Nationalism, Industrial Revolution, and Imperialism Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Peninsular
A Spanish-born person born in Spain who went to the colonies. Etymology derives from the Iberian peninsula, where Spain and Portugal are located, I believe. Allowed to possess governmental rights.
Creoles
People born in the Americas/Spanish Colonies of pure Spanish ancestry. Afforded less rights than the peninsulares.
Mestizos
People of Mixed Spanish/American ancestry.
Mullatoes
People of the lowest caste born of black and Spanish ancestry.
Simon Bolivar
Venezuelan revolutionary who's crusades helped liberate Peru, Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia and others. Known as the Liberator
Jose De San Martin
Argentinan revolutionary with O'Higgins and Bolivar helped free Argentina, Chile, and Peru.
Father Hidalgo
8 May 1753 - 30 July 1811 Mexican priest responsible for the Grito de Dolores, many mestizos followed him killing the white humans which inhabited the area. He was captured and killed by firing squad.
Jose Morelos
September 1, 1765, Valladolid December 22, 1815 The man who continued the Mexican revolutionary movement after Hidalgo was captured and killed. He was also captured and killed, but he set the wheel in a faster motion of which the Spanish could not hold off.
Tupac Amaru
March 19, 1742 - May 18, 1781 A supposedly "royal" Incan man who started a revolution in Peru, but was brutally crushed by the Spanish Retaliatory forces.
Benito Juarez
March 21, 1806 - July 18, 1872 The Mexican revolutionary who overthrew the Mexican Empire of Maximilian I and became the leader of the Mexican Republic.
Don Pedro
son of the Portugal King that ruled Brazil and declared it independent in 1822
Touissant L' Ouverture
A Haitian revolutionary who was effective at winning battles against the French forces on the island. Although he was captured, the revolution still continued on.
Count Cavour
Italian count who took Northern Italy out of the grubby hands of the Austrians, short and pudgy but charismatic
Giuseppe Garibaldi
The famed leader who led the red-shirts to victory to reunify southern Italy with Victor Emmanuel II. Used guerrilla warfare.
Mazzini
A Genoan revolutionary who tried to raise an insurrection in the revolutions of 1848 but ultimately failed, tried to take over papal states and angered Catholic countries.
Italian City States
A mesh of disorganized city states formed after the chaos of the power vacuum of the absence of Napoleon.
Wilhelm I
German Kaiser who was the King of Prussia and later the Emperor of the German Empire.
Otto Von Bismarck
Prime Minister of Prussia and then later the German Empire. He was often called the Iron Chancellor for his harsh techniques esp. being Machiavellian.
Franco-Prussian War
A war fought between Napoleon III and the Prussians of Otto von Bismark / Wilhelm. This caused the fall of the Second French Empire into its Third Republic and the addition of Prussian states to the German Empire.
Realpolitik
politics based on practical rather than moral or ideological considerations
"Blood and Iron"
War and Industry are needed to advance the banner of Germany. and the country land .
Militarism
Having a martial state or investing a heavy amount of resources in the military of a country.
Newcomen
developed the first practical steam engine
James Watt
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819)
Water Frame
invention that used water to produce trully pure cotton fabric. It was invented by Richard Arkwright who lost his patent for his invention which sparked an increase of factories producing cotton fabric.
Spinning Jenny
a machine produced by James Hargreavs in 1765 to mass produce thread
Flying Shuttle
was developed by John Kay, its invention was one of the key developments in weaving that helped fuel the Industrial Revolution, enabled the weaver of a loom to throw the shuttle back and forth between the threads with one hand
Steam Engine
A machine that turns the energy released by burning fuel into motion. Thomas Newcomen built the first crude but workable steam engine in 1712. James Watt vastly improved his device in the 1760s and 1770s. Steam power was then applied to machinery.
Henry Bessemer
This man revolutionized the way to manufacture steel by making the process quicker and more efficient
Louis Pasteur
French chemist and biologist whose discovery that fermentation is caused by microorganisms resulted in the process of pasteurization
Alexander Fleming
Scottish bacteriologist who accidentaly discovered pennicillin
Alfred Nobel
Swedish chemist remembered for his invention of dynamite and for the bequest that created the Nobel prize
Faraday
scientist; electromagnetic induction; primitive generatior; foundation for electricity
Edison
became a pioneer on the new industrial frontier when he established the world's first research laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey. Perfected light bulb, later invented an entire system for producing and distributing electrical power.
Eli Whitney
an American inventor who developed the cotton gin. Also contributed to the concept of interchangeable parts that were exactly alike and easily assembled or exchanged
Edward Jenner
English physician who pioneered vaccination. He inoculated people with small amounts of cowpox to prevent them from getting smallpox (1749-1823)
Cottage Industries
The system of inefficient labour predating industrialization
Domestic System
Also related to the cottage industries, involving a group of sub-contractors to complete a production of an item, usually cloth.
Enclosure Movement
The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century. The movement which ended the open farmland style agriculture. Land owners started to enclose their land. This process started to catch after the English Civil war.
Raw Materials
Raw resources that are not manufactured, such as cotton, coal and others.
Unions
Groups of workers who band together to barter with the factory owners and others.
Child labor
In the late 1800s a significant portion of the labor force was made up of children under the age of 15, some as young as 5 years old. These child laborers did not attend school. They worked in sweat shops which were workshops in tenements rather than factories.
Coal mining
There was a lot of coal in the British Isles which could be used to power the steam engines, but the problem was that water would seep into the mine shafts, but now, steam engines could be used to pump the water out. So, the same technology that consumed the coal and made more coal available.
Romanticism
An artistic and intellectual movement originating in Europe in the late 18th Century and characterized by a heightened interest in nature, emphasis on the individual's expression of emotion and imagination, departure from the attitudes and forms of classicism, and rebellion against established social rules and conventions.
Socialism
a theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.
Capitalism
an economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, esp. as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth.
Marxism
the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will untimately be superseded
Communism
a political theory favoring collectivism in a classless society
Population growth
caused by Agricultural innovation brought on by the need to feed more people. The new amounts of food being produced kept people more healthy and allowed for a lower mortality rate and a longer life expectancy. Also the population growth could be attributed to better hygiene practices and better medical practices. The trend is important because it allowed for the development of agriculture which allowed for significant developments in a person's ability to have a safe and stable life.
Interchangeable parts
identical components that can be used in place of one another in manufacturing
Assembly line
In a factory, an arrangement where a product is moved from worker to worker, with each person performing a single task in the making of the product.
Collectivism
a political theory that the people should own the means of production
Thomas Malthus
an English economist who argued that increases in population would outgrow increases in the means of subsistence (1766-1834)
Karl Marx
German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.
Adam Smith
Scottish professor of philosophy. Developed the idea of free enterprise, critical of mercantilism. Wrote Wealth of Nations.
Social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Robert Owen
(1771-1858) British cotton manufacturer believed that humans would reveal their true natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment. Tested his theories at New Lanark, Scotland and New Harmony, Indiana, but failed
David Ricardo
Principles of Political Economy (1817); "iron law of wages": rise of population means rise of amount of workers, which cause wages to fall below the subsistence level, resulting in misery and starvation
Jeremy Bentham
Believed that public problems should dealt with on a rational scientific basis. Believed in the idea of the greatest good for the greatest number. Wrote, Principles of Morals and Legislation., creator of Utilitarianism. Advocates "the greatest happiness for the greatest number." Used the Pain-Pleasure litmus test, rather than ideology
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