Art History 253 Arctic Flashcards

Terms Definitions
3 phases of the Norton Check Stamped Pottery, as part of the Denbigh flint complex
1. Choris
2. Norton
3. Ipiutak
Dorset Masquette
1000 BC - 1000 AD
Simplistic, one of the oldest ivory carvings found
Late Paleo , Early Dorset sculptures
1000 BC
Boorman Point, Bathurst Island
3 dimensional figures with skeletal etches on the surface
Crosses are where a toggle would be put into the animal to carry it back to a site after hunting
X-Ray Bears and Seals
Bears and seals with skeletons sketches on then represent the transformation of life after death
bears used in relation to shamans as well, most important animal in the arctic
seals were major figures because they provide a lot of food
Amulet Bracelet, pre-1876
Ivory and sinew
Many different purposes (4?)
Could be bone of a bird wing, whistles
All have etched surfaces with lines and geometric patterns
Started before the missionaries came in 1771.
May be a helping spirit guide, protect them during sickness
Some of the more common amulets had feather of an owl or a bear's tooth
Labrador - thong of seal skin worn around the waist, common to wear this string of amulets around their waist but not sure when they were worn (just for religious purposes or all the time)
(1)some worn to fend off predators or (2) to remember deceased relatives
(4)Some shamans had amulet belts, Netslit practiced this.
Tingmiujang Game
pre-1888 Inuit
Carved for games
Birds, maybe ptarmigan
Shake the birds in your hand and throw them on the ground, the ones that end up flat, standing up and facing you, you can keep.
Dorset Polar Bear Carving
1000-1000 AD
Has a slit in its throat, piece of ivory in the slit
May have been specific to a shamanistic function
Ivory Charm with Labret Plugs
c. 1800 - 1880
Probably Thule (1000-1600 AD)
Doesn't show his skeleton structure, the marks are likely his tattoos
The holes below his mouth may represent labret plugs (earrings) that went through his lip on both sides
Stumpy style, not complete bodies is very much indicative of the Dorset, but also overlapped into Thule, and is stated as such.
Dorset wooden Mask
1000 BC - 1000 AD
One of the surviving masks of this time period, found remnants of red paint on it, wooden pins may have been used to fasten the mask to clothing or around the face
Found at Bylot Island
Like a male, winter spirit mask (her opinion)
Ivory Weapons
Old Bering Sea Culture
1 AD - 1000 AD
Harpoon heads, attached to harpoons
2nd is part of a throwing stick
Bottom - may have been put at the front of a boat to balance harpoon spears on, or as a counter weight on harpoon spears
Harpoon Rest
Old Bering Sea Culture
100 AD. - 300 AD.
Looks similar to West Coast society
Lines and dots, but very unique pattern
Old Bering Sea Culture
100 AD - 300 AD
Suggest it was used by a shaman, but the same shape as the harpoon heads and may have been used as such. There is even a hole in the middle of the body, how its supposed to be.
Female Figure
Old Bering Sea Culture
200 AD. - 100 AD.
Very minimal, rough and seem to all have metal rings attached to it on the sides
Simplistic structure
May be related to puberty rights of passage, there are marks clearly indicating male and female genitalia
Others think it was a doll, or aid in female fertility
Thule House
1000 - 1600 AD
made of whale bones and mandibles
Thule Lamp
1000-1600 AD
Minimal lines, simplistic
Rendered and non rendered fat separated into the 4 grooves on top
Thule Snow Goggles
1000-1600 AD
Classic Thule engraving - lines and dots on the perimeter
Wear snow goggles between April and July, more sun
Also wore projecting brow ridges, like visors to shield the sun
Female and Male Figures (separate pieces)
