AP Bio: Chapter 2 ~ The Chemical Context of Life Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Matter
that which has mass and occupies space
Element
substance consisting entirely of one type of atom
Compound
(chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight
Atom
(physics and chemistry) the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element
Neutron
an elementary particle with 0 charge and mass about equal to a proton
Protons
Positively charged particles
Electrons
negatively charged particles
Atomic Nucleus
An atom's central core, containing protons and neutrons.
Atomic Number
the number of protons in an atom
Mass Number
the sum of the number of neutrons and protons in an atomic nucleus
Atomic Weight
(chemistry) the ratio of the atomic mass of an element to half the atomic mass of carbon-12
Isotopes
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
Radioactive Isotopes
Atoms that are unstable, meaning they decay, or break down, to form stable atoms of a different element
Potential Energy
stored energy
Energy Levels
the fixed energies an electron can have
Electron Shells
an energy level representing the distance of an electron from the nucleus of an atom.
Valence Electrons
electrons on the outermost energy level of an atom
Valence Shell
The outermost energy shell of an atom, containing the valence electrons involved in the chemical reactions of that atom.
Chemical Bonds
the attractive forces that hold atoms together
Covalent Bond
a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
Molecule
the smallest particle (one or more atoms) of a substance that has all the properties of that substance
Structural Formula
represents the covalent bonds by dashes and shows the arrangement of covalently bonded atoms
Molecular Formula
a chemical formula that shows the number and kinds of atoms in a molecule, but not the arrangement of the atoms.
Double Covalent Bond
a bond in which two atoms share two pairs of electrons
Electronegativity
(chemistry) the tendency of an atom or radical to attract electrons in the formation of an ionic bond
Nonpolar Covalent Bond
A type of covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally between two atoms of similar electronegativity.
Polar Covalent Bond
a covalent bond in which electrons are not shared equally
Cation
a positively charged ion
Anion
a negatively charged ion
Ionic Bond
a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains to electron to form a negative ion
Hydrogen Bond
a chemical bond consisting of a hydrogen atom between two electronegative atoms (e.g., oxygen or nitrogen) with one side be a covalent bond and the other being an ionic bond
Van de Waals Interaction
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Chemical Reactions
the process in which chemical bonds are broken and/or formed
Reactants
the elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction
Products
the elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction
Chemical Equilibrium
a chemical reaction and its reverse proceed at equal rates
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