Geology Chapter Test Practice Questions Flashcards

Terms Definitions
nebular hypothesis; helium
The __________ suggests that the bodies of the solar system evolved from an enormous rotating cloud composed mostly of hydrogen and __________.
geology
The science of __________ literally means "study of Earth."
4.5 billion years
The age of Earth is best approximated at...
71
The global ocean blankets nearly __________ percent of Earth's surface.
Geologic Time Scale
Events of the geologic past and Earth's history can be arranged into different units and presented as the
False (Continents on average are thicker than oceanic crust.)
T or F - The crust of Earth is thinnest beneath the continents and thickest where oceans exist.
continental shelf
Which of the following features of the oceans is part of the continental margin?
system
Loosely defined, a __________ can be any size group of interacting parts that form a complex whole.
False ("Eco" can refer to environmental conditions, but it doesn't capture the essence of biosphere (life).)
T or F - Earth consists of four major spheres: hydrosphere, atmosphere, solid Earth, and ecosphere.
True (Water vapor brings heat into the storm, and that heat is released through condensation, clouds, and rain.)
Hurricanes are an example of an open system.
Renewable
__________ resources can be replenished over relatively short time spans.
False (As population grows, our demands expand as well.)
The global rate of mineral and energy resource usage has climbed less rapidly than the overall growth of population.
human activities
Which of the following is not directly part of the physical environment?
dealing with the human impact on the environment, minimizing the effects of natural hazards, the location and recovery of basic resources
An understanding of Earth is essential for...
True (Find the underlying patterns and then make predictions.)
T or F - All science is based on the assumption that the natural world behaves in a consistent and predictable manner that is comprehensible through careful, systematic study.
computer simulations, making sound observations and measurements, unexpected and unpredicted experimental outcomes
A scientific discovery can be made by...
False (Earth, like all the planets, revolves around the Sun.)
T or F - The Earth-centered model of the universe is accepted today because Earth is unique.
divergent
Mid-ocean ridges are an example of a ___________boundary.
False (The mantle includes 82% of Earth's volume.)
T or F - The largest layer by volume is the outer core.
historical geology
The aim of ___________ is to understand the origin of Earth and the development of the planet over time through its 4.5 billion year history.
rapid events, violent events, gradual unnoticeable developments
Earth is dynamic and changes as a result of...
environment
Everything that surrounds and influences an organism is best described as...
aggravated by population increases
Geologic hazards are...
paradigms
Comprehensive theories that can explain a large number of interrelated aspects of the natural world are called...
True (A basic knowledge of Earth materials is essential to understanding all geologic phenomena.)
T or F - Geologic processes are directly related to rocks and minerals.
True (Elements cannot be broken down further by ordinary chemical or physical means.)
T or F - Elements are substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical or physical means.
True (H2O can be used as an example: solid ice, liquid water, and water vapor (gas).)
T or F - The three basic forms of matter are solid, liquid, and gas.
ion
A/An _________ is the same as an atom except that it has an electrical charge because of a gain or loss of electrons.
radioactive decay
When isotopes are unstable they can spontaneously disintegrate through a process called...
protons
Atoms of the same element possess the same number of...
False (8 elements represent 98% (by weight) of the continental crust.)
T or F - Only 10 elements compose the bulk of the rock-forming minerals in the continental crust.
covalent
This bond is produced by the sharing of electrons.
True (Yes, the tetrahedron has four oxygens around a smaller silicon atom.)
T or F - The structure of the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron consists of four oxygen atoms surrounding a smaller silicon atom.
specific gravity
___________ compares the weight of a mineral to the weight of an equal volume of water.
the number of planes exhibited, the angles at which the planes meet
Cleavage is described by...
False (Granite is an important igneous rock.)
T or F - Granite is a mineral.
False (Color is highly variable because of slight impurities.)
T or F - One of the most useful diagnostic properties of minerals is the color.
True (Minerals can provide geologists with clues about the extreme pressures experienced during mountain building.)
Each silicate mineral has a structure and chemical composition that indicate the conditions under which it formed.
between the Si-O bonds.
Silicate minerals tend to cleave...
dark
The streak of metallic minerals tends to be...
amphiboles
What silicate mineral group has a double-chain silicate structure?
False (Si-O bonds in all directions does not leave a plane of weakness, and quartz does not exhibit cleavage.)
T or F - Quartz has three planes of cleavage, one for each dimension of its silicate structure.
limestone
Which of the following materials is comprised of minerals?
halite
After ancient seas evaporate, thick layers of this mineral can be formed and later mined for economic use.
False (Metamorphism is more likely as rocks are buried deep within the crust, as heat and pressure from within the Earth change the rock.)
T or F - All the energy driving the processes of the Rock Cycle come from the Sun.