1000 AD. - 1600 AD.
Ivory, 4 5/8 x 3/4 x 11/8
Probably puberty rights objects again
Rings may be for hanging them on the body
More peonage, not just a block, the figures are more carved out
Female Doll
1000 AD - 1600 AD
ca. 1950, Inukjuak (Port Harrison), Quebec
Soapstone head, carrying ivory fish and ulu
May be transitional Inuit rather than Thule, very different
Most aboriginal cultures made dolls, figurines were also used to tell stories
Male Doll
1000 AD. - 1600 AD.
ca. 1950, Quebec
Leather head, sealskin coat, sewn with sinew
May be transitional Inuit rather than Thule, very different
Most aboriginal cultures made dolls, figurines were also used to tell stories
Thule Engraved Scene on Bow Drill
1000 AD-1600 AD
Fire starter
Used to decorate these, until 1890 transitional phase
Narrative depicted on this one, people are warring - but they are metamorphoses (caribou and human)
Right side - old man with a cane, dog, ladder and housing structure
Parallel lines along top and bottom
Speaks to transformation, which is very important in Thule culture, they believe they have the ability to transform into an animal.
Bow Drills
c. 1880-1890
Inupiaq, Alaska
Reference to whaling
Fishing weirs (bottom, middle)
Bottom left village camps, tripods drying fish
Top one is about killing a whale and dragging it back
Thule Jewelry
1000-1600 AD
Carved every link
Came from Bathurst Island
Labrets or earrings in the center
Cribbage Board in the Form of a Caribou
Europeans really like these items, they were the souvenir of choice.
Still in the practice of small art, but this show it continues to grow and get larker
Baleen Basket
Harry Hank
Mid-late 1900s?
Inupiaq, Alaska
Baleen and walrus ivory
Bowhead whales were popular to hunt because they would float when they died.
Baleen - Same material as our fingernails, broke off the whales in large strips and could be made into smaller strips that could be weaved together to make these baskets.
Almost killed the whales close to extinction, so Canada stopped the industry of the baleen whales.
Still occurs today, although it is rare. FN can still hunt, but only for subsistence and must have a license to do so.
After the collapse of the baleen market in 1910, they moved on to different materials.
Grey stone and horn. 1903 - 1904.
Important for their meat in the North
Form has change, no longer as stumpy or blocky, they are now free standing and more refined limbs, more realistic
Two Women Carrying a Container
Pre 1896
Miniature model phase - late 1800s to the 1950s
miniature sculptures, usually ivory
some were practical tools, like saws, lamps, spears, etc - very often linked to funerary customs
others were images depicting the daily life of the Inuit - popular for newcomers and visitors, priests commissioned many of them
Women probably carrying whale or seal flesh
Baby carried in the hood of one of the women
Etching still practiced, but colors (soot or ochre) are rubbed in
Ethnographers couldn't bring back or capture certain events or happenings so they asked the arctic people to carve a representation of it for them.
Model Primus Stove
carved practical items out of ivory, very fine carving on the thin pieces
Model Kayak
Cape Dorset
Ivory, wood, hide, metal and sinew
Could have been created for an ethnographer
Very specific detail
Scene on Ivory
Pre 1914
whale hunter laying on his stomach, series of animals including a seal, walrus, bear
Antonin Attark
Possibly lining up for communion
different scenes start to be depicted
Antonin Attark.
Pope Pius VII,
Plastic glasses and flower medallion (rosary)
Missionaries - part of culture
Luke Iksiktaaryuk.
Drum Dance, 1973.
Baker Lake. Antler
Minimalist form - antler defines what is going on
Represents a festival, women sit in the front row, sing songs that tell a story about themselves
Birthing Scene, 1961
Midwives on either side
Inuit had large families historically
Mary Ayaq (Akjar) Anowtalik
Untitled Faces
Could be connected to the petroglyphs - wall of faces in the rock
Qajartalik Petroglyphs, 1500 years old. Qikertaaluk Island (Baffin Island)
Faces are different, but still have the basic forms
May have been done by the Dorset, rather than the Thule people
Karoo Ashervak
Coming and Going of the Shaman
Spence's Bay
Whale bone.
Shaman has to the ability to transform from human to animal, and also from male and female.
Two different hands, looks like a man's face but a baby is being carried in the hood
Whale bone - always very porous
Day Spirit
Stone Cut.
Baker Lake.
Inuit Printmaking
Printmaking started using two methods: soapstone cuts and seal skin prints
Copper plate etching, silk screening, photography, etc were later added.
