germany
Congress System
a number of conferences held to regulate relations among the "Great Powers", prefigured the League of Nations and United Nations
Enclosure Acts
closed off once common lands and open fields in England, bringing about a more commercialized farming; produced profits which would help finance the Industrial Revolution
Iron Law of Wages
Ricardo's principle that workers would always have to subsist on minimum wage because of the growing population
George stephenson
inventor of the locomotive, the Rocket
laissez-faire
the view that the economy was self-regulating, that the pursuit of self interest would benefit the general welfare, and economics was an activity that should be free from government control; the government should only provide legal framework for conducting business, not regulate the ecnonomy
Romanticism
movement in the early 19th century that included a new respect for nature, feeling considered just as important as reason, opposition to the strict rationalism of the Enlightenment, a strong historical sense, and a new romantic spirit represented by the work of many artists, writers, and musicians
Radicalism
utilitarian movement that worked for fundamental changes in the institutions of society, including poor relief and updated sanitation systems; attractive to critics of the Anglican Church and the Crown in England, secret societies in Continental Europe
Jeremy Bentham
utilitarian, idea of "greatest good for the greatest number"
Utopian Socialism
the less practical/scientific branch of socialism, rejected by Marx
Count de Saint Simon
early French socialist, advocate of planned society based on scientific principles, but met with little success, not very practical
Joseph Mazzini
leader of unsuccessful "Young Italy" nationalist movement, philosopher who believed that nationalism expressed what was most generous and humane in the spirit of the people
David Ricardo
classcial economist, negative views, including his "Iron Law of Wages"
Carlsbad Decrees
issued by the conference of German states called together by Metternich; called for dissolution of the Burshenschaft, closer monitoring of student activites, and strict censorship laws; stopped the growth of liberal and nationalist ideas temporarily
Metternich
Austrian foreign minister and diplomat, called together the conference of German states which issued the Carlsbad decrees; very conservative, viewed liberal and nationalist ideas as threats
Alexander I
Czar of Russia, convinced by Metternich to take a more reactionary position, died in 1825 and succeeded by Nicholas I
"White Terror"
the murder of Bonapartists, republicans, and Protestants in France during the reign of Louis XVIII
Corn Laws
protective tariffs which kept bread prices high, caused social unrest and riots, including those in London and the protest at Peterloo, abolised during the reforms of 1832
Decembrist Revolt
an incident after the death of Czar Alexander in which a group of army officers in St. Petersburg attempted to put the candidate of their choice on the throne
Monroe Doctrine
1823, established a policy of non-intervention by the European powers in Latin American affairs
Catholic Emancipation Act
advanced by the liberal Tories in Britian, favored greater toleration, granted to Irish Catholics in 1829
Chartism
an expression of British workers to improve their condition and achieve political democracy; took its name from the People's Charter, which demanded universal male suffrage, payment for MPs, elimination of property requirements for members of Parliament, and annual sessions of Parliament; had little success, but gave millions of workers a working-class consciousness
Anti-Corn Law Leage
formed by two manufacturers in 1838 to help workers by lowering bread prices and the middle class by encouraging free trade
Guizot
Louis Phillipe's minister, with whom he blocked all attempts at reform, even calls from the bourgeoisie for broader voting rights within their own class
National Workshops
a system that provided unemployment relief for the workers of Paris
Magyar
an ethnic group in Hungary which often fought with other non-Magyar groups; led by Louis Kossuth, but forced to yield when faced with Russian assistance to the Austrians
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon's nephew, presented himself as a champion for the common man and an enemy of the wealthy classes which controlled the Assembly; urged the restoration of full voting rights, proclaimed himself "Emperor of the French"
Syllabus of Errors
issued by Pope Pius IX, condemning almost all "isms" (liberalism, socialism, and many Enlightenment principles); signaled more reactionary papal policy
Windischgratz
commander of the imperial army, which suppressed an uprising in Prague
Karl Marx
founder of socialist philosophy Marxism, believed that workers were alienated and exploited by their capitalist employers, friend of Friedrich Engels, author of "Captial" and "The Communist Manifesto", doctrine of "Dialectical Materialism"; believed all people's ideas were derived from the condition of the economy at the time
Friedrich Engels
friends of Marx, author of "The Conditions of the Working Classes in England", co-author of "The Communist Manifesto" with Marx, claimed capitalism would disintegrate working class communities
The Communist Manifesto
