Career Counseling: A Holistic Approach Chapter 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Trait-Oriented theories
Refers to theories that endeavor to describe the characteristics that makes up human personality in an effort to predict future behavior.
Refers to a consistent, enduring way of thinking, feeling, or behaving.
Trait-Oriented Theories Key Concept
Potential sets of reinforcers in the work environment enhance job satisfaction. Individuals are attracted to occupational environments meeting their personal needs and this provides satisfaction.
Trait-and-Factor Theory
Parsons (1909) Person-Environment-Correspondence (PEC): Dawis & Lofquist (1990) Typology: Holland (1992) Relies on heavy assessments. Looks at family background too.
Trait-and-Factor Theory ~Parsons
Matching individual's traits with requirements of specific occupation. Key assumption: individuals have unique patterns of ability/traits that can be objectively measured and correlated with requirements of various job types.
Trait-and-Factor Theory Williamson
Williamson evolved from Parsons
Six sequential steps
Analysis - separate components
Synthesis - make the components whole
Diagnosis - identify issues, thoughts and behaviors
Prognosis - predict and map out
Trait-and-Factor Theory
Contemporary application
How can you use assessments today?
Similarity Model: Provide means of evaluating occupations that are similar to you in important ways.
Big Five
OCEAN Five-factor model (Big Five)
Refers to a model of personality traits that describes five basic trait dimensions.
Refers to the willingness to try new things and be open to new experiences.
Refers to the care a person gives to organization and thoughtfulness of others; dependability.
Refers to the dimension of personality referring to one's need to be with other people. Extroverts - people who are outgoing and sociable. Introverts - people who prefer solitude and dislike being the center of attention.
Refers to the emotional style of a person that may range from easygoing, friendly, and likeable to grumpy, crabby, and unpleasant.
Refers to the degree of emotional instability or stability.
John Holland's Typology
Individuals are attracted to career due to personality and variables that create their background.
Career choice expression of personality into work world and there needs to be congruence with view of self with occupational preference.
John Holland's Typology
Modal Personal Style
Developmental process established through heredity and life history of reacting to environmental demands
Central in theory is concept one chooses career to satisfy one's preferred modal persona orientation
Self knowledge and Career information essential for career decision making
Holland's Typology
Six kinds of modal occupation environments and six matching modal personal orientations
R - realistic
I - investigative
A - artistic
S- social
E - enterprising
C - conventional
Social Learning and Cognitive Theories
Social conditioning, social position, and life events influence career choice
Individuals influenced by:
Genetic endowments
Contextual experiences
Learning experiences
Skills learned in managing tasks
Problem solving and decision making
3 Social Learning and Cognitive Theories
Learning Theory of Career Counseling - Krumboltz Cognitive Information Processing Perspective - Peterson, Sampson, & Reardon
Social Cognitive Perspective - Lent, Brown, & Hackett
Learning Theory of Career Counseling ~ (LTCC) Krumboltz
Attempt to simplify process of career selection based on life events
Four factors:
1.Genetic endowment
2. Environmental conditions and events
3. Learning experiences (observation and direct experiences)
4. Task approach skills
Krumboltz ~ LTCC Emphasizes
Model emphasizes importance of learning experiences and their effect on occupational selection.
Learning takes place through observation
Need to assist individual to understand validity of their beliefs (major component)
Krumboltz ~ LTCC
Happenstance Approach
Premise suggests chance events over one's lifespan can have positive and negative consequences that influence career choice
Five critical client skills
curiosity - persistence - flexibility - optimism - risk taking
Krumboltz ~ LTCC
Client duties/Counselor duties
Clients need to
expand capabilities and interest
not assume occupations will remain stable
be empowered to take action
Career counselors need to play role in all career problems; not just occupational selection.
Cognitive Information Processing (CIP)
~Peterson, Sampson, & Reardon
Counselor's Function
Career counselor's principal function is to identify client's needs and develop interventions to help client acquire knowledge and skills to address those needs.
Cognitive Information Processing (CIP)
~Peterson, Sampson, & Reardon
Problem Solving
Career problem solving a cognitive process that can be improved through CASVE procedure Problem solving heavily stressed
Career Counseling is a learning event.
Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) ~Lent, Brown, & Hackett
Embedded in Bandura's General Social Cognitive Theory
Major goals:
Find methods of defining specific mediators from which learning experiences shape and influence career behavior.
Explain how variables (interest, abilities, values) interrelate and influence career outcomes
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