False (Earth is dynamic and rocks change over time.)
T or F - Rocks are unchanging masses.
True (The atmosphere contributes to weathering at the surface of the Solid Earth to produce sediment.)
T or F - The rock cycle allows us to view many of the interrelationships among different parts of the Earth system.
True (Rhyolite and granite are both felsic igneous rocks.)
T or F - Based on composition, rhyolite is the volcanic igneous rock equivalent to intrusive or plutonic granite.
mineral composition
Igneous rocks are best classified according to texture and...
vesicles
Rocks sometimes contain features left by gas bubbles that formed as the lava solidifed, and these features are called...
False (Slow-cooling results in a more coarse-grained or phaneritic texture and crystal size.)
T or F - Slow cooling of magma results in the formation of small aphanitic mineral crystals.
False (Melts with large amounts of silica are more likely to form glassy textures.)
T or F - Pumice is more likely to form from lava or melts containing low amounts of SiO2.
andesitic
Rocks associated with volcanic activity along the margins of continents often have a ________ composition.
felsic
Rocks with abundant light-colored silicate minerals such as quartz and potassium feldspar are best described as...
quiet lagoon water
Accumulation of silts and clays, and eventually the rocks siltstone and shale, is generally best associated with what environment?
particle reason
Detrital sedimentary rocks are subdivided according to...
True (Detrital sedimentary rocks are loose sediments that have been compacted and cemented (lithified) over time.)
T or F - Loose particles accumulated after weathering of rocks and transported as solid particles are called detritus.
shale
Sedimentary rocks made up of very fine-grained sediment ("clay" sized) are called...
strata
The single most characteristic feature of sedimentary rocks are...
False ("Porphyritic" is usually used to describe igneous rocks but metamorphism can cause minerals to recrystallize.)
T or F - Mineral alignment in a metamorphic rock usually gives the rock a porphyritic texture.
True (Limestone is the parent rock of marble.)
T or F - The recrystallization of limestone during contact metamorphism will form the metamorphic rock marble.
False (Linear mountain belts are often found along the edges of continents that have experienced collisions.)
T or F - Thermal metamorphism is directly responsible for the creation of linear mountain belts.
hydrothermal solutions
Hot metal-rich fluids associated with cooling magma bodies are called...
False (Ore deposits are determined by economic factors as well as geology.)
T or F - Disseminated gold (Au) and copper (Cu) deposits are not concentrated enough to be ore deposits.
True (These hot fluids rich in metallic ions are often associated with cooling magma bodies.)
T or F - Hydrothermal solutions are responsible for important metallic ores found in vein and disseminated deposits.
False (Anthracite is a high-energy resource.)
T or F - Metamorphic bituminous coal is characterized by a hard, shiny black nature and regarded as an important high-energy resource for industry.
pegmatites
Rocks forming during later stages of magma crystallization may form unusually large crystals called...
moving water
The most important agent sculpturing Earth's land surface is...
False (Although it doesn't have to be a direct path, the water must make its way back to the ocean.)
T or F - The hydrologic cycle begins with water evaporating from the oceans, and when water falls on the continents the cycle is complete.
evaporation
The change in state of H2O from liquid to gas is known as...
reservoirs
Defined geologic features or descriptive terms that serve to "hold" water as it moves through the hydrologic cycle are called...
groundwater
The largest reservoir of freshwater that is available to humans is...
True (Friction can slow the water down.)
T or F - A channel's shape, size, and roughness affect the amount of friction with the water in the channel.
False (The largest part of the load can also be the most obvious and visible.)
T or F - Most large rivers carry the largest part of their load in solution.
running water
The combined effects of mass wasting and ____________ produce stream valleys.
near the outer bank of the curve
Along the curve of a stream, the maximum velocity of water occurs...
False (Velocity depends on gradient, channel characteristics, and discharge.)
T or F - A stream's velocity decreases downstream
False (Upstream areas usually have a higher gradient.)
T or F - The gradient of a stream increases downstream.
False (Streams can start to downcut and erode if base level dropped or if the land through which the river is flowing is uplifted.)
T or F - Raising base level will cause a stream to gain energy and erode.
False (In many places, groundwater is naturally slightly acidic.)
T or F - Limestone dissolves easily in pure water.
in the zone of aeration
Depositional features found in caverns form...
infiltration
Water soaks into the ground through a process known as...
subsidence
The compaction of loose sediments and rocks as groundwater is removed from pore spaces is called...
sinkhole
Karst topography can include a serious geologic hazard called a...
stalagmites
Depositional formations found on the floor of caverns extending upward are called...
True (The word geyser is related to the Icelandic word geysa--to gush.)
T or F - Geysers are found, among other places, in Iceland.
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