written in 1848 by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, work condemning capitalism and proclaiming socialist ideas, call for revolution to the working class
Charles X
successor of Louis XVIII, leading supporter of the counter-revolution and enemy of republicans and liberals, Bourbon, attempted to restore the Ancien Regime, July Ordinances caused revolt in Paris, forced to abdicate
Burschenschaft
student organization of college clubs that promoted German nationalism, shut down by Metternich's Carslbad Decrees
Peterloo Massacre
An episode in which British soldiers fired on a crowd that was protesting the Corn Laws and calling for reform in Parliament on St. Peter's Field
Nicholas I
Czar of Russia who succeeded Alexander I, autocrat, crushed a Polish revolt
Louis Phillipe
Duke of Orleans who replaced Charles X, constitutional monarch, voting rights only to owners of substantial property during his reign, forced to abdicate. (July Monarchy)
Reform Bill, 1832
Britain, increased size of electorate, prevented revolution by providing peaceful solutions, reformed representation in Parliament to represent the middle class and new industrial towns
July Monarcy
When Louis Phillipe and Guizot blocked all attempts at reform, including bourgeosie voting rights, caused violence which forced Louis Philippe to abdicate
Lamartine
poet who was a "political" republican in the new French Provisional Government
Louis Kossuth
a revolutionary leader in Hungary who led the Magyars against the Austrians, but was defeated when the Russian forced joined the Austrians
"Bloody Days of June," 1848
The French army suppressing the workers' rising, which was a result of the Constituent Assembly trying to root out socialism and abolish the National Workshops
Benjamin Disraeli
the Tory leader in Parliament who was motivated by the desire to win over the newly enfranchised groups to the Conservative Party
Frankfurt Assembly
a committee which met in May 1848 with the goal of establishing a constitutional government within the context of a unified Germany; it was mostly middle class people who did not want revolution; it was overall a failure because it lacked political power and the members disagreed on important issues, such as whether or not Austria should be included in the new German state
Realpolitik
the "politics of reality", power was viewed as the goal to be achieved in both domestic and foreign affairs, Machiavellian; latter practiced by Otto von Bismarck
Auguste Comte
developed the "positivist" system, believed all human history could be divided up into three distinct stages (metaphysical, theological, and scientific), rejected romantic/idealistic ways of thinking
Dialectical Materialism
Marx's central doctrine; the idea that material conditions (economics, mode of production) determine people's ideas, law, government, morality, and religion all governed by economic relations
"Surplus Value"
Marx believed that capitalist owners/hirers were cheating workers out of money by keeping the profits of the products the company made and sold
"Dictatorship of the proletariat"
Marx's belief that the working class should dominate the smaller middle- and the business classes, as he believed the majority of the people supported the lifestyles of the wealthy
Risorgimento
"resurgence," a popular movement in Italy that supported unification through a liberal national state; Count Cavour played a crucial role; Mazzini
Piedmont
a name for the kingdom of Sardinia; victorious with the French in the battles of Magenta and Solferino, gained Lombardy but not Venetia; Count Cavour prime minister
Red Shirts
Guiseppi Garibaldi's group of about one thousand men who helped topple the government of the Two Sicilies
Napoleon III
French emperor, promised to support Cavour when provoked a war against the Austrians, formed a separate treaty with Austria because of his opposition of revolution, led to declare war on Prussia by Bismarck's "Ems dispatch", overthrown and replaced by the Third French Republic; bourgeoisie, anti-church, liberal; conservatives/traditionalists (army, Church, etc) hated the Third Republic
Schleswig-Holstein
a region of Germany annexed by Prussia during Bismarck's wars
Ferdinand Lassalle
leader of the Reichstag socialists, who were willing to work with Bismarck and support the North German Confederation as long as they were granted universal suffrage
Sedan
battle at which France was defeated by Prussia, forcing the French to sue for peace
Ausgleich
a compromise between Austria-Bohemia and the Hungarian Magyars; provided that Austria and Hungary would each have their own parliaments, the head of the House of Hapsburg would be recognized as the Emperor of Austria and the King of Hungary, and joint ministries would oversee foreign affairs, war, and finance; the Slavs were mostly excluded from the political process
Alexander II
Russian czar during the Crimean War; made peace at the Congress of Paris, resulting in Russia being forced to relinquish its claims to certain Balkan lands and accept that Russian warships could not enter the Black Sea
Nihilists
the group which assassinated Alexander II in 1881; believed in an anarchical, socialist, revolutionary approach to change and reform, which Alexander did not provide
Bakunin
the inspiration of the "nihilist" group; anarchist
Balance of payments
