AP Euro Scientific Revolution Flashcards Flashcards

Terms Definitions
World-view
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copernican hypothesis
the idea that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the universe; this had enormous scientific and religious implications.
Experimental Method
the use of controlled observations and measurements to test hypotheses
Empiricism
the view that (a) knowledge comes from experience via the senses, and (b) science flourishes through observation and experiment
Rationalism
Everything needed a reason, it couldnt just "be"
Law of universal gravitation
every object in the universe attracts every other object
Progress
Improvements, stuff getting better etc.
Skepticism
Nothing can ever be known beyond all doubt (Bayle in book)
Tabula Rasa
a young mind not yet affected by experience (according to John Locke) (blank Tablet)
The Public
enlightened people
Philosophes
influential group of intellectuals
Seperation of Powers
(Montesquieu) Political power split between a variety of classes and legal estates
Salons
Social gatherings of women talking about scientific matters
Enlightenment
New world-view involving a mix of ideas etc.
General Will
Acording to Rousseau: the general will is sacred and absolute, reflecting the common interests of all the people who have displaced the monarch as the holder of sovereign power.
Enlightened absolutism
system in which rulers tried to govern by enlightenment principles while maintaining their full royal powers
Cartesian Dualism
Descartes two fundamental enitities as view of the world: "matter and mind" or physical and spiritual
Law of inertia
Every body continues in its state of rest, or of motion in a straight line at constant speed, newtons first law
Aristotle
one of the greatest of the ancient Athenian philosophers
Nicolas Copernicus
thought up of the heliocentric theory but thought the revolution was in a circle
Tycho Brahe
Influenced by Copernicus; Built observatory and collected data on the locations of stars and planets for over 20 years; His limited knowledge of mathematics prevented him from making much sense out of the data.
Johannes Kepler
contibuted 3 theories based of the copernican hypothesis: Orbits of planets around sun are elliptical not circular, Demonstrated that the planets dont at a uniform speed in their orbits, the time it takes a planet to make its complete orbit is precisely related to its distance from the sun.
Galileo Galilei
Scientist who built the first telescope and proved that planets and moons move. Persecuted for supporting Copernicus' ideas
Isaac Newton
English mathematician and scientist who invented differential calculus and formulated the theory of universal gravitation, a theory about the nature of light, and three laws of motion. His treatise on gravitation, presented in Principia Mathematica (1687), was supposedly inspired by the sight of a falling apple.
Francis Bacon
(1561-1626) English politician, writer. Formalized the empirical method. Novum Organum. Inductive reasoning., developed the scientific method
Rene' Descartes
This French mathematical genius said that one should apply logic and try to answer problems with mathematical equations
Progress
gradual improvement or growth or development
Montesquieu
French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers (1689-1755)
Locke
Wrote Two Treatises of Government. Said human nature lived free and had the natural rights of life, liberty, and property. He said government was created in order to protect these rights and if the government failed to do so it was the duty of the people to rebel.
Voltaire
French, perhaps greatest Enlightenment thinker. Deist. Mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Wrote Candide. Believed enlightened despot best form of government.
Madame du Chatelet
Madame Chatelet (1706-1749) was an intellectually gifted woman from a high aristocracy with a passion for science. She became Voltaire's longtime companion, Madame du Chatelet studied physics and mathematics and published science articles and translations. She was the finest example of an elite French woman, Madame du Chatelet suffered because of her gender. She was excluded from the Royal Academy of Sciences. She later became uncertain of her ability to make important scientific discoveries.
Denis Diderot
French philosopher who was a leading figure of the Enlightenment in France, Philosopher who edited a book called the Encyclopedia which was banned by the French king and pope.
Paul d' Holbach
a French-German author, philosopher, encyclopedist and a prominent figure in the French Enlightenment., preached atheism; God-fictionary, rationalist, hopeless, we are only experiences
David Hume
Scottish philosopher whose sceptical philosophy restricted human knowledge to that which can be perceived by the senses (1711-1776) built on lockes theory, atheist
Condorcet
Wrote The Progress of the Human Mind. He identified humans will go through 10 stages of progress. They were about to enter the tenth where humans will be perfect in understanding.
Jean Jaques Rousseau
believed people in their natural state were basically good but that they were corrupted by the evils of society, especially the uneven distribution of property
Madame Geoffrin
One of the most famous salons was that of Madame Geoffrin, the unofficial godmother of the Encyclopedia. She gave generous financial aid and helped save their enterprise from collapse. Madame Geoffrin remained her own woman. The salons seemed to have functioned as informal schools where establish hostesses bonded with younger women and passed on skills to them. (p.613)
Frederick the Great
This was the Prussian king who embraced culture and wrote poetry and prose. He gave religious and philosophical toleration to all subjects, abolished torture and made the laws simpler
Catherine the great
ruled Russia from 1762 to 1796, added new lands to Russia, encouraged science, art, lierature, Russia became one of Europe's most powerful nations
Moses Mendlessohn
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Joseph II
(r. 1780-1790) coregent with his mother (Maria Theresa) from 1765 until her death-controlled Catholic church closely; granted religious toleration and civic rights to Protestants and Jews; abolished serfdom; peasant labor to be converted into cash payments country in turmoil at death
Maria Theresa
Empress of Austria, 1740-1780, made sure all her children were educated, did away with forced labor for peasants of austria, the reforms made-brought greater equality for austrian society
Louis XV
grandson of Louis XIV and king of France from 1715 to 1774 who led France into the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War (1710-1774), more concerned with mistresses than matters of the state...eventually, he took action to defend his absolutist inheritance after Parliament objection. "The magistrates are my officers...In my person only does the sovereign power rest." Louis XV really enjoyed the lavish lifestyle that came to him upon becoming king. Instated the Parliament, but later dissolved it due to their opposing his absolutist style., French king; father of Louis XVI; son of Louis XIV; not a successful enlightened ruler
Pierre Bayle
wrote Historical and Critical Dictionary examining religious beliefs and persecutions of the past. He found that human beliefs were very varied and often wrong. He concluded that nothing can ever be known beyond all doubt, and that one's best hope was open-minded toleration. This skepticism was very influential. His Dictionary was the most popular book in private French libraries at that time.
Bernard de Fontenelle
Set out to make science witty and entertaining for a broad nonscientific audience; wrote "Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds"
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