Used flat colors, then introduced more techniques to bring in other colors, 3 layers in the print
Stones are re-used after prints are made, they are ground down to flat and then re-carved.
Kenojuak Ashevak.
Woman in the Sun.
Cape Dorset.
Inuit PrintmakingKnow it is a female because she has tattoo lines on her chin
Speaks to mythology about the sun (female) and moon (male), the sun and the moon are brother and sister
Kenojuak Ashevak
Festive Bird
Cape Dorset.
Inuit Printmaking
More contrasting texture
3 signatures at the top right
Kenojuak Ashevak.
Katajakuit (Throat Singer Gathering)
Inuit Printmaking
Symmetry and balance of throat singers and the animals
Broken it up between water, land (rocks) and sky - 3 different backgrounds
Kenojuak Ashevak
Bird Landscape
Inuit Printmaking
Lithograph - creating an image right on the stone, using grease stone and chemicals for different layers and colors
Image is of the owl attacking the snipes (she always includes snipes somewhere in her pieces)
Kenojuak Ashevak
Summer Owl
Balance between flat colors and textured colors
Inuit Printmaking
creating an image right on the stone, using grease stone and chemicals for different layers and colors
Kenojuak Ashevak
The World Around Me
Inuit Printmaking
Female with old-style amut?, hoods were pointed
Pitseolak Ashoona
Happy Family
Cape Dorset
Woman on the left with an ulu, woman in the middle with a child in her amut, and on the right is a hunter with a spear and knife.
Used a series of short lines and dots, but her designs were all very unique
Pitseolak Ashoona
Tattooed Woman
Stone cut
Cape Dorset.
Simplistic body, traditional tattoos with old-style hair-do
Tattoos - aesthetic purpose, adds to their beauty, also gave them status, spiritual protection, for funerary practices (dots on joints)
Pitseolak Ashoona
Our Camp
Stone cut
Known for her flat style, no dimension
Looking inside of camp, tent
Like drawing repeating stones
Layered colors on the stone cut to give more depth
Pitseolak Ashoona
Family Camping in Tuniit Ruins
Stone cut and stencil
Tuniit made the stone houses, re-utilized later
Pitseolak Ashoona
To rescue a drowning hunter
Kayakers out to rescue a hunter
Lithography texture is different, more layers and dimension
Pitseolak Ashoona
Inukshuk Builders
Stone cut
Inukshuks were used as land markers
Pitseolak Ashoona
Shaman's Wife
stone cut and stencil
Balance of textures
stencil - brown areas are speckled
Dot tattoos, bird is stealing a piece of her hair to go make its nest
Cape Dorset
Hunters going after walruses
Seal bladders used as floating buoys, attached to spears so they would not lost the animal once they killed it
Josie Papialook
During the Time It Blows, the Songbird Flies
Rainbow effect, use a lot of color without have to cut a lot of rocks
use the roller of paint with natural colors so they blend
He tried to created movement and sounds, essentially a more dynamic piece, in his work by using lines
Angrna'naaq Ruby & Mamnguqsualuk
Keeveeok's Journey
Stencil print
Keeveeok is a mythological character who is a giant
He goes travelling on this fish, meets a loon on the other side and takes the loon as his wife
Oonark, Printer: Mannik
stone cut and stencil
Part stone cut (black), part stencil (blue, yellow and green)
Summer Caribou
Cape Dorset.
Before 1959
Stone cut
One of his last pieces
Colored paper
Four Musk Oxen
Cape Dorset
Sealskin stencil
Stencil work - great example
Two Caribou
Cape Dorset
Inuit Printmaking
Baker Lake
Wall Hanging
Appliqué on wall hangings
Traditional lifestyle
Janet Kigusiuq.
Qiviuq (Keeveeok) Legends
Baker Lake.
Duffle, felt, floss
Another rendition of the myth of Keeveeok, top left is him meeting the loon
Annie Kilabuk
Weaver: Agah Etooangat
Flat dimension
Gyta Isheemylee.
Antler Fighting.
Weaving, different technique in the background - hatching
grainy technique of the background supposed to represent snow or ground
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