countries maintaining the economic balance of "exporting" more than they imported; invisible exports helped keep the balance
Dreyfus Affair
revealed the anti-Semitism and polarization of French society during the Third Republic period; a Jewish army officer (Alfred Dreyfus) was wrongly convicted of treason and exiled to Devil's Island until he was finally exonerated because of much agitation on his behalf (Emile Zola)
Irish Home Rule
supported by Gladstone, but his efforts failed; passed on the eve of World War I but suspended during the war by the British Parliament; the South would later become a sovereign republic
British Labour Party
a political party which eventually emerged in Britain because of the leadership provided by the trade union movement; socialist
Victor Emmanuel
proclaimed king of the new Kingdom of Italy in 1861
Italia irredenta
movement by Italian nationalists seeking to claim northern Italy from Austria
Crimean War
one of the first "modern wars," first to be covered by newspaper correspondents, weakened Austria and Russia; France, Britain, Austria, and the Ottoman Turks vs. Russia; ended with the Congress of Paris in which the Great Powers promised to respect the Ottoman Empire, Russia lost some of its power, and Romania and Serbia became self-governing; causes are hostility between Russia and the Ottoman Empire and Russia's desire to expand; outcome - Russia contained
Junker
the landowning class of Eastern Europe; Bismarck was a member
Seven Week's War
Prussia and Austria vs. Denmark over the question of Schleswig, which then resulted in Prussia and Austria going to war against each other; the Prussians' superior training, weapons, and leadership under von Moltke secured their victory at the closing battle of Sadowa
"Ems dispatch"
famous telegram from Prussia to Napoleon III, edited by Bismarck, which made Napoleon declare war on Prussia
Dual Monarchy
situation in Austria and Hungary where the head of the House of Hapsburg would be recognized as both the Austrian Emperor and the Hungarian King
Franz Joseph
Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, and King of Hungary from 1848 to 1916
Slavophiles
an intellectual movement beginning in the 19th century that the Russian Empire to be developed upon values and institutions derived from its early history, especially opposed to the influence of Western Europe
Alexander Herzen
writer who believed that revolution could be successful in Russia, given the limited development of capitalism and the communal traditions of the Russian masses
People's Will
Russian left-wing terrorist organization, most famous for its assassination of Czar Alexander II; demands included universal suffrage, free speech, press and assembly, a constitution, popular representation, and various socialist reforms
Invisible exports
insurance, banking services, and shipping; helped to maintain the balance of payments by allowing countries to "export" more than they imported
Reform Bill of 1867
"Second Reform Act," doubled the number of men who could vote from one million to two million out of five million; abolished the practice of paying rates to landowners as part of rent
Reform Bill of 1884
"Third Reform Act," further extended suffrage, size of electorate was increased; forty percent of English adults still remained without a vote however
Kulturkampf
launced by Bismarck against the independent-minded Catholic Church and its newly formed Center Party; Catholic leaders and institutions came under attack, including the Jesuits being expelled from Germany
German Social Democratic Party
founded in 1875; Bismarck unsuccessfully tried to stop its growth with anti-socialist laws and a comprehensive program of social legislation, but socialism simply became an underground movement; brought about a less revolutionary outlook; anti-revolution, revisionist (Bernstein)
Jean Juares
French supporter of a gradual transformation of capitalism as opposed to violent revolution
Fabian Society
group of middle class intellectuals who favored cooperation with the trade unions and labor representatives in Parliament to bring about legislative change, a branch of socialism called "waterworks socialism"; famous members include G.B. Shaw, H.G. Wells, and Sidney and Beatrice Webb
Karl Kautsky
maintained the orthodox Marxist line in Germany
Origin of Species
work of Darwin published in 1859, impact was that evolutionary theories started to be viewed as having a more scientific basis; argued that life was a result of change over time by chance and natural selection, not divine design
Curie
couple who discovered that radium constantly emits subatomic particles
Gregor Mendel
monk who researched in the monastery garden; provided scientific explanation for the laws governing heredity and the basis for the science of genetics
Ivan Pavlov
carried out pioneering work in the field of psychology, most famous for his studies of conditioning on animals
Friedrich Nietzsche
philosopher, prophet of the "God is dead" school of thought, ruthlessly challenged conventional beliefs and practices, believed traditional Christian morality and bourgeois civilization were forms of enslavement; believed only the superior individual could overcome the obstacles to true self-realization
Pius IX
conservative Pope who condemned many modern schools of thought; convened the First Vatican Council, declared papal infallibility, and defined the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception
Leo XIII
made an important contribution to the social teaching of the Catholic Church with his encyclical Rerum Novarum
Theodor Herzl
founded the modern Zionist movement with the goal of establishing a Jewish state in Palestine
Eduard Bernstein
German author of Evolutionary Socialism, argued for the gradual transformation of capitalism as opposed to violent revolution
Revolutionary syndicalism
the idea that direct action must be taken by the trade unions to break the power of the capitalist state; popular in France, Italy, and Spain
Bolsheviks
faction of the Russian Social Democratic Party which succeeded in seizing power in the Russian Revolution of 1917
T.H. Huxley
staunch advocate of Darwinism, got into a famous debate over evolutionary theories with Bishop Wilberforce
Jung
Swiss psychiatrist and founder of analytical psychology, pioneer in the field of dream analysis; unlike Freud in that he was a natural scientist as opposed to a theoretical psychologist
Sigmund Freud
founder of psychoanalysis, from Vienna, stressed the importance of childhood in the formation of the individual's personality, believed all human behavior was the product of the relationship between "id", "ego", and superego"; author of The Interpretation of Dreams which analyzed the significance of dreaming and daily mechanisms of repression
Herbert Spencer
key figure in British thought in the 19th century; held that evolutionary theory could be used not only to understand nature but also to discover the laws influencing the development of human society
Ernest Renan
author of Life of Jesus, in which he questioned the supernatural claims and literal truth of scripture
Vatican Council of 1870
proclaimed the Dogma of Papal Infallibility; with its loss of temporal powers, the papacy was more able to focus on its spiritual mission
Rerum Novarum
encyclical of Pope Leo XIII, criticized certain aspects of unregulated capitalism, encouraged the formation of Christian socialist parties and trade unions because of the Christian spirit which informed socialist thought
Neomercantilism
re-emergence of policies which discourage imports, encourage exports, and gives more decisions about currency to the government; causes included the growth of economic nationalism, rivalries associated with imperial expansion, and the rise of large corporations
Sphere of Influence
created by European countries in countries such as China and all over Africa and Asia (with the exception of Japan) for their new markets, source of raw materials, political, scientific, and religious reasons
"Surplus capital"
supposed by socialists to be acquired by capitalists at the expense of workers; imperialism was also thought by socialists to be a consequence of surplus wealth
Joseph Chamberlain
British; stated that the living standards of the working class could only be maintained by the creation of self-sustaining and self-protecting empires
Young Turks
advocates of reform for the Ottoman Empire; forced into exile
"Jingoism"
popular feeling in Britain ran high against Russia following its war with Turkey in which Serbia and Romania became independent
David Livingstone
famous for his encounter with H.M Stanley in the vastly black continent of Africa
Leopold II
king of Belgium; founded the International Congo Association in 1878 with Stanley
Cecil Rhodes
British businessman, politician, and founder of De Beers, the largest diamond company in South Africa; Zimbabwe used to be called "Rhodesia"
Suez Canal
connects the Mediterranean and Red Seas; high strategic and trade value; built with British and French support
Opium Wars
attempt of the Chinese government to control the inflow of opium; worsened relations between Europe and China; example of British imperialism
Neomercantilism
created during the Imperialist period because of competition; more protectionist than the previous free trade philosophy; government regulation of trade
J.A. Hobson
agreed with V.I. Lenin that socialist state would be the phenomenon of imperialism, eliminating surplus wealth for capitialists at the expense of the working class
White Man's Burden
poem by Rudyard Kipling which expresses Social Darwinism and the European crusade for "modern civilization" in other continents
Pan-Slavism
movement in Russia and the Ottoman Empire; claimed to represent all the Slavic peoples; wanted to unite all Slavic peoples under Russian leadership against Austria
Congress of Berlin
awarded lands to the European powers (Russia, Austria, Britain) at Turkey's expense; the unstable Balkan region would contribute to the start of World War I
H.M. Stanley
famous encounter with Dr. Livingstone; recognized opportunities for exploiting the resources of Africa, founded the International Congo Association in 1878 with King Leopold II
Fashoda Crisis
meeting of Britain and France at Fashoda in Sudan, resulting crisis almost led to war but the French backed down, signaling a British diplomatic victory; Britain learned the dangers of "isolationism"
Boer War
fought mainly between 1899 and 1900 between the Afrikaans/Boers (Dutch in South Africa) and the British; the British won, but became unpopular in the process; Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany had expressed support for the Afrikaners during the war; rivalry over spoils created hostility which helped lead to war in 1914
Indian Mutiny
1857; caused the British to be more accommodating to the demands of Indian culture; led to the abolition of the British East India Company, the Mogul Empire, and the imposition of direct rule
"Sick Man of Europe"
the ethnically and religiously diverse, backward Ottoman Empire, which was disintegrating by the 1850s's
Triple Alliance
alliance between Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Italy; opposing alliance to the Triple Entente
Entente Cordiale
new relationship between France and Britain in 1904 after colonial disputes in Africa were resolved; common enemy - Germany
German "blank check"
on July 6, 1914, Germany gave Austria-Hungary a guarantee of almost unconditional support in any war arising from its dealings with Serbia following the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
Moltke
German general under Wilhelm II
Battle of Verdun
one of the bloodiest battles of the war, at the Somme River in 1916; losses extremely high on both sides because of new weaponry and mindless strategies; western front
Battle of Tannenberg
German victory, but was little compensation for the failure to reach Paris and end the war in the west; Russia severely defeated; eastern front
Triple Entente
Britain, Russia, and France; the opposing alliance to the Triple Alliance
Sarajevo Crisis
the assassination of Franz Ferdinand and his wife
Central Powers
the German empire, Austro-Hungarian empire, Ottoman Empire, and Kingdom of Bulgaria
"They shall not pass"
most famously used during the Battle of Verdun in WWI by French General Robert Nivelle
Battle of the Somme
one of the bloodiest battles of the war, at the Somme River in 1916; losses extremely high on both sides because of new weaponry and mindless strategies; British offensive
Dardanelles Campaign
the Allies attempted to open up a line of communication with Russia through the Dardanelles; three-year campaign, ended in failure
Sinking of the Lusitania
the Germans sank the British passenger liner in 1915, resulting in a loss of American lives
Roger Casement
Irish patriot, poet, revolutionary, and nationalist; advocated for human rights in the Congo
Balfour note of 1917
formal declaration of support for a Jewish homeland in Palestine by the British government
Joffre
French general who succeeded in turning back the German offensive at the battle of Marne
Ludendorff
German general known for his victory at Tannenberg
Franz Ferdinand
heir to the Austrian throne; assassinated by a Bosnian revolutionary
Lloyd George
represented Britain at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919
Fourteen Points
Woodrow Wilson's principles which he believed should shape the post-war world; included freedom of the seas, and end to secret diplomacy, reduction of armaments, redrawing of boundaries, self-determination of nationalities, and the creation of the League of Nations; not all ideals accepted
Versailles Treaty
set forth the terms of settlement between Germany and the Allied Powers at the end of World War I; France gained, Austria's size was greatly reduced, and Germany was forced to accept responsibility for the war; seriously flawed and unrealistic, never implemented or even ratified by the US
Battle of Jutland
greatest naval encounter of the war, between the British and Germans, off the coast of Jutland in the North Sea; the British maintained naval supremacy
Zimmerman Telegram
activities of German secret agents in the U.S.; led the American Congress to declare war on Germany on April 6, 1917; sent to Mexico
Bethmann-Hollweg
German politician and statesman who served as Chancellor of the German Empire from 1909 to 1917
Hindenburg
German general in WWI and president of Germany from 1925 to 1934
Petain
French national hero at the battle of Verdun
Kaiser Wilhelm II
leader of Germany; expressed support for the Afrikaaners during the Boer War; attempted to create a problem between France and Britain over Morocco, but failed
Clemenceau
represented France at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919
League of Nations
proposed by Wilson in his Fourteen Points; reassigned Germany's colonies as "mandates" to France, Britain, Japan, South Africa, and others; the US never joined and the League was ultimately a failure
"War guilt"
clause of the Versailles Treaty which forced Germany to accept sole responsibility for the war and pay reparation
Pogrom
extensive violence against Jews in the Russian Empire and a series of anti-German pogroms in Russia in 1915
Social Revolutionary Party
held that Russia could bypass the capitalist stage of economic and political development and proceed directly to building a socialist state based on the support of the peasants; resented the Social Democratic Labor Party as promoter of peasant causes
Bolsheviks
rival group to the Mensheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin; stressed the need for a tightly-knit group of revolutionaries to lead the revolution
V.I. Lenin
author of Imperialism, the Highest Stage of World Capitalism; believed surplus wealth was acquired by capitalists at the expense of the workers (socialist); leader of the Bolsheviks; rejected trade unionism and revisionist socialism
Rasputin
dissolute monk who held influence over the Czarina Alexandra
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
signed by Russia while the Bolsheviks were in power; ended the war with Germany; required Russia to recognize the independence of Poland, the Ukraine, Finland, and the Baltic provinces
Red Army
started out as the Soviet revolutionary militia, grew into the national army; equipped by Trotsky
Provisional Government
set up by the Duma after its disbanding under pressure from the Petrograd Soviet; demanded and recieved the abdication of the Czar; called for the election of a constituent assembly; prosecuted the war; land reform was promised, but not carried out
Politburo
the executive committee for a number of communist political parties; highest ruling group in Communism
"Permanent revolution"
idea of Leon Trotsky that brought him into conflict with Stalin
Collectivization
all lands to become common; opposed by kulaks (wealthy farmers), who were exiled or killed; destroyed livestock and brought on famine
Nicholas II
autocrat, forced to issue his October Manifesto, promising to introduce constitutional government; suppressed revolution with a peace treaty with Japan
Comintern
Third International representing the Soviet Communist party and other allied Communist parties in Europe, met in 1919; used to promote Bolshevism and discredit socialist parties following revisionism; dominated by the Soviets, attempted to influence political developments in other countries through infiltration of trade unions and leftist political parties
Mir
village communes in Russia in which the peasantry lived
Social Democratic Labor Party
founded by Russian Marxists in 1898; held the belief that revolution would begin first in western Europe, following classical Marxist principles; distrusted the peasant class
Mensheviks
rival party to the Bolsheviks; advocated a more broadly-based party and willingness to work with non-Marxists
Leon Trotsky
War Commissar, organized and supplied Red Army; forced into exile and murdered in Mexico for his "permanent revolution" idea
General Kornilov
leader of the rightists, attempted a coup but failed
Cheka
Bolshevik secret police force
Duma
Russian parliament, manipulated by the government; disbanded by the Czar
Alexander Kerensky
head of the Provisional government, blamed for what many perceived as an attempt at counterrevolution; escaped to exile
Kulak
a more prosperous class of peasant farmers which emerged in Russia; came about as a result of peasants being allowed to own land; dissolved by exile and execution by Stalin when they opposed collectivization
Five-Year Plan
Stalin's communist plan; goal of building up heavy industry in Russia, complete economic plan; production levels set in agriculture and industry, wages, prices, employment, and resources were controlled by the government; Stalin wanted to reform Russian agriculture without foreign capital and create a working state
Kirov
former close collaborator with Stalin; head of the party in Leningrad, murdered in 1934
U.S.S.R
the new Communist State; the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
"Popular fronts"
non-Communist parties which were controlled by and subservient to the Communist party as part of a "coalition"
German Social Democratic Party
new, revisionist government after the German Revolutions of 1918, essentially conservative and dealt with opposition from both the right and the left, suppressed the Sparticist uprising, widening the split between the Social Democrats and the German Communist Party; German culture was essentially still authoritarian
War debts
the reparations Germany was forced to pay by the Versailles Treaty, lessened by the Dawes Plan
Dawes Plan
averted revolution in Germany with the intervention of the U.S.; the U.S. provided loans to Germany to reduce the level of reparation payments, brought economic and financial stability
Gustav Stresemann
German liberal politician and statesman who served as Chancellor and Foreign Minister during the Weimar Republic
Kapp Putsch
right-wing attempt to seize power from the Weimar government
Freikorps
German volunteer military units; many Nazi party members had served in the Freikorps
November criminals
propaganda by the Nazis to convince the people that the Weimar republic was controlled by the Jews and other "criminals" and that the German army had not really been defeated in WWI, but had been betrayed by power-hungry civilians on the home front
Spartacists uprising
an attempt in the Weimar Republic to carry out a proletarian revolt backed by the Soviets, suppressed by the Social Democratic government
Occupation of the Ruhr
France formed alliances with Poland and other eastern European countries because of fear of a revived Germany; France then occupied the Ruhr region when they were unable to collect the reparation debts Germany owed
Rosa Luxembourg
leader of the Marxist revolutionary group the Spartacists with Karl Liebknecht, violently put to death by the authorities after the uprising
Kellog-Briand Act
signed by 65 nations, rejected war as a way to solve international disputes in 1928
Treaty of Locarno
Germany guaranteed the borders of France and Belgium in 1925
The Great Depression
triggered by the Wall Street Crash of 1929, the world economy collapsed because of plummeting stock prices, causing bank closures, drops in world trade and industrial production, vast unemployment, economic nationalism by governments, New Deal in the U.S.
Franz von Papen
former German chancellor who supported Hitler becoming chancellor after the cabinet changes of 1932-33
General Strike of 1926
called in support of the mine workers; its failure was a setback for the trade union movement
Sinn Fein Party
left-wing republican political party in Ireland founded in 1905 by Arthur Griffth
Raymond Poincare
moderate conservative French leader whose leadership improved France's economic situation
Ramsey MacDonald
the Labor party formed a National government with the conservatives under his leadership; this union succeeded is isolating the extreme elements of British politics
Statute of Westminster
gave legal equality with Britain to dominions such as Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and Canada in 1931
French Popular Front
an anti-fascist coalition of liberals, socialists, and communists; won the elections of 1936 with Leon Blum as premier; criticized for failure to support the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War
Leon Blum
the socialist premier of the French Popular Front; his reforms were unsuccessful because of opposition of employers and increasing tensions in international relations
John Maynard Keynes
British economist who argued that the government should provide funds to encourage economic activity when private businesses failed to do so, "deficit financing"
Blackshirts
Mussolini's followers, participated in the March on Rome in 1922
"March on Rome"
1922, by the Blackshirts; allowed Mussolini to be appointed prime minister by the king and receive emergency powers for one year
Lateran Treaty
signed by Mussolini and the pope in 1929, recognizing the sovereignty of Vatican City in exchange for the support of the Catholic Church for his regime
Fascism
totalitarian ideology, glorified war and cult of the Leader, demanded subordination of the individual, culture was controlled by the government, propaganda was used; Nazism was a form of fascism
Il Duce
name for Mussolini as dictator of Italy
Corporate State
Mussolini's organization of the economy into twenty-two major sectors; each corporation was responsible for controlling prices, wages, and industrial policies, but Mussolini ultimately decreed what should be done
Nazis
the National Socialist German Worker's Party, racists and extreme nationalists, form of fascism and glorified war and the cult of the Leader, glorified violence and neopagan philosophy
Paul von Hindenburg
the president of Germany who appointed Hitler as chancellor
Reichstag fire
Hitler blamed the communists for the burning, playing on the people's fears and bringing about the Enabling Act
Master Race
the "Aryans," Hitler's beliefs that the Germans were superior and the Jews needed to be purged
Nuremberg laws
deprived the Jewish people of their rights as German citizens and prohibited marriage or relationships with Aryan Germans
Gestapo
Nazi organization that conspired with the S.S. and Nazi court system to destroy the liberties of German citizens
S.S.
Nazi organization that conspired with the Gestapo and Nazi court system to destroy the liberties of German citizens
Dr. Goebbels
master of propaganda in Nazi Germany, promoted the "Big Lie"
Enabling Act
Reichstag was manipulated into passing it by Hitler after the Reichstag Fire, provided him with the foundation on which to build his dictatorship
"Beer Hall Putsch"
Hitler's attempt to seize power in Bavaria, failed, and he had to serve a short sentence; reinforced his faith in his mission and helped him to realize a change in tactics was needed (not the military force alone, but constitutional power)
Third Reich
the name of Hitler's regime, with himself as Fuhrer, or leader
Anti-Semitism
prejudice or discrimination against Jews; Hitler's policies were extremely anti-Semitic
"Night of the Long Knives"
1934, when the leader of the S.A., Ernst Roehm, was murdered with his close associates
Brownshirts (S.A.)
the socialist-minded group in Germany which was ruthlessly removed because of the potential threat to Nazi power
National Labor Front
Hitler's economic planning; replaced free trade unions
Kristallnacht
"night of the broken glass," a Nazi against Jews in 1938
Ernst Roehm
the leader of the S.A.; murdered with his close associates on the "Night of the Long Knives"
Maginot Line
line of defense made by the French in case of a Nazi German attack; it failed; very expensive and heavily armed; Germans came a different way; showed that the French had a bad, stationary strategy
Rhineland
reoccupied by Hitler in 1936, breaking the demilitarization clause in the Versailles Treaty
Spanish Popular Front
variety of liberal and left-wing parties; provoked uprising by Franco; republican government that was overthrown
General Franco
leader of the uprising that started the Spanish Civil War; dictator until 1975; Fascist "nationalists," won civil war
Sudeten Germans
residents of the German-speaking region in Czechoslovakia which Hitler demanded
Nazi-Soviet Pact
1939, Hitler and Stalin made a non-aggression pact and divide Poland between them; Baltic States go to the Soviet Union
Miracle Dunkirk
British troops evacuated from beaches on the northern coast of France in 1940; army saved
Vidkun Quisling
prime minister of Norway, traitor, supported the Nazis
Battle of Britain
Royal Air Force defeats the Germans, defends Britain
General Tojo
Japanese Fascist military leader, put on trial at Nuremberg War Crimes Trials
"Final Solution"
Wannsee conference's plan to eliminate all Jews
Katyn Forrest Massacre
massacre against Polish officers by Soviets, ordered by Stalin; thousands killed
Neville Chamberlain
prime minister of Great Britain, associated with appeasement of Germany, trying to maintain peace, gives Hitler the Sudetenland at the Munich Conference
Haile Selassie
emperor of Abyssinia (Ethiopia) exiled by Mussolini, appealed to League of Nations but not helped
Anschluss
the union of Austria with the Third Reich in 1938
Rome Berlin Axis
alliance between Hitler and Mussolini; built up by the Spanish Civil War
Munich Conference
1938, Chamberlain, Hitler, Mussolini, and French prime minister; Sudetenland given to Hitler, Czechs became vulnerable
Blitzkrieg
new war strategy of sudden attack used by the Germans against France and Poland especially
Vichy France
French working with Nazi Germany; central-southern France, led by Petain
Lend-Lease
program of financial aid by FDR and the US to British, economic/financial aid
Albert Speer
armaments minister of Hitler, put on trial at Nuremberg War Crimes Trials
Stalingrad
German army destroyed, turning point in the war
Dresden
bombing of Dresden, Germany by the Allies; city destroyed, thousands died, fire bombing
Admiral Doenitz
successor of Hitler, formal surrender of Germany
Stauffenberg
conspirator to assassinate Hitler, arrested, tortured, and hanged
Atlantic Charter
agreement between Churchill and FDR on how to cooperate on war strategy, fight for democracy
Potsdam Conference
1945, Harry Truman, Attlee (Britain), and Stalin deciding Germany's fate after the war
Winston Churchill
Prime Minister of Britain throughout the war; "Iron Curtain" speech
Auschwitz
famous Nazi death/concentration camp in Poland; biggest, most Jews died
Yalta Conference
Churchill, Stalin, FDR; deciding Eastern Europe/Polands' fate after the war
United Nations
1945, Security Council (5 permanent members)
Free French
led by de Gaulle, group of French in London opposing the Nazis, helped the British in the war
Baruch Plan
proposal to put nuclear weapons under control of the UN, never happened; Baruch was an American official
"Iron Curtain"
speech by Churchill about the threat of the Soviet Union and the division of Europe between Communist and Non-Communist
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; major military alliance between the US and west Europe
"Containment"
Truman Doctrine; plan to contain Soviet expansion and the spread of Communism
Berlin Blockade
1948, Stalin cut off access to West Berlin; Allies airlifted supplies for 13 months, Stalin backed down
Warsaw Pact
parallel military lines in Eastern Europe/Soviet Union, 1955
Marshall Plan
plan to offer economic aid to all western European nations ravaged by war; given by the U.S.
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